Taxonomy of meanings for 以:

  • 以 yǐ (OC: lɯʔ MC: jɨ) 羊己切 上 廣韻:【以古文 】
  • 以 yǐ (OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ) 羊己切 上 廣韻:【用也與也爲也古作㠯羊己切七 】
    • USE
      • npostVt.adV=所以:e.g. 無以知人 "does not that by which to understand men": that whereby, that wherewith
      • vt(oN.)adVe.g. 以顯父母 "in this way make the parents illustrious": using this means> by this means> in this way; with the contextually determinate object, by use of the contextually determinate object/method (the pronominal object of the preposition is omitted)
      • vt[0]oN.postadVreflexive.己to V using (oneself)
      • vt+V1.adV2by means of V-ing
      • vtoN.adVusing as an instrument> e.g. 以卵投石 "dash a stone with an egg" by means of, with
      • vtoN.adVconcessivee.g. 以孔子之聖 "even if one has the (superb) sagacity of a Confucius": even if using> although one has and uses
      • vtoN.adVreflexive.己以己度人"using oneself to measure others" using (oneself)> with one's own things, by one's own standards
      • vtoN.postadVe.g. 道之以德 "guide them through virtue": To V by using> by means of N; with
      • vtoN(.adV)e.g. 文王以百里 "King Wen (became a great king) with one hundred leagues square": using> with (something) (perform a contextually determinate action or behaviour)
      • vtoNe.g. 不以目而以心 "not use they eyes but use the mind": make use of; make proper or meaningful use of
      • vtoNreflexive.身e.g. 以身教 "instruct through one's own person" using one's own person
      • vtonpro.adVe.g. 山以之高 "the mountains are high by virtue of it" by virtue of npro
      • vtt(oN1.)+N2ome.g. 以鞿羈 "use (the cultivation of beauty) as my bridle and reins": use something contextually determinate N1 as one's N2
      • vt[0]oN.postadVe.g. 勉主以禮義 "encourge the ruler by meanins of ritual propriety and righteousness": by means of
      • vtoNfigurativee.g. 以此規 "apply these rules": apply; implement
      • vt[oN.]adV:postNe.g. 禮以行之 "using ritual propriety to put things into practice": using the preceding N to V
      • vtoN.adVe.g. 以近知遠 "basing oneself on the near understand the distant": making intellectual use of; basing oneself on
      • using one’s person, as the person one is>AS
        • vtoN.adVe.g. 以編戶之民 "as a simple person from an ordinary home" as a, being a; in one's capacity as a 
        • vtoN.adVreflexive.己e.g. 以己不從人 "themselves they did not obey others" as the person one is> themselves (oneself)
        • vtoN.postadVtoN葬之以侯 "bury him as if he were a marquis" (V someone) as an N
        • vt+N.adVcopulaas a (e.g. single ruler to govern many subjects) (to V) MOVE TO CONCEPT "AS"
      • relational: using as a reason>BECAUSE
        • vt(oN.)adVe.g. 楚國以安 "Chu was safe because of this": because of this contextually determinate factor
        • vt[0]oN.postadVpretexte.g. 違我以禮 "offends me on the pretext of ritual propriety: on the pretext of
        • vt0oS1.adS2以有功見疑,"was held in suspicion because he had achievements": objective reason: because of S1 S2 occurred/will occur/occurs
        • DELETEobjectivebecause of (an objective factor N)
        • vtoN.adVsubjectiveon the grounds of; because of
        • vtoNe.g. 以尊也 "it was because he was distinguished": be because of N
        • vt0oS1.adS2subjectivee.g. 以晏短為小們"because Yan was short they built a small gate": on the (subjective) grounds that S
        • vt Nab.adVe.g. 以誹死 "die because of slander" to V because of Nab
        • vtoN.postadVsubjective reasonto V on the grounds of N, reasoning in terms of N, on the pretexts of N
        • vt+V[0].adVbecause of V-ing; because one V-ed
        • object: that because of which something happens>CAUSE
          • nabmetaphysicale.g. 必有以也 "there must be a reason": reason, grounds
          • with sentences>THEREFORE
            • DELETE(V2) so that one V1s, V2 so as to V1
            • DELETE(toV) so that S
        • using as a standard>CONFORM
          • vt[0]oN.postadVe.g. 使民以時 "employ the people according to the seasons" in accordance with, according to
          • vt[0]oN.postadVreflexive.己e.g. 取人以己 "select people by one's own standard": in accordance with (oneself)
          • vtoN.adVe.g. 以道事君 "serve the ruler according to the Way": according to, in the way of (emperor Yáo etc); according to (the right season)
          • vtoN.adVreflexive.己e.g. 以己知人 "understand others on the basis of oneself": in accordance with/on the basis of (oneself)
          • DELETEin accordance with N
          • vtoNe.g. 必以信 "be sure to conform to good faith": use/conform to as a standard of behaviour
          • vtoNderivedconforming to N/in the opinion of N
          • grammaticalised: conforming to a pattern>THUS
            • vt(oN.)adVusing this contextually determinate method> and thus, and in this way
            • DELETEbecause of this contextually determinate N
            • padV1.postV2and; and (thereby), and thus
            • vt(oN.)adVthus, in that way, by that method, in conformity with that
            • vt(oN.)adVunder these contextually determinate conditions
            • grammaticalised: “so as to”>RESULT
              • vt+V1.postadV2so that in effect, so as to
          • grammaticalised: temporal>WHEN
            • vtoN.adVat the time of N (preposition introducing time complements)
            • vtoN.postadVN=timeat the time of N (preposition introducing postverbal time complements)
            • gramamticalised: logical>THEN
              • DELETEin order then to
              • DELETEtimethen
              • DELETEthen
              • padV1.postV2so thate.g. 回也聞一知十 "Hui, when he heard one thing, then understood ten things": so as to then, as a result [[CLEAN UP ATTRIBUTIONS
      • grammaticalised>OBJECT MARKER
        • vt(oN.)adVte.g. 以告(君)"reported the matter (to the ruler) object marker: 把它
        • vt0oN.postVte.g. 教以孝 "teach filial piety": "preposition" introducing direct object of transitive verb
        • vtoN.adVtobject marker: e.g. 子以四教"The Master taught four things" [[CLEAN UP ATTRIBUTIONS!!!]
        • DELETEN=nonrefobject marker with an omitted dummy object
        • vtoN1 wéiN2e.g. 以治天下為事 "take the government of the world to be one's business" consider N1 as N2
        • DELETEconsider N to V, consider N to be V-ing
        • vto.VtoNe.g. 象以典刑 "He made a (delineation=)full description of the legal punishments"object marker
        • elliptic: for 以…為>BELIEVE
          • vttoN.+V[0]e.g. 以此不信 "consider this to be untrustworthy": think that the N Vs [[Several bad examples have to be removed]]
          • vttoN.+V[0]psychconsider (oneself) to V 
          • vtt(oN.)+V[0]e.g. 以美於徐公 "consider me to be more handsome than Xu" believe that N V-s
          • DELETEN=pivotconsider N to be (the) N{PRED}
      • specifically>EMPLOY
        • vtoNarchaic: e.g. 不吾以 "they do not employ me" employ
        • vtoNpassivee.g. 怨乎不以 "be resentful that they are not employed": be employed, get employed
        • DELETEwhen employing N then V
      • use as a motive (for doing something)>INTEND
        • DELETEautonymthe word 以 "in order to"
        • DELETEin order to V, the SUBJECT PREDICATES
        • DELETEcopulabe with the purpose of, be in order to
        • vt+V1.postadV2e.g. 君子學以致其道 "the true gentleman studies in order to reach the Way": intending thereby to, in order to; in order to; so that one can
        • vt V1.postadV2e.g. 君子學以致其道 "the true gentleman studies in order to reach the Way": intending thereby to, in order to; in order to; so that one can MOVE EXAMPLES TO THE FOLLOWING
        • DELETEsubject=nonhumanbe for the purpose of, be in order to
        • grammaticalised: having as a motivation>FOR
          • vt+V[0]e.g. 以美其身 "is in order to beautify his person": be in order to, be designed to; serve the purpose of
          • DELETEfor
          • vtoN.adVfor N, for the sake of N
    • WEAK VERBAL SUFFIX JIE HUIQUAN 2005: 888