Taxonomy of meanings for 者:

  • 者 zhě (OC: kljaʔ MC: tɕia) 章也切 上 廣韻:【語助章也切三 】
    • pronominal head modified by preceding verbal or nominal predicate: 者PRONOUN
      • npro.post-.nproadN{NUM}斯三者 nominaliser after a number phrase or numbered phrase
      • DELETES=narrativetopic-marker in narrative sentence (!)
      • npro.post-N{PRED}a certain N
      • npro.post-Vdefinitethe one who
      • npro.post-Va certaina certain, unidentified but in principle identifiable by the speaker, who
      • npro.post-Vindefinitegeneralising tensed: someone who V-s (typically tensed); anyone who V-s
      • npro.post-Vindefinite(be) someone who V-s (some other examples need to be moved here!)
      • npro.post-Vno definite referentgeneralising, hypothetical, untensed: anyone who V-s
      • npro.post-Vnonreferentialthose of the category V
      • npro.post-Vdefinitereferential: the subjects of V
      • npropost.N+V{PRED}reference=subject of N+Vthe subject of whom it may be said that the relevant N V-s; the subject of which the predicate in the form of the subject+predicate is predicated 功大者
      • npro.post-V:postNN=multiplesuch of the Ns who V
      • DELETEthese who are the pair> these two
      • npro.post-Vsubject=humanthe npro that V-s
      • specialised: postverbal> 者 RELATIVE PRONOUN
      • predicate nominal> 者POSTNOMINAL PARTICLE
        • npro.post-N:adSnonreferentialtopic marker: as for this general non-referential subject
        • npro:post.Npost-V{NUM}after counted N 三家者, 之數物者
        • npro.post-N:adStime topic marker: At the time N 昔者,古者
        • npro.post-N{PRED}topic marker (unspecified)
        • npro.post-N{PRED}quotationtopicaliser of quotation "...", so-called ""
        • npro.post-N{PRED}idealidealising topicaliser
        • npro.post-N{PRED}narrative.predicatetopic marker with narrative sentence
        • npro.post-N{PRED}predicatepostnominal, forming a nominal predicate
        • DELETEas for the nominal N
        • npro.post-Nab:adSabstract topic marker
        • npro.post-Nab:adSprocessprocess topic marker
        • npro.post-Npr:adSnon-narrativeproper name topic marker
        • npro.postNpr:postYǑU:.+Va certain person Npr; that person Npr 有顏回者好學
        • npro.post-N{NUM}after number word 二者 "the two"
        • npro.post-Nmarking end of 所-construction: particle marking the end of the nominalising construction with 所
        • DELETEAs for that which is an N1
        • npro.postN:postYǑUexista certain N
        • metalinguistic> 者QUOTATION MARKER
          • npro.post-Nquotationquotation marker marking the end of a preceding scope without indicating its beginning
      • temporal: post-sentential> 者WHEN
        • DELETEwhen
        • npro.post-V.adSwhen, as soon as, once the subject had V-ed, then
        • abstract: conditional> 者IF
          • npro.post-NPab[S1]:adS2irrealisin the hypothetical/non-real case of>if
          • npro.post-S1:adS2e.g. 如此者 "if one acts like that": if;  in all cases when
          • npro.post-S1:adS2quasi-conditionalif ( as in English "if you are hungry there is something in the fridge")
      • grammaticalised> INTERROGATIVE PARTICLES
    • SURNAMES
      • =這THIS
        • npro.adNN=humthis
        • npro.adNN=concretethis (with concrete nouns)
        • npro.adNN=classifierthis (preceding nominal classifiers)
        • npro.adV{NUM}+Nthis (preceding a noun phrase consisting of a numeral and noun)
        • npost-Ndefinite post-nominal particle: these (NPs)
        • npro.adNthis N
        • ppostNpr{SUBJ}.+V{PRED}a certain (Mr X); this fellow (Yan Hui)
      • =著/着 JIE HUIQUAN 2005: 1115