PAST  過去

PERIOD BEFORE NOW.
FORMERLYHISTORYBACKGROUNDPREVIOUSLYEARLIERBEFOREUNTIL NOW/THENHITHERTONéeONCEONCE UPON A TIMEAT ONE TIMEIN THE PASTFORMAL HERETOFORE
Taxonoymy

RECENTFORMERORIGINANCIENTOLD-FASHIONED

Antonymy

FUTURE

See also

OLDOLDCAUSE

Kind Of

TIME

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general current word for "formerly" referring to any time in the distant or recent past is probably xī 昔 (ant. jīn 今 "present").

2. Wǎng 往 (ant. lái 來 "future") is a general technical term for the past.

3. Céng 曾 marks an event as belonging to the past, and the word is highly grammaticalised. 待考

4. Cháng 嘗 places an action or experience in the past, typically in so far as this past is experienced or witnessed by someone, remarkably often by the speaker himself.

5. Gǔ 古 and gǔ zhě 古者 refer specifically to ancient times and not just generally to the past.

6. Xiàng 鄉 / 曏 / 嚮 refers to the relatively recent past.

7. Nǎng 曩 refers to the somewhat more distant past.

8. Qǐng 頃 refer to the period a short time ago.

9. Gù 故 tends to be used adjectivally to characterise something as being former rather than present, and the meaning is very neatly distinct from gǔ 古 which would characterise something as being old.\

NB: Zuó 昨 refers specifically to something happening a day ago. See YESTERDAY.

Modern Chinese Criteria

過去

從前

已往

以往

往常

往昔

平昔

昔日

往日

舊日

向日

舊時

老年間

年時

往年

早年

早歲

昔年

古昔

疇昔

宿昔

夙昔

逝川

逝波

自古

古來

終古

亙古

曠古

振古

古往今來

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 833;897

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 1017

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

FORMERLY

pridem refrs to a point of time as being long ago.

diu refers to a space of time manyt days, months or years ago.

dudum refers to a space of time several minutes or hours since.

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 102

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1426

ZUKUNFT; VERGANGENHEIT

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 11

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 249f

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NPadS : 57
  • vadV : 56
  • vadN : 43
  • NPadSS : 36
  • nadN : 34
  • nab : 31
  • padV : 21
  • nadSS : 18
  • VPadN : 18
  • n : 18
  • nadS : 16
  • NPadV : 14
  • VPadS : 13
  • NPab : 13
  • nadV : 9
  • v[adN] : 9
  • padS : 9
  • vi : 9
  • nadV.postN{SUBJ} : 5
  • NP : 4
  • NPadN : 4
  • NP{N1=N2} : 4
  • NPab.adS : 4
  • vpostadV : 3
  • NPab.adN : 3
  • VPadV : 3
  • n[adN] : 2
  • VPpostadV : 2
  • NPadV.postS : 2
  • NP(adN) : 1
  • PPadS : 1
  • vadS : 1
  • vad.VadN : 1
  • VPpostadN : 1
  • nad.vadN : 1
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 1
  • VPi : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 72
  • 賢愚經 : 42
  • 春秋左傳 : 34
  • 說苑 : 32
  • 百喻經 : 31
  • 孟子 : 30
  • 論語 : 28
  • 祖堂集 : 20
  • 楚辭 : 18
  • 莊子 : 17
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 11
  • 史記 : 11
  • 呂氏春秋 : 10
  • 戰國策 : 9
  • 尚書 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 9
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 7
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 六祖壇經 : 7
  • 禮記 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 荀子 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 黃帝內經 : 4
  • 法句經 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 列子 : 3
  • 管子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 類說 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 新序 : 1
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 五行 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 忠經 : 1

Words

   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 47 Attributions

Gǔ 古 and gǔ zhě 古者 refer specifically to ancient times and not just generally to the past.

  • nsubjectwhat is old
  • nnonreferentialthe ancients
  • ntimeancient times
  • nabtimeantiquity, ancient times
  • nadNof ancient times [OR COULD ONE TAKE THIS TO BE STRAIGHTFORWARDLY NOMINAL ALWAYS, as in 古之人]
  • nadSin ancient times
  • n[adN]ancient [affairs]
  • n[adN]methodancient [practice/procedure]
  • nabtime(the grammatical object) antiquity [as in 古之學 "the study concerned with the ancients"]
  • nadN(the grammatical subject) antiquity [as in 古之學 "the study as practised by the ancients"]
昔者   xī zhě OC: sqaɡ kljaʔ MC: siɛk tɕɣɛ 45 Attributions
  • NPadSthe past, some time ago
  • NPadSSantiquityin ancient times (those of the tyrant Jiè etc)
  • NPadV.postN{SUBJ}in the past; some time ago
   qián OC: dzeen MC: dzen 32 Attributions
  • nsubjectthe earlier ones (e.g. words, deeds)
  • nabtimeearlier time
  • nadSat an early stage, in the beginning; in the former case (rather than the latter)
  • vadN(temporal) previous, earlier, former; preceding 前人,前相
  • vadVformerly, earlier
嘗 / 常   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 27 Attributions

Cháng 嘗 places an action or experience in the past, typically in so far as this past is experienced or witnessed by someone, remarkably often by the speaker himself. Cháng 嘗 places an action or experience in the past, typically in so far as this past is experienced or witnessed by someone, remarkably often by the speaker himself.

  • vadVat one point, once in the past, on one occasion; in the past; in questions: ever
   xī OC: sqaɡ MC: siɛk 26 Attributions
  • nabeventthe past
  • nadNdefinitelast
  • nadNunspecifieda past, bygone (days);
  • nadSSbefore; in the past year(s)
  • nadV.postN{SUBJ}in the past
  • nadVat an earlier time
   céng OC: dzɯɯŋ MC: dzəŋ 25 Attributions

Céng 曾 marks an event as belonging to the past, and the word is highly grammaticalised. 待考

  • padSin the past, repeatedly
  • padSrhetorical questionever?
  • padVin the past; used to
過去   guò qù OC: klools khas MC: kʷɑ khi̯ɤ 21 Attributions
  • NPabBUDDH: the past
  • NPadSin the past
  • NPadVBUDDH: in the past
  • VPadNBUDDH: of the past, former, previous
  • VPiBUDDH: have gone by; be past
   wǎng OC: ɢʷaŋʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 17 Attributions

Wǎng 往 (ant. lái 來 "future") is a general technical term for the past.

  • nadSin the past, some time ago
  • v[adN]what is past> the past, what has already happened; matters of the past; the first thing
  • vadNpast, previous, preceding, last
  • vibe a matter of the past, be past
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 15 Attributions

Gù 故 tends to be used adjectivally to characterise something as being former rather than present, and the meaning is very neatly distinct from gǔ 古 which would characterise something as being old.

  • nabdimension1. the past; 2. what is ancient, antiquity
  • nadNpre-existing, the earlier, early; former; belonging to a bygone age, old; old-established
  • nadVformerly; before
宿   sù OC: suɡ MC: suk 12 Attributions
  • vadNprevious, earlier; of last night, last night'sin the BUDDH. context usually referring to a former life
  • vadVbeforehand; previously; in the past; from the past
   xiān OC: sɯɯn MC: sen 11 Attributions
  • vad.VadNformer 先美人
  • vadNformer, earlier
  • vadVat some earlier time, before this, earlier
古者   gǔ zhě OC: kaaʔ kljaʔ MC: kuo̝ tɕɣɛ 11 Attributions

Gǔ 古 and gǔ zhě 古者 refer specifically to ancient times and not just generally to the past.

  • NPadSin ancient times
曩者   nǎng zhě OC: naaŋʔ kljaʔ MC: nɑŋ tɕɣɛ 11 Attributions
  • NPabtimethe time not long ago
  • NPadSsome time ago; just now
  • NPadVjust before; some time ago
   jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 10 Attributions
  • vadVbeforehand; in the past
   jiù OC: ɡus MC: gɨu 9 Attributions
  • nadVin my distant past
  • vadNof the past
  • v[adN]the old [tradition]; previous [times]
曏 / 嚮 / 向 / 曏嚮向鄉   xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ xiàng OC: qhaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ  OC:  MC:  8 Attributions

Xiàng 鄉/曏/嚮 refers to the relatively recent past. xxx Xiàng 鄉/曏/嚮 refers to the relatively recent past. xxx Xiàng 鄉/曏/嚮 refers to the relatively recent past. xxx Xiàng 鄉/曏/嚮 refers to the relatively recent past. xxx

  • nadSSnot long ago
  • nadNpast; just now (as in "the man just now")
  • nadNfigurativeearlier-mentioned, above-mentioned
  • vadSformerly, earlier
  • vadVformerly
   nǎng OC: naaŋʔ MC: nɑŋ 8 Attributions

Nǎng 曩 refers to the somewhat more distant past.

  • nabtimenáng: the immediate past; in the immediate past
  • nad.vadNnáng: rormer; previous
  • nadVtimenáng: informal: earlier; just a while ago
  • nadNof the past
   zuó OC: dzaaɡ MC: dzɑk 7 Attributions
  • nyesterday
  • nadNimmediately preceding (day)
  • nadV.postN{SUBJ}yesterday
  • nadVyesterday
往古   wǎng gǔ OC: ɢʷaŋʔ kaaʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ kuo̝ 7 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}HF3.1.37: antiquity
  • VPadNpast, previous
  • NP(adN)the contextually determinate N of antiquity
   shàng OC: djaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • nabhigh antiquity LSCQ 樂所由來者尚也 "the origin of music is in high antiquity"
  • nadVtimein ancient times; going back to ancient times
  • vibe long past
久遠   jiǔ yuǎn OC: klɯʔ ɢʷanʔ MC: kɨu ɦi̯ɐn 6 Attributions
  • NPab.adStimein the distant past
  • NPabtimethe long period of the past
  • VPadNlong-lasting
  • VPpostadNby a long time
   jiǔ OC: klɯʔ MC: kɨu 5 Attributions
  • vadVa long time ago
  • vibe long past 久遠
  • vpostadVa long time ago
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 5 Attributions
  • padVhaving V-ed; marker of the past, pidgin English: already; modern Chinese: 早已經
   rì OC: mljiɡ MC: ȵit 5 Attributions
  • nadSSome time ago
在昔   zài xī OC: sɡɯɯʔ sqaɡ MC: dzəi siɛk 5 Attributions
  • VPadSin ancient times
往昔   wǎng xī OC: ɢʷaŋʔ sqaɡ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ siɛk 5 Attributions
  • NPab.adNpast, bygone
  • NPab.adSin former times
  • NPabtimethe past
往者   wǎng zhě OC: ɢʷaŋʔ kljaʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ tɕɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • NPsubjectthe past
  • NPadSin the past; HF 1.3.1: formerly, not too long ago, in the not too distant past
從前   cóng qián OC: dzoŋ dzeen MC: dzi̯oŋ dzen 5 Attributions
  • VPadNpast, previous
  • VPadVformerly, in the past, before
乃往過去   nǎi wǎng guò qù OC: nɯɯʔ ɢʷaŋʔ klools khaʔ MC: nəi ɦi̯ɐŋ kʷɑ khi̯ɤ 5 Attributions
  • NPadSa very long time ago
過去久遠   guò qù jiǔ yuǎn OC: klools khaʔ klɯʔ ɢʷanʔ MC: kʷɑ khi̯ɤ kɨu ɦi̯ɐn 5 Attributions
  • VPadSin the long distant past
上古   shàng gǔ OC: ɡljaŋs kaaʔ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ kuo̝ 4 Attributions
  • NPadNof high antiquity
  • NPadSin high antiquity
先時   xiān shí OC: sɯɯn ɡljɯ MC: sen dʑɨ 3 Attributions
  • NPadSSHF 2.7.14 not too long ago
前日   qián rì OC: dzeen mljiɡ MC: dzen ȵit 3 Attributions
  • NPtimeonce, in the past days
  • NPadVin the past days, the previous day
如故   rú gù OC: nja kaas MC: ȵi̯ɤ kuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • NPabstativesituation
  • VPpostadVas before
  • VPibe as before
昨夜   zuó yè OC: dzaaɡ k-laɡs MC: dzɑk jɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPadVlast night, yesterday during the night
   shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 3 Attributions
  • vadVformerly; originally; in the past; in the old days
   yuǎn OC: ɢʷanʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • vibe distant in time, be far removed in time
   qǐng OC: khʷleŋʔ MC: khiɛŋ 2 Attributions

Qǐng 頃 refer to the period a short time ago.

  • nadStimeafter a short time; a short while ago
  • nadV.postN{SUBJ}in times past (also: for generations????)
他日   tā rì OC: lʰaal mljiɡ MC: thɑ ȵit 2 Attributions
  • NPadSin bygone days
大上   dà shàng OC: daads ɡljaŋs MC: dɑi dʑi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPadSin the distant past; in high antiquity
太古   tài gǔ OC: thaads kaaʔ MC: thɑi kuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPadSin high antiquity
當時   dāng shí OC: taaŋ ɡljɯ MC: tɑŋ dʑɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPadV.postSat that time in the past (described in S)
往過去   wǎng guò qù OC: ɢʷaŋʔ klools khaʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ kʷɑ khi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • NPadVin the past
  • VPadNof the past
乃往久遠   nǎi wǎng jiǔ yuǎn OC: nɯɯʔ ɢʷaŋʔ klɯʔ ɢʷanʔ MC: nəi ɦi̯ɐŋ kɨu ɦi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • NPadSa very long time ago
昔在   xī zài OC: sqaɡ sɡɯɯʔ MC: siɛk dzəi 2 Attributions
  • VPadSFormerly
嚮者   xiàng zhě MC: xjangH tsyaeX OC: qhaŋs kljaʔ 2 Attributions
  • PPadSrecentrecently; HDC: 剛才
  • NPadVa moment ago
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋʔ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabtimein antiquity
   chū OC: tshra MC: ʈʂhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • nadSa long time ago, when all this started
   qù OC: khas MC: khi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • v[adN]the time/past which has gone > the past
中古   zhōng gǔ OC: krluŋ kaaʔ MC: ʈuŋ kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabtimemiddle antiquity (see also 上古 "high antiquity")
先來   xiān lái OC: sɯɯn m-rɯɯ MC: sen ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadVbeforehand; from before; originally
先古   xiān gǔ OC: sɯɯn kaaʔ MC: sen kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPadNof ancient times
前時   qián shí OC: dzeen ɡljɯ MC: dzen dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSHF 2.7.7: not so long ago
前者   qián zhě OC: dzeen kljaʔ MC: dzen tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSformerly
古來   gǔ lái OC: kaaʔ m-rɯɯ MC: kuo̝ ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadNof ancient times
太上   tài shàng OC: thaads ɡljaŋs MC: thɑi dʑi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSIn the distant past
往世   wǎng shì OC: ɢʷaŋʔ lʰebs MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ ɕiɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPabtimepast generations> the past
往日   wǎng rì OC: ɢʷaŋʔ mljiɡ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ ȵit 1 Attribution
  • NPadVin the past, formerly
往舊   wǎng jiù OC: ɢʷaŋʔ ɡus MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ gɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1=N2}the past, what is past
日者   rì zhě OC: mljiɡ kljaʔ MC: ȵit tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSin those days
昔來   xī lái OC: sqaɡ m-rɯɯ MC: siɛk ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadSIn times past
昔時   xī shí OC: sqaɡ ɡljɯ MC: siɛk dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSin ancient times, formerly; some time ago
疇昔   chóu xī OC: du sqaɡ MC: ɖɨu siɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabtimethe past
頃來   qǐng lái OC: khʷleŋʔ m-rɯɯ MC: khiɛŋ ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadVin the recent past; these days
從上以來   cóng shàng yǐ lái OC: dzoŋ ɡljaŋs k-lɯʔ m-rɯɯ MC: dzi̯oŋ dʑi̯ɐŋ jɨ ləi 1 Attribution
  • VPadNfrom ancient times onwards
過去世中   guò qù shì zhōng OC: klools khas lʰebs krluŋ MC: kʷɑ khi̯ɤ ɕiɛi ʈuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPadSin worlds past
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNcompleted> past 成事 "bygone matters"
遂古   suì gǔ MC: zwijH kuX OC: sɢluds kaaʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPantiquity
往時   wǎng shí MC: hjwangX dzyi OC: ɢʷaŋʔ ɡljɯ 1 Attribution
  • NPadVin the past; previously
   shí OC: ɡljɯ MC: dʑɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPadSIn the past; just the other day; some time ago
已曾   yǐ céng OC: k-lɯʔ dzɯɯŋ MC: jɨ dzəŋ 0 Attributions
  • PPadVin the past already
往往   wǎng wǎng OC: ɢʷaŋʔ ɢʷaŋʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ ɦi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    日久   rì jiǔ OC: mljiɡ klɯʔ MC: ȵit kɨu 0 Attributions
    • VPpostadVa long time ago
    昔年   xī nián OC: sqaɡ niin MC: siɛk nen 0 Attributions
    • NPadV.postN{SUBJ}the other year; some years ago
    昔日   xī rì OC: sqaɡ mljiɡ MC: siɛk ȵit 0 Attributions
    • NPadSin the past
    古今來   gǔ jīn lái OC: kaaʔ krɯm m-rɯɯ MC: kuo̝ kim ləi 0 Attributions
    • VPadSfrom past times down to the present
       běn OC: pɯɯnʔ MC: puo̝n 0 Attributions
    • nadSin the past
    • nadVin the past
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • NPantiquity

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: