NOT  

BE CONTRARY to what is SAID in the WORDS that FOLLOW.
NEGATION
Antonym

ALREADYNOW AND NOT ONLY LATER IN-RELATION-TO. ALSOADDING something to what has ALREADY been SAID.COPULARELATION between a CATEGORY AND THINGS of that CATEGORY.

Hypernym

CONTRARYINTENSELY DIFFERENT so as to INTERFERE. -> DIFFERENTRELATION of NOT MUTUALLY RESEMBLING. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general all-purpose pre-verbal negation is 不.

2. Fēi 非 "by no means" negates judgments and is therefore typically pre-nominal, although the negation is also current in judgmental verbal sentences.

3. Wú 無 "in no way; in no way i.e. regarding no object", when used as a straight negation (contrast SHOULD NOT) is generalising and not straightforwardly narrative or descriptive.

4. Fú 弗 "would not; could not" prototypically refers to a refusal or inability to do something which in principle one might intend to do.

5. Wèi 未 "not yet; not quite" refers to either temporal or logical incompleteness in verbal predication, and there seem to be no cases where the predication is by a nominal expression.

6. Fǒu 否 "It is not the case" is a negative pro-form, and there remains a suspicion that the graph 不 is to be read as fǒu 否 when it is used as a pro-form.

7. Mò 莫 "none is always resumptive of an explicit or implicit subject.

8. Wú 毋 and wù 勿 when not used injunctively, are negations restricted to the position after such causative verbs as 使.

Modern Chinese Criteria

沒有

不曾

未曾

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

LU JIANMING

Old Chinese Contrasts

[[REMEMBER to discuss for Modern Chinese: 冷丁 VERSUS 冷不丁 "SUDDENLY" 好不容易 ETC]]

BROWN 2005 NEGATION

  • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 115

  • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 1364

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 6.667

    NEGATION

  • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

    NEGATION

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition ( BROWN 2005) p.

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition ( BROWN 2005) p.

  • Quiddities. An Intermittently Philosophical Dictionary ( QUINE 1987) p. 142

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 568/571

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt+V[0] : 289
  • padV : 53
  • vadV : 21
  • vt N{PRED} : 17
  • vt N : 16
  • vt0+S : 14
  • vi(0) : 13
  • vtoNab : 12
  • VPadV : 12
  • vt+V[0].adV : 10
  • vt N1[.adN2] : 10
  • PPadV : 9
  • npro.adV : 9
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN) : 7
  • vt[0]+V[0].postV : 6
  • padVt.postadV : 6
  • vadN{PRED} : 5
  • vt{NEG} .Vt[0]oN : 4
  • vt+V[0].adN : 3
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt[0]+V[0] : 3
  • vt{NEG}+V[0] : 3
  • vt+N{SUBJ}.+V{PRED} : 3
  • VPt+V[0] : 2
  • vt0+S1.+S2 : 2
  • VPtoS : 2
  • VPt+V[0]{PASS} : 1
  • vt{NEG}+V.adN : 1
  • npro.adN: V{PRED} : 1
  • vt{NEG}.+VtoN : 1
  • vt(+V(0)) : 1
  • vi[0]adS : 1
  • VPadS : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • vi(0).postS : 1
  • vi[0]post | S : 1
  • vadV1.postV2 : 1
  • vt+npro.adN : 1
  • vt{NEG}(+V) : 1
  • vpostV : 1
  • vt(+V[0]) : 1
  • vt+S : 1
  • VPtoV1.adV2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 荀子 : 217
  • 說苑 : 57
  • 孟子 : 56
  • 孝經 : 55
  • 祖堂集 : 18
  • 墨子 : 16
  • 呂氏春秋 : 15
  • 莊子 : 15
  • 韓非子 : 12
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 10
  • 戰國策 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 9
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 8
  • 尹文子 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 笑林一卷 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 新序 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 春秋繁露 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 穆天子傳 : 1
  • 申鑒 : 1
  • 典論一卷 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 管子 : 1

Words

   bù OC: pɯʔ MC: pi̯ut 299 Attributions
  • padVoppositelitotes: e.g. 不仁"be cruel and violent": do or be the opposite of V"
  • padVt.postadVablein verbal complement constructions (e.g. 道不得 'not be able to say', 行不得 'not be able to practice', 看不見 'not be able to see')
  • vi(0)it is not so
  • vi(0)questionor is this not so? probably to be read fǒu 否
  • vt{NEG}+V.adN"un-"??un-VERB-ed, un-VERBing. 不教民
  • vt+V[0].adNnot negating an adnominal verb or "adjective"
  • vt+V[0].adVnot
  • vt+V[0]not
  • vt{NEG}+V{NUM}less than (不十年 "within the period of less than ten years")
  • vt(+V(0))not do the contextually determinate V-ing
   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 107 Attributions
  • vt(oN)copulait is not (without explicit object) NB: perhaps this should be taken as vt-neg. But we want to separate out these examples for attention.)
  • vt+N{SUBJ}.+V{PRED}it is/was not the SUBJECT N that PREDICATED V
  • vt+npro.adN非己之民 "a people other than one's own"
  • vt+V[0]negativenot at all; by no means; the fact is that not (contrary to appearances)
  • vt0+Sit is not that S, it is not as if S
  • vt0+S1.+S2It wasn't that S1, but S2
  • vtoN.adVcopulait is not N (who VERBS)
  • vt Ncopulais not N
  • vt Nappropriateis not the proper way of N
  • vt Ncopulanot because of NP
  • vtoNabis not a case of Nab-ing
  • vt N{PRED}not be an N
  • vt Nnot be identical with N
  • vt N1[.adN2]those who are not N1 非賢 "non-worthies"
  • vadVP非以V “not for them thus to V": not be so as thus to V
  • vadN{PRED}not be an N
  • vt+V[0]politely dismissing a possibility as unthinkable: would of course never
   wèi OC: mɯds MC: mɨi 39 Attributions
  • p[adV]does not [V] (exocentric verbal construction, compare "I did not" which is also exocentric)
  • padSit was not quite the case that S
  • padVlogicalnot quite; not really
  • padVnegativenot yet
  • padVlogicalbe not quite right, be not quite sufficient to express the truth; not yet
  • vi(0)Not yet.
  • vinever come (as of a day)
  • vpostVor not?
  • vt(+V[0])not yet do something
  • vtoNfail to do as yet
   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 29 Attributions
  • padPexpected answer: no!not ? (modifying an adverbial particle)
  • vadVnegativenone of the objects
  • vadVnegativein no case; in no way; at no point, in no respect; not at all
  • vadVfutureadverbial negation concerning the future: will not
  • vadV1.postV2so that not
  • vi(0).postSquestion[is this not so?>] functions almost like question particle (compare French n'est-ce pas or German "oder nicht?")
  • vt[0]+V[0].postVnegation after "pivotal" verbs, as discussed in Lyu Shuxiang's article on 毋etc in his collected papers.
   fú OC: pɯd MC: pi̯ut 17 Attributions
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN)intensitiveindeed not
  • vt{NEG}+V[0]fail to V, be unable to V
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN)unablecould not, cannot, fail to; be unable to
  • vt{NEG} .Vt[0]oNfail to, be unable to
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt[0]+V[0]not (Vt to V)
  • vt{NEG}+V[0]take care not to
   fǒu OC: pɯʔ MC: pɨu 11 Attributions
  • vi(0)negative"No!" negation used as independent utterance. [Note that in this case it is unclear whether the implicit element should be taken as lexically or pragmatically retrievable.]
  • vi[0]adSif [this immediately preceding sentence] is not the case, then S [Note that in this case it is unclear whether the implicit element should be taken as lexically or pragmatically retrievable.]
  • vi[0]post | Sor not [Note that in this case it is unclear whether the implicit element should be taken as lexically or pragmatically retrievable.]
  • vt(0)[+V[0]]not perform the contextually determinate action V
  • vi(0)pro-verb: it is not the case (refers back anaphorically to a preceding sentence)
   mò OC: maaɡ MC: mɑk 9 Attributions
  • npro.adVnot, be unable; in no way; in no case
  • npro.adVrhetorical questionIs not this..., is it not that... (with a negator or another question particle in sentence final position) 莫...無; 莫...也無; 莫...不; 莫...麼; 莫...否
無所   wú suǒ OC: ma sqraʔ MC: mi̯o ʂi̯ɤ 7 Attributions
  • PPadVat no stage; not in any way; in no way 無所成名
未必   wèi bì MC: mj+jH pjit OC: mɯds piɡ 5 Attributions
  • VPadVnot necessarily
總不   zǒng bù OC: skooŋʔ pɯʔ MC: tsuŋ pi̯ut 4 Attributions
  • VPadVintensitivedo not V at all
   fěi OC: pɯlʔ MC: pɨi 2 Attributions
  • padVnot
不可   bù kě OC: pɯʔ khlaalʔ MC: pi̯ut khɑ 2 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]emphaticemphatic: certainly not, in no way, not by any means
  • VPt+V[0]should not
不復   bù fù OC: pɯʔ buɡs MC: pi̯ut bɨu 2 Attributions
  • VPadVV no more, V no longer Ricci: 1. Ne… plus.
不是   bù shì OC: pɯʔ ɡljeʔ MC: pi̯ut dʑiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNcopulais not
  • VPtoSemphaticis not that S
   wáng OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt{NEG}+Vi[0]not
  • vt{NEG}(+V)I do not (V); not to V; no!
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • padVinsist on not (doing something in the future)
  • vt{NEG}+:Vtt(+N.)+VN=pivotdon't
  • vt+.Vt[0]oNnot (verb the explicit object) NB: there are surprisingly many examples of this
   wú OC: ma MC: mi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vt{NEG}.+VtoNfail to, not; not to
  • vt{NEG}+.Vt(oN)not
  • vt{NEG}+.VtoN:adSnot
  • vt{NEG}+.VtoN:adSirrealisif... had not
  • vt{NEG}+Vinot
  • vt{NEG}+Vt{PASS}not
   mǐ OC: mralʔ MC: miɛ 1 Attribution
  • npro{SUBJ}+V{PRED}subjectno one
  • padVarchaic/poetic: not; in no way
  • npro.adN: V{PRED}no N
不少   bù shǎo OC: pɯʔ hmljewʔ MC: pi̯ut ɕiɛu 1 Attribution
  • VPadVnot in the least; not the least bit
俱不   jū bù OC: ko pɯʔ MC: ki̯o pi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • PPadVunder no circumstances, in no way
將非   jiāng fēi OC: skaŋ pɯl MC: tsi̯ɐŋ pɨi 1 Attribution
  • VPadScouldn't it be that S?
未可   wèi kě OC: mɯds khlaalʔ MC: mɨi khɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]{PASS}cannot quite/yet be V-ed; SHIJI idiomatic: could not possibly be (VERBED)
非徒   fēi tú OC: pɯl daa MC: pɨi duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoV1.adV2not only
非是   fēi shì OC: pɯl ɡljeʔ MC: pɨi dʑiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+Ncopulanot be (for modern 不是)
  • VPtoSit is not a case of S
竟不   jìng bù OC: kraŋs pɯʔ MC: kɣaŋ pi̯ut 1 Attribution
  • PPadVin no way
   wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 1 Attribution
  • vt+SIt is not that S
非以   fēi yǐ MC: pj+j yiX OC: pɯl k-lɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoV(0)not be in order toV(0)
   miè OC: meed MC: met 0 Attributions
  • vt{NEG}+V[0]will under no circumstances
不其   bù qí OC: pɯʔ ɡɯ MC: pi̯ut gɨ 0 Attributions
  • PPadVOBI 5: might NOT (KT); may in fact not (DK) probably not
  • PPadVOBIOBI 4: stative negative applying to Vs referring to prospects of future events (KT)
未有   wèi yǒu OC: mɯds ɢʷɯʔ MC: mɨi ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • VPadVnot for the time being; not yet

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: