CRIME  罪過罪/過

WICKED ACT OFFENDING INTENSELY against an IMPORTANT LAW.
OFFENSEUNLAWFUL ACTILLEGAL ACTFELONYMISDEMEANORMISDEEDWRONGNO-NO
Taxonoymy

CHEATSIN

Antonymy

CORRECT

See also

GUILTWICKEDWICKEDMISTAKELAWCHEAT

Kind Of

ACT

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for a serious legal transgression is zuì 罪 (ant. gōng 功 "merit"), and the current general word for a minor legal transgression is guò 過 (ant. xiào 效 "positive contribution").

2. Yóu 尤 refers generally to morally disreputable behaviour.

3. Jiù 咎 (ant. láo 勞 "obtain merits") refers to an action for which one deserves blame.

4. Dào 盜 (ant.* dé 德 "virtue") refers to morally and legally outrageous behaviour.

5. Yuè 越 can come to refer to a failure to keep within the boundaries set by one's social status or office.

6. Gū 辜 (ant. xún 勛 "significant contribution") is an archaising word referring to serious crimes at an early stage, but later commonly used (mostly in negated form) to refer to any crime.

7. Tè 忒, qiān 愆, and shěng 眚 refer to a minor but culpable error.

8. Qiān 愆 refers to a minor mistake in procedure.

Modern Chinese Criteria

罪行

罪名

罪過

過犯

罪孽

罪惡

罪戾

滔天大罪

彌天大罪

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 88

299. In textu Pantinus fortasse legebat totque, aut totidem et, pro quo varia lectio assignatur totidemque. [AREV.]

]

299. Inter Iniquitatem et peccatum sic distare dicit Ambrosius, quod iniquitas ad mentis acerbitatem refertur, peccatum vero ad prolapsionem corporis. Praecedit igitur iniquitas, peccatum sequitur. Sed gravior est iniquitas, tanquam materia peccatorum, in cujus comparatione levius est peccatum. Item peccatum est quod admittitur; piaculum autem id quod admissum est, et id quod expiatur admissum. Iniquitatis [col. 41B] autem tres sunt differentiae: 40 suggestionis, delectationis, et consensus. Inter iniquitates et peccata sanctus Hieronymus hanc differentiam facit: iniquitates dicimus quae ante susceptam fidem, sive per ignorantiam, sive per scientiam committuntur. Peccata vero, quae post cognitionem fidei, vel gratiam baptismatis contrahuntur; totidemque et peccata, verbi, operis et consensionis.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

TRANSGRESSION

delictum refers to a relatively light offense against punitive laws.

peccatum refers to a transgression of natural rules of reason or morality.

malefactum refers to any deed that one should not have done.

maleficium refers to any misdeed that springs from an evil intention.

facinus is a major daring misdeed which springs from wickedness of nature.

flagitium is a flagrant breach of the norms of honourable behaviour that one has set for oneself, e.g. through gluttony, cowardice, licentiousness.

scelus is a fragrant offence against society through malice.

nefas refers to sacrilege against what is holy to the gods or ordained by the gods.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 87

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CRIMEN

SCELUS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 88

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.58

VERBRECHEN

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.283.241

FAUTE.CRIME.PECHE.DELIT.FORFAIT

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 31

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 145A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 78
  • vi : 14
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 14
  • NPab : 12
  • VP[adN] : 6
  • vtoN : 6
  • NP : 4
  • VPi : 4
  • NP[adN] : 3
  • nab.post-N : 3
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 3
  • vadN : 3
  • vt V/N : 2
  • NPab{vt{NEG}+V(.adN)} : 2
  • nab{PRED} : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • nab[.post-N] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 39
  • 韓非子 : 37
  • 說苑 : 17
  • 尚書 : 10
  • 論語 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 孝經 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 周易 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   zuì OC: sbuulʔ MC: dzuo̝i 55 Attributions

The current general word for a serious legal transgression is zuì 罪 (ant. gōng 功 "merit"), and the current general word for a minor legal transgression is guò 過 (ant. xiào 效 "positive contribution").

  • nab.post-V{NUM}crime
  • nab[.post-N]one'sown crime/guilt
  • nabactcriminal offence, deliberate illegal act; punishable crime; grave fault
  • viactcommit a crime
  • vt+prep+Ncommit a crime against (Heaven etc)
  • vtoNcommit (a crime)
  • vibe criminal; be a criminal offence
  • vadVby criminal means
  • vt V/Ncommit a crime sanctioned with V/N (cf: 有罪當刖)
   jiù OC: ɡlɯwʔ MC: gɨu 17 Attributions

Jiù 咎 (ant. láo 勞 "obtain merits") refers to an action for which one deserves blame.

  • nabactfault, moral responsibility for an unfortunate state of affairs
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 8 Attributions

The current general word for a serious legal transgression is zuì 罪 (ant. gōng 功 "merit"), and the current general word for a minor legal transgression is guò 過 (ant. xiào 效 "positive contribution").

  • nab.post-V{NUM}actvice
  • viactcommit an offense, make a mistake
   lì OC: rɯɯds MC: lei 7 Attributions
  • nabacttransgression; crime; mistake
不孝   bù xiào OC: pɯʔ qhruus MC: pi̯ut hɣɛu 7 Attributions
  • VP[adN]unfilial act; crime of unfilial behaviour
  • VPiactcommit an act of lack of filial piety
  • VP[adN]N=humansomeone guilty of the crime of failing to practice filial piety
   sǐ OC: pliʔ MC: si 6 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}mortal crime
  • vadNdeserving of the death penalty
  • nabcrime deserving death
  • nab{PRED}be a matter of death, be cases of the death penalty
   gū OC: kaa MC: kuo̝ 5 Attributions

Gū 辜 (ant. xún 勛 "significant contribution") is an archaising word referring to serious crimes at an early stage, but later commonly used (mostly in negated form) to refer to any crime.

  • nabactoriginally: severe crime, severe guilt; later, generally: crime, guilt
  • vibe guilty of a severe crime
不法   bù fǎ OC: pɯʔ pab MC: pi̯ut pi̯ɐp 5 Attributions
  • NP[adN]those who viloate the law
  • NPab{vt{NEG}+V(.adN)}actillegal act
   tè OC: lʰɯɯɡ MC: thək 4 Attributions

Tè 忒, qiān 愆, and shěng 眚 refer to a minor but culpable error.

  • nabacttransgression, error
  • vibe bad
  • viactSHI 256: err (as Heaven and Earth in meting out punishments); YI: deviate (as sun and moon from their proper course; sun: make a military mistake (in action)
罪人   zuì rén OC: sbuulʔ njin MC: dzuo̝i ȵin 4 Attributions
  • NPcriminal
   qiān OC: khran MC: khiɛn 3 Attributions

Qiān 愆 refers to a minor mistake in procedure.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}actundue delay, (minor but culpable) mistake, fault, minor offence; mistaken procedure
   shěng OC: sraaŋʔ MC: ʂɣaŋ 3 Attributions

Tè 忒, qiān 愆, and shěng 眚 refer to a minor but culpable error.

  • nabactinadvertency, blunder; minor crime
   yuè OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 3 Attributions

Yuè 越 can come to refer to a failure to keep within the boundaries set by one's social status or office.

  • vtoNtransgress, go beyond (one's official duties zhí 職)
死罪   sǐ zuì OC: pliʔ sbuulʔ MC: si dzuo̝i 3 Attributions
  • NPabactcrime deserving death
罪過   zuì guò OC: sbuulʔ klools MC: dzuo̝i kʷɑ 3 Attributions
  • NPab{N1&N2}actmisdemeanour
   zuì 3 Attributions
  • nab.post-Ncrime or fault of N
   yóu OC: ɢʷɯ MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions

Yóu 尤 refers generally to morally disreputable behaviour.

  • nabactbehaviour that is to be condemned, morally unacceptable behaviour
不典   bù diǎn OC: pɯʔ tɯɯnʔ MC: pi̯ut ten 2 Attributions
  • NPabactarchaic: crime
過惡   guò è OC: klools qaaɡ MC: kʷɑ ʔɑk 2 Attributions
  • NPabdispositionvice
過罪   guò zuì OC: klools sbuulʔ MC: kʷɑ dzuo̝i 2 Attributions
  • NPabactcrime
  • VPiactcommit a crime
非法   fēi fǎ OC: pɯl pab MC: pɨi pi̯ɐp 2 Attributions
  • NPabcrime
  • VPibe not good as law; contravene (traditional) law
   è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 2 Attributions
  • nabactbad mistake, crime
   zuì MC: -- OC: sbuulʔ 2 Attributions
  • nab=罪 crime; guilt
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabactcrime
   míng OC: meŋ MC: miɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabsocialoccasionally used specifically to refer to the bad name one gets because one is addused of a crime: bad name
   fǒu OC: pɯʔ MC: pɨu 1 Attribution
  • viactcommit a transgression, do something wrong
大辟   dà bì OC: daads peɡ MC: dɑi piɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcrime deserving of capital punishment, capital crime
罪尤   zuì yóu OC: sbuulʔ ɢʷɯ MC: dzuo̝i ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturecrime or guilt
逾閑   yú xián OC: lo ɢreen MC: ji̯o ɦɣɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPitransgress the norms
過失   guò shī OC: klools lʰiɡ MC: kʷɑ ɕit 1 Attribution
  • NPabact(minor) crime, offence
   zuì MC: -- OC: sbuulʔ 1 Attribution
  • nabsocialinjustice (also from superiors!)
   shuǎng OC: sraŋʔ MC: ʂi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabactGUOYU: inadvertent mistake (in words)
   dào OC: daaws MC: dɑu 0 Attributions

Dào 盜 (ant.* dé 德 "virtue") refers to morally and legally outrageous behaviour.

    大刑   dà xíng OC: daads ɡeeŋ MC: dɑi ɦeŋ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactcapital crime
    姦宄   jiān guǐ OC: kraan kʷruʔ MC: kɣan ki 0 Attributions
    • NPabactcriminal behaviour
    戕敗   qiāng bài OC: sɡaŋ praads MC: dzi̯ɐŋ pɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • NPadNgiven to injuring and ruining others

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: