MISTAKE  錯誤

NEGLECT something and ACT so as to FAIL to ACHIEVE one's INTENTION.
FAULTERRORFAULTINACCURACYOMISSIONSLIPBLUNDERMISCALCULATIONMISUNDERSTANDINGOVERSIGHTMISINTERPRETATIONGAFFEFAUX PASSOLECISMINFORMAL SLIP-UPBOO-BOOBLOOPERBONERGOOFFLUB.ILLUSION
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current general word for a mistake is probably shī 失 (ant. dé 得 "get things right") refers generally to an inadvertent mistake in action, and normally of minor kind.

2. Wù 誤 (ant. zhèng 正 "correct") typically refers quite generally to intellectual misapprehension.

3. Miù 謬 (ant. zhèng 正 "correct") typically refers to an intellectual misapprehension because of complete baselessness of what is being said.

4. Quē 闕 (ant. wán 完 "completely right") is a polite circumlocution for a superior's inadvertencies or mistakes in action..

5. Tè 忒 and chà 差 is an archaic word for unreglemented personal or political conduct.

NB: Cuò 錯 as a standard word for "mistake" is post-Han.

Modern Chinese Criteria

過失

過錯

疏失

失誤

失眼 refers to making a mistaken judgment based on impressions.

失閃

閃失

差失

毛病

罪過

罪愆

罪尤

尤悔

悔尤

手失

偏差

錯誤

差錯

錯兒

毛病 !

疵瑕

瑕尤

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.77

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 449

ABERRATIO est actionis a recto discessio, sivi id fiat 1. efficientis inscitia, sive 2. materiae vitio, sive 3. casu aliquio interveniente.

Ut cum quis a recta via recedit, non profectio est, sed erratio.

Cum tritici semem siliginem aut avenam aut lolium producit, non generatio est, sed degeneratio.

Axiom: Itineris recti una et simplex est ratio; aberrationum mille figurae.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

FAULT

vitium refers to any fault a person may have.

menda refers to a natural fault, especially of the body, a blemish.

mendum refers to a fault committed, especially in writing, a blunder, or a mistake.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 87

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ERROR

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 95

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 151B

WANG WEIHUI 2000 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 339

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 67

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

FALLACY

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.284.242

FAUGTE.DEFAUT.DEFECTUOSITE.VICE.IMPERFECTION

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 62

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae no. 45

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 98
  • nab : 64
  • vtoN : 34
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 32
  • vadV : 28
  • VPi : 19
  • NP[adN] : 19
  • vadN : 16
  • NPab : 15
  • nab.post-N : 4
  • vi : 3
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 2
  • nab(.post-N) : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vt+V[0] : 2
  • NP : 2
  • VPadV : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • vpostadV : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • NPab{vt+N} : 1
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT} : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • n : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • v[adNab] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 63
  • 春秋左傳 : 41
  • 說苑 : 40
  • 祖堂集 : 31
  • 論衡 : 23
  • 論語 : 20
  • 百喻經 : 20
  • 六祖壇經 : 15
  • 臨濟錄 : 13
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 史記 : 6
  • 管子 : 5
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 太平經 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 94 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actminor transgression; wrongdoing, wrong practice; formal offense
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actmistake, large or small 大過
  • nabactgoing too far> transgression
  • vadNfaulty; excessive and wrong
  • vadVby mistake, mistakenly; through insouciance
  • viactmiss the mark; go too far; get it wrong, be wrong, be mistaken; make an inadvertent minor mistake
  • visubject=nonhumanbe mistaken; constitute a mistake
  • vtoNmake a mistake with respect to, transgress in respect of
  • vtoNputativeregard as mistaken, consider as wrong
  • nab(.post-N)one's transgression
  • nabactmistake, fault, improper action
  • viinchoativeact: begin to make mistakes, begin to develop faults
  • vpostadVincorrectly, mistakenly (as in 小人注錯之過)
   shī OC: lʰiɡ MC: ɕit 56 Attributions

The most current general word for a mistake is probably shī 失 (ant. dé 得 "get things right") refers generally to an inadvertent mistake in action, and normally of minor kind.

  • nabactinadvertent mistake or transgression; inadvertent mistake (of a superior), insouciance; transgression; faulty point
  • vadNbe wrong through negligence
  • vadVby mistake, through an insouciance
  • vimathematical termCHEMLA 2003: make a mathematical mistake; fail to get the proper mathematical result.
  • viprocessgo wrong by mistake; get things wrong by mistake; make a slip
  • vt(oN)get the contextually determinate thing wrong, be wrong about the contextually determinate thing
  • vt+V[0]make a mistake in VERBing
  • vtoNget (something) wrong, be wrong about; make a mistake concerning; misapply (punishements etc); make a mistake of omission in relation to
  • vttoN1.+N2make a mistake (in a matter N1) with regard (to something or somebody N2) or on N2's side (失之己)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2make a mistake about (something -often indeterminate - N1) with regard to (a subject N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2mathematical termCHEMLA 2003: to be wrong about N1 by the amount N2; (as action verb:) get something N1 wrong by the amount N2 ZJ 4.18: 失之于微少 "get the result wrong by a small amount".
  • vt[oN]N=indefget something wrong
  • vicontinuativebe prone to faults
   wù OC: ŋʷaas MC: ŋuo̝ 35 Attributions
  • nabactmistake, act of carelessness
  • vadNmisguided, deluded
  • vadVwrongly; in a wrong way; mistakenly; by inadvertent mistake
  • vibe mistaken or misguided (said both of words and of people)
  • viactcommit a mistake; do things by mistake or inadvertently
  • vt+prep+Nerr in ragard of
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT}make a mistake in V-ing
  • vtoNerr about; be mistaken about
  • vtoNputativeconsider as mistaken
   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ 24 Attributions
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: delusion (through ignorance); falseness
  • vadNarbitrary, misguidedBUDDDH: deluded
  • vadVmistakenly, wrongly; arbitrarilyBUDDH: deludedly; in a deluded way; falsely
  • vibe misguided, be disorientated; be arbitrary;
外道   wài dào OC: ŋoods ɡ-luuʔ MC: ŋɑi dɑu 19 Attributions
  • NP[adN]BUDDH: those of an extraneous doctrine > heretic, follower of a wrong or inferior teaching (can apply to scholars/masters/monks within or without the Buddhist tradition)
  • NPabpsychheterodox ways
  • NPadNheterodox
   cuò OC: skhaaɡ MC: tshɑk 14 Attributions

NB: Cuò 錯 as a standard word for "mistake" is post-Han.

  • nabactmisplacement, mistaken placement; mistake
  • vadVmistakenly; in a wrong way
  • viactmake mistakes
  • vigradedbe wrong; (REMEMBER TO CHECK MO: 不亦錯乎.
   fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 14 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalwrong points, mistakes
  • vadNmistaken, wrong
  • vadVmistakenly; wrongly
  • vibe mistaken, be wrong; be the wrong thing to do
  • v[adNab]what is untrue/mistaken/wrong
  • vtoNreflexive.自consider oneself to be in the wrong
謬 / 繆   miù OC: mɢrus MC: mi̯u miù OC: mɢrus MC: mi̯u 8 Attributions

Miù 謬 (ant. zhèng 正 "correct") typically refers to an intellectual misapprehension because of complete baselessness of what is being said. Miù 謬 (ant. zhèng 正 "correct") typically refers to an intellectual misapprehension because of complete baselessness of what is being said.

  • vibe misguided; be utterly mistaken, be completely mislead; be mistaken; go wrong
  • nabactmistakes
  • vadNmisleading; misguided
   qiān OC: khran MC: khiɛn 6 Attributions
  • viactmake a mistake; get things wrong
  • vt+prep+Nmake a mistake with respect to N
  • vadNmistaken, wrong
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 5 Attributions

Quē 闕 (ant. wán 完 "completely right") is a polite circumlocution for a superior's inadvertencies or mistakes in action..

  • nab.post-V{NUM}stativediscreet circumlocution: imperfection (i.e. mistake)
  • nabactmistake by omission
虛妄   xū wàng OC: qhla maŋs MC: hi̯ɤ mi̯ɐŋ 5 Attributions
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: delusion; illusion (> mistaken thinking)
  • VPiBUDDH: be deluded, be illusionary, be devoid of any substance, unreal and false (>be involved in mistaken thinking) skr. vithata
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • vadNfalse > provisional (BUDDH: pertaining to the relative truth)
  • vadVfalsely, mistakenly In the Zen BUDDH. context usually referring to 'provisionally' (i.e. pertaining to the worldly truth and not the absolute truth)
有過   yǒu guò OC: ɢʷɯʔ klools MC: ɦɨu kʷɑ 4 Attributions
  • VPibe mistaken
  • VPiperfectivehave commited a mistaken; have been mistaken
過失   guò shī OC: klools lʰiɡ MC: kʷɑ ɕit 4 Attributions
  • NPabactmistake; mistakes and faults of all kinds
  • VPiactcommit a transgression
   zuì MC: -- OC: sbuulʔ 4 Attributions
  • nab.post-Nfault of N
   chā OC: skhraal MC: ʈʂhɣɛ 3 Attributions

Tè 忒 and chā 差 is an archaic word for unreglemented personal or political conduct.

  • vibe mistaken
  • vtoNget something wrong; deviate
  • vidiffer from the norm; be inaccurate
   shuǎng OC: sraŋʔ MC: ʂi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • vibe wrong; be diviating (from virtue)
  • vtoNarchaic, poetic, SHI 58, 173: deviate (from virtue)
   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 3 Attributions
  • nabfigurativeweakness of character; mistake
不時   bù shí OC: pɯʔ ɡljɯ MC: pi̯ut dʑɨ 3 Attributions
  • VPadVin an untimely fashion, at the wrong time; not in proper season
  • nabtimewrong moment
  • VPibe wrong in timing; be untimely
欠少   qiàn shǎo OC: khoms hmljewʔ MC: khi̯ɐm ɕiɛu 3 Attributions
  • NPmistake, fault, shortcoming, flaw
  • VPistativelack something; be incomplete; have shortcomings
  • VPtoNhave shortcomings with respect to, be mistaken about, have flaws concerning, lack
罪過   zuì guò OC: sbuulʔ klools MC: dzuo̝i kʷɑ 3 Attributions
  • NPabculpable transgression
  • VPibe mistaken
   fǎn OC: panʔ MC: pi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • vibe wrong-headed
   yóu OC: ɢʷɯ MC: ɦɨu 2 Attributions
  • nabactintellectual mistake
  • nabpsychfaults
   tè OC: lʰɯɯɡ MC: thək 2 Attributions

Tè 忒 and chà 差 is an archaic word for unreglemented personal or political conduct.

  • vieventdeviate from the rule or law
  • vtoNarchaic, YI: get (something) wrong; deviate from (see TRANSGRESSION)
   xiá OC: ɡraa MC: ɦɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • nabactminor mistakes; minor dereliction of duty
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • nabactmistake
  • viactbe mistaken; get things wrong
  • vtoNmake mistakes regarding
  • vtoNputativeconsider as a mistake
   wū OC: ma MC: mi̯o 2 Attributions

Wù 誤 (ant. zhèng 正 "correct") typically refers quite generally to intellectual misapprehension.

  • vibe erroneous
迷妄   mí wàng OC: mii maŋs MC: mei mi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychmisguided delusions
過患   guò huàn OC: klools ɢroons MC: kʷɑ ɦɣan 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventdistress caused by one's own mistakes
違失   wéi shī OC: ɢul lʰiɡ MC: ɦɨi ɕit 2 Attributions
  • NPmistake
  • VPtoNbe mistaken about and therefore neglect
   quē OC: khʷeed MC: khet 1 Attribution
  • nlack; deficiency; defect
  • vihave defects
   é OC: ŋʷaal MC: ŋʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • nabactmistake, misapprehension
  • vibe baseless; be misguided
   zhé OC: krleeɡ MC: ʈɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • nabdefect, mistake
   diē OC: liiɡ MC: det 1 Attribution
  • nabactminor mistakes
   wèi OC: qhruuds MC: hɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vadNmistaken; exaggerated
失之   shī zhī OC: lʰiɡ kljɯ MC: ɕit tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiprocessget things wrong
失口   shī kǒu OC: lʰiɡ khooʔ MC: ɕit khu 1 Attribution
  • VPadVby way of a verbal mistake
失時   shī shí OC: lʰiɡ ɡljɯ MC: ɕit dʑɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPioccur at the wrong time; be at the wrong time; fail to conduct things at the right time; act at the wrong time
失謬   shī miù OC: lʰiɡ mɢrus MC: ɕit mi̯u 1 Attribution
  • VPibe thoroughly misguided
差誤   chā wù OC: skhraal ŋʷaas MC: ʈʂhɣɛ ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabmistake, error
  • VPihave been got wrong, be in wrong shape
惑志   huò zhì OC: ɡʷɯɯɡ kljɯs MC: ɦək tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPab{vt+N}psychmisunderstanding 有惑志於
惑著   huò zhuó OC: ɡʷɯɯɡ k-laɡ MC: ɦək ʈi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychmistaken tendency, mistaken way of thinking
異學   yì xué OC: p-lɯɡs ɡruuɡ MC: jɨ ɦɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • VPadNheterodox
缺然   quē rán OC: khʷeed njen MC: khet ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe mistaken; get things wrong; engage in something futile
誑妄   kuáng wàng OC: ɡʷaŋ maŋs MC: gi̯ɐŋ mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychinsane delusion
迷復   mí fù OC: mii buɡ MC: mei buk 1 Attribution
  • VPiactpersist in one delusions; fail to make amends
過度   guò dù OC: klools ɡ-laaɡs MC: kʷɑ duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactgo beyond the bounds of what is right; make mistakes
錯解   cuò jiě OC: skhaaɡ kreeʔ MC: tshɑk kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)misunderstand a contextually determinate matter N
錯謬   cuò miù OC: skhaaɡ mɢrus MC: tshɑk mi̯u 1 Attribution
  • VPibe mistaken, be wrong
無有是處   wú yǒu shì chù OC: ma ɢʷɯʔ ɡljeʔ qhljas MC: mi̯o ɦɨu dʑiɛ tɕhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPiidiomthis place does not exist > (this) will lead nowhere, be mistaken, this won't get you anywhere! (idiomatic phrase)
   zāi 1 Attribution
  • nabmishap
大過   dà dài guò MC: dajH kwaH OC: daads klools 1 Attribution
  • NPabactmajor transgression
   xiàn 1 Attribution
  • vimake a mistake
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003: be wrong by (an amount)
   shǎo OC: hmljewʔ MC: ɕiɛu 0 Attributions
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
妖妄   yāo wàng OC: qrow maŋs MC: ʔiɛu mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNwildly mistaken
謬誤   miù wù OC: mɢrus ŋʷaas MC: mi̯u ŋuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPibe mistaken

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: