DISASTER  災禍

EVENT that CAUSES HUMANS to BECOME INTENSELY SAD OR to GRIEF:grieve.
CATASTROPHECALAMITYCATACLYSMTRAGEDYACT OF GODHOLOCAUSTACCIDENT
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most common general word for disasters is huò 禍 (ant. fú 福 "good fortune") which has no connotations of any metaphysical kind. (In OBI the character currently transcribed as huò 禍 - and closely related to 占 - refers not only to disasters as such, but particularly to disastrous omens.)

2. Zāi 災 refers to a natural disaster, typically sent down by Heaven.

3. Huàn 患 refers to any major or minor disaster, even down to minor irritations.

4. Yāng 殃 always refers to major natural disasters, often construed as causes by human misdemeanour, or by a failure to take preventive action.

5. Niè 孽 often has heavy metaphysical connotations and refers to disasters as caused by higher powers acting with an intention to harm, but there are some clear cases where the word refers to man-made trouble in MENG.

6. Nàn 難 refer to man-made disasters of every kind.

7. Jí 急 is a disastrous or highly precarious situation that has occurred suddenly and requires urgent attention.

8. Bù yú 不虞 is normally a minor disaster that was utterly unexpected.

9. Xiōng 凶, shěng 眚 and jiù 咎 are archaic metaphysical terms for misfortunes.

10. Hài 害 refers generally to harm, but in OBI the word standardly refers to harm done by supernatural powers or ancestors.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

SACRIFICE 30. 災難、禍患。

禍,通稱。

殃,含有上天降災之意。

祟,指鬼神為禍。

害,側重在危害嚴重。

災,自然災難。難,專指使人遭受不幸的處境,特指兵難或由兵難造成的困苦。

厄,專指個人所遭受的困苦。

患,側重在人為的災禍。

Modern Chinese Criteria

災禍

災難

災殃

劫數 refers to inescapable doom in the future.

不幸

三災八難

天災人禍

禍事

禍亂

亂子

婁子

禍害

禍患

禍殃

禍祟

屯難

厄 (obs) refers neutrally to disaster.

池魚之殃

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.19

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DISASTER

damnum refers to a disaster one has brought upon oneself.

detrimentum is a disaster one suffers without having caused it.

iactura is a voluntary loss of someting which one chooses to suffer in order to avoid greater evils.

MISFORTUNE

infortunium refers to a single misfortune as a vexatious, typically minor accident.

calamitas refers to a single tragic major incident.

infelicitas refers to a lasting state of misery, typically as the result of a lack of success.

miseria refers to a lasting state of very serious affliction of any kind.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 84

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 116

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 139

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

KATASTROPHEN

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 220ff

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 464

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

calamitas 'disaster, ruin' [f. /] (P1.+)

Derivatives: calamitosus 'liable to damage or disaster' (Cato+); incolumis [adj.]

'unharmed, safe' (P1.+).

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.289.247

FATAL.FUNESTE

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 609

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 222
  • vi : 31
  • NPab : 27
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 27
  • vi0 : 18
  • vtoN : 16
  • vadN : 16
  • VPi : 4
  • NP : 3
  • v[adN] : 3
  • n : 3
  • nadN : 3
  • npost-N : 2
  • NP{N1&N2} : 2
  • nab{PRED} : 2
  • nab.post-N : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • NPab{nab1=nab2} : 1
  • n[adN] : 1
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
  • NP{N1=N2} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 104
  • 韓非子 : 63
  • 管子 : 36
  • 孟子 : 17
  • 說苑 : 17
  • 莊子 : 15
  • 論衡 : 14
  • 荀子 : 13
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 11
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 法句經 : 9
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 8
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 6
  • 尚書 : 6
  • 孝經 : 5
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 賢愚經 : 3
  • 老子 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 景德傳燈錄 : 1
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   huò OC: ɡloolʔ MC: ɦʷɑ 69 Attributions

The most common general word for disasters is huò 禍 (ant. fú 福 "good fortune") which has no connotations of any metaphysical kind. (In OBI the character currently transcribed as huò 禍 - and closely related to 占 - refers not only to disasters as such, but particularly to disastrous omens.)

  • nabeventdisaster; disastrous fate, unhappy outcome; bad luck; sad fate
  • nabeventOBI 5: ominous sign, ominous event or phenomenon imbued with some disastrous supernatural significance
  • nabstativedisastrous situation
  • vadNdisastrous 禍事上門"disaster hits the family"
  • vi0eventthere is disaster, there will be disaster
  • vtoNOBI: bring disaster upon
  • vtoNcausativecause to be struck by disaster
  • vtoNcausativebring down disaster on them
  • vtoNputativeregard as a disaster; recognise as disastrous
  • vispell disaster
   xiōng OC: qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ 66 Attributions

Xiōng 凶, shěng 眚 and jiù 咎 are archaic metaphysical terms for misfortunes.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}eventterrible supernaturally ordained disaster; great bad luck; major misfortune; dire consequences 百凶
  • nabconceptdisastrousness, poverty (ofharvest); disastrous outcomes
  • vadNcalamitious (of years) 凶年,凶器
  • visubject=humanbe unlucky; meet disaster
  • visubject=nonhumanturn out disastrously disadvantageous
  • vi0there is/will be (supernaturally ordained) disaster
  • vt+prep+Nbring disaster to
   huàn OC: ɢroons MC: ɦɣan 48 Attributions

Huàn 患 refers to any major or minor disaster, even down to minor irritations.

  • nabeventserious trouble, misfortune; resulting trouble (from one's actions) 三患"three kinds of disaster"
  • npost-Nthe disaster constituted by N
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2present (someone N1) as a disaster to (someone N2) 患x於y
  • vtoNcausativebring on a disaster
  • nab.post-V{NUM}troubles
  • v[adN]the afflicted, the distressed
  • vieventbe faced with disaster
殃 / 央   yāng OC: qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ yāng OC: qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ 30 Attributions

Yāng 殃 always refers to major natural disasters, often construed as causes by human misdemeanour, or by a failure to take preventive action. Yāng 殃 always refers to major natural disasters, often construed as causes by human misdemeanour, or by a failure to take preventive action.

  • nabeventmajor disaster; hardship; misfortune; calamity
  • vibe in the danger of meeting a major disaster; suffer a major disaster
  • nab{PRED}(that) spells disaster
災 / 菑   zāi OC: tsɯɯ MC: tsəi zī OC: tsrɯ MC: ʈʂɨ 29 Attributions

Zāi 災 refers to a natural disaster, typically sent down by Heaven. Zāi 災 refers to a natural disaster, typically sent down by Heaven.

  • nabeventOBI 5: disaster (from Heaven/Nature; occasionally self-inflicted as in CC 9.1); the reference is sometimes to a fire
  • vi0there was a disaster (at a place); there was a disaster in the form of a fire
  • nadNconstituting a plague for
  • vtoNbe a plague for
  • nfigurativea menace (to others)
  • v[adN]N=humperson suffering calamity
  • nabautonym"calamity"
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe struck by disaster
   jiù OC: ɡlɯwʔ MC: gɨu 24 Attributions
  • nabevent(deserved) bad fortune; (deserved) disaster; (deserved) calamity
  • vimiddle voicesuffer disaster, suffer bad fortune
   nàn OC: mɢlaans MC: nɑn 24 Attributions

Nàn 難 refer to man-made disasters of every kind.

  • nabeventtrouble, problem, difficulties (from the part of the other feudal lords); the difficult point; disastrous consequences [often difficult to distinguish from DIFFICULT]
  • vi0there is disaster, there is political trouble; there will be political difficulties; things will be difficult
  • vtoNputativeregard as particularly troublesome, regard as very worrying
  • nab.post-Neventtrouble from the part of N
  • vipose difficulties, prove problematic; prove disadvantageous; be in trouble, be in dusastrous difficulty
  • nab.post-V{NUM}disasters
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 16 Attributions
  • n[adN]nonreferentialthose who are in distress
  • nabstativestate of distress; trouble; mental trauma 
  • vigradedget into trouble; suffer disaster
  • vt+prep+Nbring disaster to
   niè OC: ŋred MC: ŋiɛt 14 Attributions

Niè 孽 often has heavy metaphysical connotations and refers to disasters as caused by higher powers acting with an intention to harm, but there are some clear cases where the word refers to man-made trouble in MENG.

  • nabeventcurse, supernatural disaster MENG 4A8: generally disaster
   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 7 Attributions
  • nabeventincident; disastrous altercations; irregular occurrences
  • viinvolve serious ritual irregularities
   jí OC: krɯb MC: kip 6 Attributions

Jí 急 is a disastrous or highly precarious situation that has occurred suddenly and requires urgent attention.

  • nabeventurgent trouble, crisis
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are in urgent trouble
  • vadNin urgent trouble; desperate (age)
  • vithere is acute, urgent trouble
不虞   bù yú OC: pɯʔ ŋʷa MC: pi̯ut ŋi̯o 6 Attributions

Bù yú 不虞 is normally a minor disaster that was utterly unexpected.

  • NPabeventunexpected misfortunes; emergency
   biàn OC: prons MC: piɛn 4 Attributions
  • nabeventemergency; unfortunate unruly turn of events; highly unusual event 心傷國變; HANSHU: 有日蝕地震之變 There were extraordinary events likesolar eclipses and earthquakes.
  • nadNeventunfortunate unruly turn of events
苦厄   kǔ è OC: khaaʔ qreeɡ MC: khuo̝ ʔɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • NPabstativedesperate hardship; disastrous situation
   è OC: qreeɡ MC: ʔɣɛk 2 Attributions

È 厄 refers to personal disaster concerning one individual only.

  • nabeventdisaster (typically ordained by fate), tragic fate
  • nadNdisastrous
   suì OC: sqluds MC: si 2 Attributions
  • nabeventdisaster; calamities
患禍   huàn huò OC: ɢroons ɡloolʔ MC: ɦɣan ɦʷɑ 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisaster
患難   huàn nàn OC: ɢroons mɢlaans MC: ɦɣan nɑn 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventa disaster of any kind
水火   shuǐ huǒ OC: qhjulʔ qphaalʔ MC: ɕi hʷɑ 2 Attributions
  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialflood and fire; natural disaster in general; also figurative:social disaster
災害   zāi hài OC: tsɯɯ ɡaads MC: tsəi ɦɑi 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventserious disaster of any kind
災患 / 菑患   zāi huàn OC: tsɯɯ ɢroons MC: tsəi ɦɣan zī huàn OC: tsrɯ ɢroons MC: ʈʂɨ ɦɣan 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisaster, calamity
  • NPabeventdisasters of all kinds, disaster of any kind
無祿   wú lù OC: ma b-rooɡ MC: mi̯o luk 2 Attributions
  • VPibe in dire straights; be in deep trouble
禍災   huò zāi OC: ɡloolʔ tsɯɯ MC: ɦʷɑ tsəi 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialdisasters of all kinds
禍難   huò nàn OC: ɡloolʔ mɢlaans MC: ɦʷɑ nɑn 2 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisasters or misfortunes of any kind; a practical (possibly disastrous) problem
禍亂   huò luàn  MC: -- lwanH  OC: ɡloolʔ ɡ-roons  2 Attributions
  • NPabdisastrous upheaval of all kinds
為祟   wéi suì MC: hjweH swijH OC: ɢʷal sqluds 2 Attributions
  • VPiin divination: bode ill; mean disaster; bring bad fortune; have a supernaturally disastrous influence
   zhuì OC: ɡrluds MC: ɖi 1 Attribution
  • n[FALLING DOWN>] disaster
   hài OC: ɡaads MC: ɦɑi 1 Attribution

Hài 害 refers generally to harm, but in OBI the word standardly refers to harm done by supernatural powers or ancestors.

  • vt(oN)putativeregard the contextually determinate N as (potential) disaster, regard as threat
  • nabeventharmful event
   è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 1 Attribution
  • nabeventevents that are bad for one; disasters
   diān OC: tiin MC: ten 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinflict suffering upon
   shěng OC: sraaŋʔ MC: ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • ndisaster
   lí OC: rel MC: liɛ 1 Attribution
  • nab.post-V{NUM}eventmishaps
   wù OC: ŋʷaas MC: ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause things to go wrong
不意   bù yì OC: pɯʔ qɯɡs MC: pi̯ut ʔɨ 1 Attribution

unpredictable, something that one has not thought about

  • NPabfeaturesomeonething unpredicted, a disaster that one has not thought about
凶災   xiōng zāi OC: qhoŋ tsɯɯ MC: hi̯oŋ tsəi 1 Attribution
  • NPab{nab1=nab2}nonreferentialdisasters of all kinds; disasters
厄地   è dì OC: qreeɡ lils MC: ʔɣɛk di 1 Attribution
  • nabeventdisaster
咎映   jiù yìng OC: ɡlɯwʔ qraŋs MC: gɨu ʔɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabevent(deserved) disasters (of all kinds???)
殃咎   yāng jiù OC: qaŋ ɡlɯwʔ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ gɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabeventdisasters of any kind; disasters of all kinds
災咎   zāi jiù OC: tsɯɯ ɡlɯwʔ MC: tsəi gɨu 1 Attribution
  • NPabevent(deserved) calamities (of all kinds??)
禍喪   huò sāng OC: ɡloolʔ smaaŋ MC: ɦʷɑ sɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPsubject=nonrefthose struck by any kind of disaster or bereavement
禍患   huò huàn OC: ɡloolʔ ɢroons MC: ɦʷɑ ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1=N2}pluraldisastrous misfortunes of any kind
衰患   shuāi huàn OC: srul ɢroons MC: ʂi ɦɣan 1 Attribution
  • NPabeventdecline and disaster
三惡道   sān è dào OC: saam qaaɡ ɡ-luuʔ MC: sɑm ʔɑk dɑu 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalBUDDH: three disasters in future life: being reborn as an animal, as a hungry, and going to hell. Compare 三途
��禍 / 禍    OC:  MC:  huò OC: ɡloolʔ MC: ɦʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • DELETEeventdisaster
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • nabeventpotential difficulties
   wǎng OC: maŋʔ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabeventdisaster
   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • npestiferous thing; evil influence; disaster
   zéi OC: sɡɯɯɡ MC: dzək 0 Attributions
  • nman-made calamity ?????
天災   tiān zāi OC: lʰiin tsɯɯ MC: then tsəi 0 Attributions
  • NPabeventHeaven-sent disasters
殃禍   yāng huò OC: qaŋ ɡloolʔ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ ɦʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisasters of any kind
沒沒   mò mò OC: mɯɯd mɯɯd MC: muot muot 0 Attributions
  • NPabactdisastrous course of action
禍敗   huò bài OC: ɡloolʔ praads MC: ɦʷɑ pɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisaster or defeat of any kind
蹭蹬   cèng dèng OC: tshɯɯŋs dɯɯŋs MC: tshəŋ dəŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNdown on one's lucks, unfortunate, unlucky, exposed to misfortune, meeting with setbacks

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: