DISTRESS  心痛

FEELING that one's SELF:own SITUATION IS INTENSELY BAD.
ANGUISHSUFFERINGPAINAGONYTORMENTHEARTACHEHEARTBREAKMISERYWRETCHEDNESSSORROWGRIEFWOESADNESSUNHAPPINESSDESOLATIONDESPAIR
Taxonoymy

ANGUISHTIREDPAINSADWORRY

Antonymy

COMFORTABLEDELIGHT

See also

POOR

Kind Of

FEELING

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most representative current general word for distress is probably kùn 困 (ant. ān 安 "be in a good state"), although the group of words discussed here is selected on singularly problematic grounds.

2. Qióng 窮 (ant. tōng 通 "have a way out from a difficult situation") refers to a form form of distress as something from which it is impossible or hard to escape.

3. Kǔ 苦 and the much rarer xīn 辛 (ant. lè 樂 "be in a joyful state") refer to a lasting objective state of distress caused by identifiable external conditions.

4. Shāng 傷 (ant. yuè 悅 ) refers to lasting psychological distress.

5. Yōu 憂 (ant. xǐ 喜 "joyful occasion") may very occasionally be used to refer not as standardly to worries of some kind, but to an objective state of precarious trouble.

6. Jiù 疚 refers to purely psychological and often moral distress caused by a bad conscience or the like.

Modern Chinese Criteria

心痛

心傷

苦惱

苦難

疾苦

困苦

痛癢

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

MISERIA

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.119

UNBEHAGEN

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 328

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 65
  • vtoN : 40
  • nab : 28
  • VPi : 28
  • NPab : 22
  • vadN : 11
  • v[adN] : 9
  • vi.red : 5
  • VPtoN : 2
  • VPadN : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • vt+prep+Nab : 1
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 1
  • vt+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 34
  • 百喻經 : 27
  • 春秋左傳 : 16
  • 毛詩 : 16
  • 戰國策 : 13
  • 尚書 : 13
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 論語 : 6
  • 楚辭 : 6
  • 法句經 : 6
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 法集要頌經 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 44 Attributions

Qióng 窮 (ant. tōng 通 "have a way out from a difficult situation") refers to a form form of distress as something from which it is impossible or hard to escape.

  • nabpsychinescapable trouble
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe distressed
  • vadNdistressed, destitute; hopeless
  • vibe in a hopeless position; be in an intellectually hopeless position, be lost for words; be at one's wit's end (See CONFUSED)
  • vichangerun into real trouble, get into a tight corner
  • vtoNcausativedrive to exhaustion, wear out completely; put in a tight spot
  • vtoNcausativecause to be in a hopeless position; put in a tight corner; put in an impossible position; embarrass
  • vtoNcausativeget (oneself) into an inescapable kind of trouble
  • viextremefeel cornered; be in extreme distress
   kǔ OC: khaaʔ MC: khuo̝ 33 Attributions

Kǔ 苦 and the much rarer xīn 辛 (ant. lè 樂 "be in a joyful state") refer to a lasting objective state of distress caused by identifiable external conditions.

  • nabpsychdistress; hardship
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are in hard circumstances, those who have a hard time; those who suffer hardship
  • vadNcharacterised by bitter distress
  • vibe in hard circumstances, suffer hardship; be distressful; (of tasks) be hard work; be devoid of joy 樂
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe harder to bear, be more distressful than
  • vtoNcausativecause distress to; embitter
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) pain, wear (oneself) out completeley
  • vtoNcausativecause bitter distress to (oneself)
  • vtoNputativefind distressful
   kùn OC: khuuns MC: khuo̝n 31 Attributions

The most representative current general word for distress is probably kùn 困 (ant. ān 安 "be in a good state"), although the group of words discussed here is selected on singularly problematic grounds.

  • v[adN]those in distress
  • vibe in desperate state; be in straights;
  • vichangeget into trouble, have a hard time 大困
  • vtoNcausativeoccasionally causative vt: cause trouble for, make life difficult for
  • vtoNcausativecause oneself to be distressed
  • vtoNpassivebe troubled by; be distressed; be reduced to trouble
  • vadNpassivedistressed, destitute, in distress
  • vadNdistressing???
  • vtoN1.+VtoN2passivebe troubled by N2
  • vt+prep+Nbe distressed with N, be in trouble with respect to N
  • vt+prep+Nabbe in trouble regarding Nab; be in distress because of Nab
   jiān OC: krɯɯn MC: kɣɛn 13 Attributions

Jiān 艱 refers to hardship and diffuculties, typically with respect to certain tasks.

  • nabarchaic: difficulties; problems; tribulations
  • nadNN=humarchaic: troublesome, trouble-creating
  • nadVarchaic: with difficulty
  • visubject=humanarchaic: be in difficulties
  • visubject=actionarchaic: be troublesome, be fraught with difficulties
   jiù OC: klɯs MC: kɨu 12 Attributions

Jiù 疚 refers to purely psychological and often moral distress caused by a bad conscience or the like.

  • nabeventdistress; suffering
  • vicausativecause distress; cause a person/oneself to be distressed
  • vipsychbe distressed; be suffering
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 9 Attributions

Shāng 傷 (ant. yuè 悅) refers to lasting psychological distress.

  • vifeel distressed; feel so very distressed
  • vicausativebe designed to cause mental distress or excessive feelings of sadness
  • vt(oN)feel distress about the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNhurt, inflict psychological harm
  • vtoNpsychfeel distressed about
  • vtoNputativefind distressing
  • vtoNPab{S}psychfeel distressed about
苦惱   kǔ nǎo OC: khaaʔ nuuʔ MC: khuo̝ nɑu 8 Attributions
  • NPabpsychbitterness, trouble; afflictions
  • VPibe in dire distress
不樂   bù lè OC: pɯʔ ɡ-raawɡ MC: pi̯ut lɑk 7 Attributions
  • VPi(by litotes (see RHETORICAL DEVICES):) be unhappy; be quite dissatisfied
艱難   jiān nàn OC: krɯɯn mɢlaans MC: kɣɛn nɑn 5 Attributions
  • NPabintensitivesevere difficulties, tribulations
   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 4 Attributions

Yōu 憂 (ant. xǐ 喜 "joyful occasion") may very occasionally be used to refer not as standardly to worries of some kind, but to an objective state of precarious trouble.

  • vibe in deep trouble (of a state)
  • nabpsychologicaldistress
   dāo OC: k-laaw MC: tɑu 3 Attributions
  • vi.redbe grieved; distressed in mind; sad; sorrowful
   jiǒng OC: ɡrunʔ MC: gin 3 Attributions
  • vibe in trouble; be in a precarious situation; be hard pressed; be in straights[or vtpass ??]
  • vt+V[0]N=actbe in severe trouble with regard to V-ing
  • vtoNcausativecause distress to
受苦   shòu kǔ OC: djuʔ khaaʔ MC: dʑɨu khuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • NPabeventthe suffering of distress
  • VPisuffer hardship; suffer bitter distress
困窮   kùn qióng OC: khuuns ɡʷɯŋ MC: khuo̝n guŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPpluralthose in distress
  • VPibe in trouble; get into trouble
困苦   kùn kǔ OC: khuuns khaaʔ MC: khuo̝n khuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • VPisuffer bitter distress
  • VPadNmiserable
艱難   jiān nán OC: krɯɯn mɢlaan MC: kɣɛn nɑn 3 Attributions
  • VPiactcause difficulties; be troublesome
  • VPtoNcausativecause difficulties for
  • VPtoNreflexive.身cause difficulties for (oneself)
辛苦   xīn kǔ OC: siŋ khaaʔ MC: sin khuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • NPabstativebitter distress
  • VPibe distressed, be exhausted, be tired
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 2 Attributions
  • nabcrisis point; momentary crisis; momentary state of distress
  • vireach crisis point
墊隘   diàn ài OC: qreeɡs MC: tem ʔɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychstraights, straghtened circumstances, oppressed circumstances
  • VPibe in distress
憂慼   yōu qī OC: qu skhlɯɯwɡ MC: ʔɨu tshek 2 Attributions
  • nabpsychdistress
憂苦   yōu kǔ OC: qu khaaʔ MC: ʔɨu khuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychdistress and worry
窮困   qióng kùn OC: ɡʷɯŋ khuuns MC: guŋ khuo̝n 2 Attributions
  • VPichangesuffer conditions of severe distress
  • NPabfeaturedestitution
艱辛   jiān xīn OC: krɯɯn siŋ MC: kɣɛn sin 2 Attributions
  • VPibe difficult, be strenuous, full of hardship be in distress
   chōng OC: thjuŋ MC: tɕhuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redshow great distress
   qì OC: khees MC: khei 1 Attribution
  • vi.redall distressed
  • vidistressed; anxious
   zhài OC: skreeds MC: ʈʂɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • vibe distressed; suffer
  • vtoNcausativecause distress to (oneself)
   shuāi OC: srul MC: ʂi 1 Attribution
  • nab.post-V{NUM}psychforms of decrepitude and distress
   bī OC: pɯɡ MC: pɨk 1 Attribution
  • vipsychfeel oppressed
   ài OC: qreeɡs MC: ʔɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • vichangebecome distressed (ZUO)
   jū OC: kuɡ MC: kuk 1 Attribution
  • vidistressed and fearful
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be distressed
不適   bù shì OC: pɯʔ qljeɡ MC: pi̯ut ɕiɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabstativetrouble, distress, worry
乏困   fá kùn OC: bob khuuns MC: bi̯ɐp khuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • NPabeventwant and distress > straights
困急   kùn jí OC: khuuns krɯb MC: khuo̝n kip 1 Attribution
  • VPadVbe in urgent distress
愁痛   chóu tòng OC: dzriw kh-looŋs MC: ɖʐɨu thuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychdistress
  • VPifeel distress
疾苦   jí kǔ OC: dzid khaaʔ MC: dzit khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychurgent distress; current urgent distressful concerns
  • VPtoNfeel currently and urgently distressed by
疲苦   pí kǔ OC: bral khaaʔ MC: biɛ khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in distress
痛苦   tòng kǔ OC: kh-looŋs khaaʔ MC: thuŋ khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe distressing
苦因   kǔ yīn OC: khaaʔ qin MC: khuo̝ ʔin 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalcause of distress
蘊結   yùn jié OC: quns kiid MC: ʔi̯un ket 1 Attribution
  • VPifull of pent-up feelings
貧苦   pín kǔ OC: brɯn khaaʔ MC: bin khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1&N2}distress
近憂   jìn yōu OC: ɡɯnʔ qu MC: gɨn ʔɨu 1 Attribution

distress near at hand

  • NPabeventworry/trouble close at hand
酸苦   suān kǔ OC: sqloon khaaʔ MC: sʷɑn khuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in severe distress
   qū OC: khlud MC: khi̯ut 0 Attributions
  • vibe in straights
   huǎng OC: qhʷaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vidistressed; disappointed (CC)
   qiáo OC: dzew MC: dziɛu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivebe distressed; be harassed
   jí OC: ɡɯɡ MC: gɨk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdrive to extreme exhaustion
欿   kǎn OC: ɡloomʔ MC: ɦəm 0 Attributions
  • vidistressed and despondent
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 0 Attributions
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    guān

    • vtoNcausativecause to be distressed; distress
       xū OC: qhʷla MC: hi̯o 0 Attributions
    • vibe pained; distressed
       jié OC: ɡad MC: gi̯ɐt 0 Attributions
    • vibe in intellectual distress and at one's wit's end
       fēn OC: phɯn MC: phi̯un 0 Attributions
         xīn OC: siŋ MC: sin 0 Attributions
      • viendure pungent hardship
         dùn OC: tuuns MC: tuo̝n 0 Attributions
      • vtoNpassivebe molested by
      困死   kùn sǐ OC: khuuns pliʔ MC: khuo̝n si 0 Attributions
      • VPichangesuffer distress so as to die > die in distress
      疲困   pí kùn OC: bral khuuns MC: biɛ khuo̝n 0 Attributions
      • VPibe in distress
      痛惱   tòng nǎo OC: kh-looŋs nuuʔ MC: thuŋ nɑu 0 Attributions
      • NPabpsychdistress
      苦死   kǔ sǐ OC: khaaʔ pliʔ MC: khuo̝ si 0 Attributions
      • VPadVintensitivein distress, desperately
      苦病   kǔ bìng OC: khaaʔ bɢraŋs MC: khuo̝ bɣaŋ 0 Attributions
      • VPiresultativesuffer distress so as to become debilitated
      苦辛   kǔ xīn OC: khaaʔ siŋ MC: khuo̝ sin 0 Attributions
      • VPadVsuffering bitter distress in the process of V-ing
      辛楚   xīn chǔ OC: siŋ skhraʔ MC: sin ʈʂhi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
      • NPabpsychpoetic: bitter distress

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: