WORRY  擔憂

DISTRESS CAUSED-BY THINKING about something PRESENT OR FUTURE, which is DANGEROUS OR DIFFICULT.
FRETBE CONCERNEDBE ANXIOUSAGONIZEBROODPANICLOSE SLEEPGET WORKED UPGET STRESSEDGET IN A STATESTEWTORMENT ONESELF.ANXIETYPERTURBATIONDISTRESSCONCERNUNEASINESSUNEASEDISQUIETFRETFULNESSRESTLESSNESSNERVOUSNESSNERVESAGITATIONEDGINESSTENSIONSTRESSAPPREHENSIONFEARDREADTREPIDATIONMISGIVINGANGSTINFORMAL BUTTERFLIES (IN THE STOMACH)THE WILLIESTHE HEEBIE-JEEBIES
Antonymy

HAPPY

See also

HATEREMEMBERDEPRESSEDSAD

Kind Of

DISTRESS

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for all sorts of troubled states of mind, as well as reasons for such states of mind, is yōu 憂 (ant. xǐ 喜 "be well pleased" and lè 樂 "feel deep joy"), and this word may freely refer to troublesome matters of the present or of the future, and the word typiccally refers to a termporary state of hightened awareness of what is troublesome and concern about what should be done about it.

2. Lu �慮 (ant. wàng 忘 "refuse to think about, ignore") refers to active reflection upon what one is worried about.

3. Fán 煩 (ant. jìng 靜 "feel completely at peace") refers to a passive reaction of unsettled anxiousness about something other than oneself.

4. Zào 躁 (ant. dìng 定 "be well-settled and unruffled") refers to the state of being flustered, restless and upset by worries.

5. Jí 急 (ant. ān 安 "feel comfortable") refers to urgent and particularly acute temporary worries about something present or immediately imminent.

6. Jí 疾 (ant. níng 寧 "feel at peace") refers to intense and profound worries about something present (and these worries may or may not be lasting).

7. Huàn 患 (ant. lè 樂 "feel deeply happy with") refers to intense worry or concern about the possible future effects of something or the possibility of events in the future.

8. Āi 哀 (ant. lè 樂 "feel perfectly happy with"), when it refers to intense worry rather than grief, connotes despondency and hopelessness and not just worry over possibilities.

9. Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness.

10. Shì 事 (ant. zhì 治 "well-ordered situation") can refer to the kinds of matters or affairs that cause one to be anxious or worried.

Modern Chinese Criteria

擔心

擔憂

憂慮

發愁

焦慮

焦急

操心

揪心

顧慮

掛心

掛懷

想不開

放不下心

放心不下

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some words refer to worries about facts (jí 急, jí 疾, āi 哀 ), others refer to worries about possibilities as well as facts (yōu 憂, huàn 患 ).

2.

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.33

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

WORRY

cura refers to uneasy and apprehensive thoughtfulness regarding a possible evil.

sollicitudo refers to anxious thoughtfulness with respect to a possible evil.

angor refers to apprehensive anguish as a passion with respect to a possible evil.

dolor refers to a strong negative reaction to a present evil.

aegritudo refers to an internalised sickness of the soul of someone faced with a present evil.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 183

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

CURA

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 278

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.2003

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 74

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 197

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 103

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 242

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 77
  • nab : 52
  • NPab : 30
  • vi : 29
  • VPi : 15
  • vadN : 10
  • vt+V[0] : 10
  • vtoS : 8
  • vtoNPab{S} : 8
  • nab.t:post-N : 7
  • VPtoN : 5
  • vt+prep+N : 3
  • vt+prep+Nab{ACT} : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 3
  • vtoNab{S} : 2
  • NPab.c : 2
  • VPadV : 1
  • nab : 1
  • v-V1.adV2 : 1
  • vtoNab : 1
  • vi0 : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • ncc : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 47
  • 韓非子 : 40
  • 論語 : 26
  • 說苑 : 24
  • 戰國策 : 23
  • 百喻經 : 11
  • 祖堂集 : 9
  • 六祖壇經 : 9
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 賢愚經 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 法集要頌經 : 6
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 法句經 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 五行 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 意林 : 1

Words

   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 85 Attributions

The current general term for all sorts of troubled states of mind, as well as reasons for such states of mind, is yōu 憂 (ant. xǐ 喜 "be well pleased" and lè 樂 "feel deep joy"), and this word may freely refer to troublesome matters of the present or of the future, and the word typiccally refers to a termporary state of hightened awareness of what is troublesome and concern about what should be done about it.

  • nab.t:post-Npsychthe trouble constituted by N
  • nabobjectcause for worry, thing to worry about
  • nabpsych(common) troubles, agonies, worries; cares
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are worried
  • vadNworried, troubled
  • viactworry, spend one's time worrying; show serious concern; be fretful
  • vistativebe worrysome
  • vi0there is worry
  • vt+prep+Nhave worries regarding
  • vt+V[0]worry that one will V
  • vtoNcausativecause to be worried, bother
  • vtoNgradedbe intensely worried about, be very concerned about, be very apprehensive about
  • vtoSworry that S
  • vadNcausativecausing on to worry> worrysome
  • v[adN]causativea matter for worry
  • vt(oN)worry about the contextually determinate N
   huàn OC: ɢroons MC: ɦɣan 72 Attributions

Huàn 患 (ant. lè 樂 "feel deeply happy with") refers to intense worry or concern about the possible future effects of something or the possibility of events in the future.

  • nab.t:post-Npsychthe serious or upsetting concern constituted by N
  • nabpsychworries; also: =所患 "things to worry about, things one worries about".
  • vibe upset; to worry very much, be very much concerned
  • vt+prep+Nab{ACT}worry about
  • vt+V[0]be upset about V-ing; worry very much about V-ing
  • vtoNbe vexed about; find ominous; be upset by, be greatly worried about, regard as disastrous (mostly a future prospect); be upset about; be distressed by
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe upset by; be worried about 不足患
  • vtoNPab{S}be upset that S; worry very much that S
  • vtoSbe upset that S; worry very much about S, be all worried about S
  • vtoNcausativecause to worry; make worried (the mind etc)
  • vtoSworry that S
煩惱   fán nǎo OC: ban nuuʔ MC: bi̯ɐn nɑu 24 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: afflictions; troubles, defilements, contamination (SOOTHILL: 406 "The Chinese interpretation is the delusions, trials, or temptations of the passions and of ignorance which disturb and distress the mind [...].") (The three basic defilements are also referred to as the Three Poisons' of craving/passion (tān 貪 ), anger/aversion (chēn 嗔 ), and ignorance (chi 痴 )) skr. kleśa
   shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 9 Attributions

Shì 事 (ant. zhì 治 "well-ordered situation") can refer to the kinds of matters or affairs that cause one to be anxious or worried.

  • nabstativetroublesome affairs, troublesome eventualities 無事
  • vtoNworry about
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • vtoNabbe upset about Nab
  • vtoSbe distressed that S
  • vttoN.+V[0]psychbe worried that (one) V-s
  • vttoN.+V[0]reflexive.自worry about (oneself) that one V-s
  • vt+prep+Nbe upset by, be distressed by N
   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 6 Attributions

Jí 疾 (ant. níng 寧 "feel at peace") refers to intense and profound worries about something present (and these worries may or may not be lasting).

  • nabpsychmental hustle, mental overexcitement
  • vtoNbe intensely worried about, be acutely worried about; find unacceptable
  • vt(oN)worry intensely about the contextually determinate N
憂愁   yōu chóu OC: qu dzriw MC: ʔɨu ɖʐɨu 6 Attributions
  • NPabpsychgrievous worries
  • VPiget seriously worried; be grievously worried
慼 / 戚   qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek qī OC: skhlɯɯwɡ MC: tshek 5 Attributions
  • vifeel intense concern and solicitude, feel distress
  • nabpsychworries
  • v-V1.adV2full of solicitude
   lǜ OC: b-ras MC: li̯ɤ 5 Attributions

Lǜ 慮 (ant. wàng 忘 "refuse to think about, ignore") refers to active reflection upon what one is worried about.

  • nabmentalcareful tactics
  • vtoNworry and think actively and concretely about; think carefully about
  • vtoSworry that S
  • nabworry
   jí OC: krɯb MC: kip 4 Attributions

Jí 急 (ant. ān 安 "feel comfortable") refers to urgent and particularly acute temporary worries about something present or immediately imminent.

  • nabfactualsomething to be urgently concerned about, urgent matter; urgent concern, pressing worry
  • vichangeget urgently concerned
  • vt(oN)worry about a contextually determinate thing
   xù OC: sqʷiɡ MC: sʷit 4 Attributions
  • vtoNworry about; be very much preoccupied by
  • vt+V[0]worry about V-ing
塵勞   chén láo OC: din raaw MC: ɖin lɑu 4 Attributions
  • nabpsychworldly worry; worldly care
   chóu OC: dzriw MC: ɖʐɨu 3 Attributions

Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness.

  • vifeel anxious and worried
  • vt(oN)worry about or be sad about a contextually determinate matter N
  • vtoNfeel deeply anxious and intensely worried (typically about a current present situation)
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 3 Attributions

Fán 煩 (ant. jìng 靜 "feel completely at peace") refers to a passive reaction of unsettled anxiousness about something other than oneself.

  • vibe worried and flustered (for external reasons)
  • vtoNmolest; cause trouble for (someone) by asking him to take action
  • nabpsychtroubles
   yíng OC: ɢʷleŋ MC: jiɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • vadNagitated; restless (see also: CONFUSED)
  • vireduplicatedbe agitated; restless (often reduplicated)
  • vtoNcausativegive worries to, make worried, trouble, give trouble to; tire out
憂惱   yōu nǎo OC: qu nuuʔ MC: ʔɨu nɑu 3 Attributions
  • NPab.cpsychworries and anxieties > anxieties
  • VPibe worrysome
自愛   zì ài  MC: dzijH 'ojH  OC: sblids qɯɯds  3 Attributions
  • VPtoNreflexive.自be concerned for one's own safety; be worried about oneself, be concerned about oneself
   āi OC: qɯɯl MC: ʔəi 2 Attributions

Āi 哀 (ant. lè 樂 "feel perfectly happy with") , when it refers to intense worry rather than grief, connotes despondency and hopelessness and not just worry over possibilities.

  • nccintense worry
  • viworry intensely
  • vtoNPab{S}consider as grievous and sad (a matter of the past or the present)
   hùn OC: ɢuuns MC: ɦuo̝n 2 Attributions
  • vtoNworry about, be troubled by
  • vtoNcausativecause to be worried, create worries for
   nàn OC: mɢlaans MC: nɑn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNab{S}be troubled by the prospect of S; be opposed to Nab-ing
憂色   yōu sè OC: qu sqrɯɡ MC: ʔɨu ʂɨk 2 Attributions
  • VPihave a worried look on one's face
憂險   yōu xiǎn MC: 'juw xjemX OC: qu qhromʔ 2 Attributions
  • VPibe deeply troubled
   rǎo OC: ŋɢjewʔ MC: ȵiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vibe full of worries
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNputativefind (something) troublesome; worry very much about something, be disturbed by the thought of
   tòng OC: kh-looŋs MC: thuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe worried
   zào OC: tsaaws MC: tsɑu 1 Attribution

Zào 躁 (ant. dìng 定 "be well-settled and unruffled") refers to the state of being flustered, restless and upset by worries.

  • vibe flustered, worried and over-eager; be unstable
勞煩   láo fán OC: raaw ban MC: lɑu bi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause somebody to be worried, trouble somebody
惑營   huò yíng OC: ɡʷɯɯɡ ɢʷleŋ MC: ɦək jiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe confused and worried
愀然   qiǎo rán OC: tshewʔ njen MC: tshiɛu ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPilook very worried
  • VPadVworriedly
慼憂   qī yōu OC: skhlɯɯwɡ qu MC: tshek ʔɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPipsychbe grieved and worried
憂心   yōu xīn OC: qu slɯm MC: ʔɨu sim 1 Attribution
  • VPibe worried
憂恥   yōu chǐ OC: qu m-lʰɯʔ MC: ʔɨu ʈhɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfind worrysome and/or shameful
憂愆   yōu qiān OC: qu khran MC: ʔɨu khiɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychtroubles
憂虞   yōu yú OC: qu ŋʷa MC: ʔɨu ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychworries of all kinds
淹恤   yān xù OC: qrom sqʷiɡ MC: ʔiɛm sʷit 1 Attribution
  • VPibe deeply worried
結縛   jié fù OC: kiid baɡ MC: ket bi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsych[BUDDH] unresolved knots, worries
憂恐   yōu kǒng MC: 'juw khjowngX OC: qu khoŋʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe full of worry and fear
渠渠然   qú qú rán MC: gjo gjo nyen OC: ɡa ɡa njen 1 Attribution
  • VPifeel worried, be anxious
   jù 1 Attribution
  • vipsychbe worried
煩勞   fán láo  MC: bjon law  OC: ban raaw  1 Attribution
  • VPilive in worries and toil
悐 / 惕   tì OC: theeɡ MC: thek tì OC: lʰeeɡ MC: thek 0 Attributions

Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness. Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness.

  • viconcerned
   qiǎo OC: smʰewʔ MC: tshiɛu 0 Attributions

Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness.

       yì OC: qrɯb MC: ʔip 0 Attributions
    • vadNperturbed
    • viread yì: be worried; be upset
    • vtoNbe perturbed about (CC)
       sāo OC: suu MC: sɑu 0 Attributions

    Chóu 愁 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel pleased"), and the rarer poetic sāo 騷, qiǎo 悄, tì 惕 refer to various shades and degrees of poetically conceived anxiousness.

    • nabpsychCC, LISAO, SJ on title: worries, troubles
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPibe full of worry and fear

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: