DARK  黑暗

COLOUR LACKING BRIGHTNESS.
BLACKPITCH-BLACKJET-BLACKINKYUNLITUNILLUMINATEDSTARLESSMOONLESSDINGYGLOOMYDUSKYSHADOWYSHADY
Taxonoymy

OBSCURE

Antonymy

BRIGHT

See also

BLACK

Kind Of

COLOUR

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current general word for physical shadowiness and obscurity is probably yōu 幽 (ant. míng 明 "bright"), but this word often has lyrical overtones of secluded peace.

2. Míng 冥 (ant. guāng 光 "light"), hūn 昏 (ant. zhāo 昭 "bright") and the rarer mèi 昧 (ant. xiǎn 顯 "clear and manifest") refer freely to purely optical darkness and abstract obscurity.

3. Xuán 玄 "very dark reddish-black" (ant. bái 白 "plain white") currently refers to mysterious obscurity of the abstract kind. See MYSTERIOUS

4. Huì 晦 (ant. zhāng 彰 "plain and manifest") refers to obscurity, expecially of texts or of thoughts.

5. Měng 蒙 (ant. yào 耀 "bright and clearly visible") refers to psychological dimness, obfuscation of mind.

6. Yǐn 隱 focuses on the inaccessibility to discursive reasoning of what is mysterious.

7. Àn 暗 / 闇 (ant. míng 明 "bright") can refer to darkness but most of the time this word actually refers abstractly to the benightedness of a ruler.

8. Yīn 陰 "shadowy, shaded" (ant.* liàng 亮 "bright") describes the lack of light as contrasted with surrounding light.

9. Ài 曖 is pervasive darkness as a general state, where mèi 昧 is darker than ài 曖.

10. Hēi 黑 (ant.* hào 皓 "shiny and bright") is darkness imposed by the intrinsic darkness of pigment on an object. See BLACK.

11. Yǎo 杳 is used in poetry as a general word referring to darkness.

12. Wū 烏 (ant. hào 皓 "shining white") is quite rare and refers to a high degree of darkness that is without lustre not quite pitch dark.

Modern Chinese Criteria

黑暗

黝暗

昏黑

黝黑

墨黑

漆黑

曖昧

暗昧

黑洞洞

黑沉沉

黑咕隆咚

黑燈瞎火

漆黑一團

伸手不見五指

黑暗

暗無天日

有天無日

不見天日

漆黑一團

一團漆黑

天昏地暗

昏天黑地

長夜難明

烏煙瘴氣

烏七八糟

黑幕重重

豺狼當道

道路以目

削木為吏

萬馬齊喑

上下鉗口

敢怒而不敢言

天下烏鴉一般黑

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 1151

16.53

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DARKNESS

obscurum refers to darkness as an obstruction of light.

tenebrae refers directly to the absence of light as such.

caligo denotes a greater degree of darkness than tenebrae.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 127

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 259

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 254

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 46

LIU SHUXIN 1987 現代漢語同義詞詞典 2

LIU SHUXIN 1987 現代漢語同義詞詞典 8

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

callgo, -inis 'darkness, obscurity' [f. n] (P1.+)

Derivatives: caligare 'to be dark' (maybe Pac.+ 'to make dark' (uncertain

attestation), otherwise Cic.+).

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 25
  • vadN : 18
  • nab : 17
  • n : 14
  • vi.red : 5
  • VPi : 4
  • v[adN] : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • nadV : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • n.red:ab : 1
  • v.red:adN : 1
  • vi0adN : 1
  • vi0 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 楚辭 : 15
  • 韓非子 : 9
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 管子 : 7
  • 春秋左傳 : 5
  • 莊子 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 祖堂集 : 3
  • 六祖壇經 : 3
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論語 : 1
  • 合陰陽釋文 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   yōu OC: qriw MC: ʔi̯u 33 Attributions

The most current general word for physical shadowiness and obscurity is probably yōu 幽 (ant. míng 明 "bright"), but this word often has lyrical overtones of secluded peace.

  • nobscurity; seclusion
  • nsubjectdark place, secluded place
  • nabmetaphysicalthe sphere of dark invisibility; the underworld
  • vadNdark and shady, dark and secluded (like a shadowy valley); overgrown
  • vi.redbe all dark; be completely secluded
  • vibe dark and shady, be secluded
  • vtoNcausativecause to be dark and uncivilised
暗 / 闇   àn OC: qɯɯms MC: ʔəm àn OC: qɯɯms MC: ʔəm 17 Attributions

Àn 暗/闇 (ant. míng 明 "bright") can refer to darkness but most of the time this word actually refers abstractly to the benightedness of a ruler. Àn 暗/闇 (ant. míng 明 "bright") can refer to darkness but most of the time this word actually refers abstractly to the benightedness of a ruler.

  • vibe without light, be dark
  • vadVsecretly
  • nabstativestate of darkness, state of darkness
  • vadNdark; hidden
  • nabdarkness
  • vichangeturn dark
  • nabfigurativespiritual darkness
  • vtoNcausativedarken
  • nwhat is dark
   hūn OC: hmuun MC: huo̝n 8 Attributions

Míng 冥 (ant. guāng 光 "light"), hūn 昏 (ant. zhāo 昭 "bright") and the rarer mèi 昧 (ant. xiǎn 顯 "clear and manifest") refer freely to purely optical darkness and abstract obscurity.

  • ndarkness; by extension: confusion; ignorance
  • vadNdark and obscure;by extension: confused; benighted; obscured
  • vibe murky, be dim; be dusky by extension: be confused, benighted
  • vi0adNwhen it is dark 昏者
  • nadVat dusk
   míng OC: meeŋ MC: meŋ 6 Attributions

Míng 冥 (ant. guāng 光 "light"), hūn 昏 (ant. zhāo 昭 "bright") and the rarer mèi 昧 (ant. xiǎn 顯 "clear and manifest") refer freely to purely optical darkness and abstract obscurity.

  • v[adN]figurativethe (northern) dark
  • nabfigurativemetaphysial darkness; obfusation;
  • nadVin the dark
  • v.red:adNdark and mysterious
  • vadNdark
  • vi.redbe very dark and mysterious
  • vi.redfigurativebe very obscure, dark, murky, and mystifying
  • vidark and mysterious, like the night
  • n.red:abfigurativeconcealment, secrecy, invisibility
   yīn OC: qrɯm MC: ʔim 4 Attributions

Yīn 陰 "shadowy, shaded" (ant.* liàng 亮 "bright") describes the lack of light as contrasted with surrounding light.

  • novercast weather
  • vadNdark
  • vibe all dark; shadowy, dark
  • vichangeto get dark; get cloudy (of sky)
  • vtoNcausativecause (ruler) to be in the dark, keep in the dark
   huì OC: hmɯɯs MC: huo̝i 3 Attributions

Huì 晦 (ant. zhāng 彰 "plain and manifest") refers to obscurity, expecially of texts or of thoughts.

  • v[adN]the dark one
  • vibe dark
  • vifigurativedim and obscure (of texts)
   ài OC: qɯɯds MC: ʔəi 3 Attributions

Ài 曖 is pervasive darkness as a general state, where mèi 昧 is darker than ài 曖.

  • vadNrare and poetic heavily overclouded and dark; cloudy and pregnant with rain, dark and rich
  • vibe dark and heavy with rain
  • vichangebecome dark
   mèi OC: mɯɯds MC: muo̝i 2 Attributions

Míng 冥 (ant. guāng 光 "light"), hūn 昏 (ant. zhāo 昭 "bright") and the rarer mèi 昧 (ant. xiǎn 顯 "clear and manifest") refer freely to purely optical darkness and abstract obscurity.

  • nabactobscurities, obscurantisms
  • vibe dark
  • vipsychfeel that one is in the dark, feel stupid
  • vtoNcausativecause to be in the dark > conceal, obscure
  • vi.redbe in complete darkness, find oneself completely in the dark
   yǎn OC: qromʔ MC: ʔiɛm 2 Attributions

àn

  • vipoetic, rare: dark
  • vichangebecome dark
  • vi0.redchangeit is getting dark
  • vadNfigurativedark, benighted
   méng OC: mooŋ MC: muŋ 2 Attributions

Měng 蒙 (ant. yào 耀 "bright and clearly visible") refers to psychological dimness, obfuscation of mind.

  • nobscurity, obfuscation
  • nabfigurativedarkness > obscurity > ignorance, deception, delusion
  • vadNobscured, darkened; beclouded; obfuscated [deluded][CA]
  • vibe overcast
   bì OC: peds MC: piɛi 2 Attributions
  • vibe shady and dark
   yǐn OC: qɯnʔ MC: ʔɨn 2 Attributions

Yǐn 隱, and mì 秘 focus on the inaccessibility to discursinve reasoning of what is mysterious.

  • nsubjectdark place
  • vadNfigurativehidden and unclear
  • vibe dark
  • vifigurativebe prone to hiding things from others; be mysterious and enigmatic
   mò OC: mɯɯɡ MC: mək 2 Attributions
  • vi.redbe all dark and black
  • vi0it is dark
   měng OC: mooŋʔ MC: muŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabfeatureobfuscation of mind
   yǎo OC: qeewʔ MC: ʔeu 1 Attribution

Yǎo 杳 is used in poetry as a general word referring to darkness.

  • vidark
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution

tuī

  • vibe dim (of light or stars)
   xuán OC: ɡʷeen MC: ɦen 1 Attribution

Xuán 玄 "very dark reddish-black" (ant. bái 白 "plain white") currently refers to mysterious obscurity of the abstract kind. See MYSTERIOUS

  • v[adN]what is very dark purple (the colour taken to be that of Heaven)
   hēi OC: hmɯɯɡ MC: hək 1 Attribution

Hēi 黑 (ant.* hào 皓 "shiny and bright") is darkness imposed by the intrinsic darkness of pigment on an object. See BLACK.

  • vibe dark
幽昧   yōu mèi OC: qriw mɯɯds MC: ʔi̯u muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativedark and obcure
暗昧   àn mèi OC: qɯɯms mɯɯds MC: ʔəm muo̝i 1 Attribution
  • VPibe undistinguished, be less than well-known
暗處   àn chù OC: qɯɯms qhljas MC: ʔəm tɕhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturedark place> darkness
沈陰   chén yīn OC: ɡrlum qrɯm MC: ɖim ʔim 1 Attribution
  • VPibe overcast, be dark
靉靆   ài dài OC: qɯɯds ɡ-lɯɯds MC: ʔəi dəi 1 Attribution
  • VPibe dark; be cloudy
黑暗   hēi àn OC: hmɯɯɡ qɯɯms MC: hək ʔəm 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychfigurative: spiritual obfuscation, mental darkness
   tǎng OC: thaaŋʔ MC: thɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • vidark, veiled (CC)
   wū OC: qaa MC: ʔuo̝ 0 Attributions

Wū 烏 (ant. hào 皓 "shining white") is quite rare and refers to a high degree of darkness that is without lustre not quite pitch dark.

  • vadNdark
   ān OC: qoom MC: ʔəm 0 Attributions
  • vi0.redit was getting quite dark
   tǎn OC: kh-luumʔ MC: thəm 0 Attributions
  • vidark
朦朧   méng lóng OC: mooŋ b-rooŋ MC: muŋ luŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNdark, hazy, dim
  • VPidark, thick-layered
闇墨   àn mò OC: qɯɯms mɯɯɡ MC: ʔəm mək 0 Attributions
  • nabfeaturedarkness
陰暝   yīn míng OC: qrɯm meeŋ MC: ʔim meŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPibe pitch dark
   wēi OC: mɯl MC: mɨi 0 Attributions
  • vifaded, darkish; inconspicuous

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: