DISTANT  

RELATION between TWO THINGS that are NOT MUTUALLY NEAR.
FARAWAYFAR-OFFFARFAR-FLUNGREMOTEOUT OF THE WAYOUTLYINGEXTRASOLAR
Taxonoymy

ISOLATED

Antonymy

NEARINTIMATE

See also

LONG

Kind Of

RELATION

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The clearly dominant term for distance in general is yuǎn 遠 (ant. jìn 近 "close").

2. Shū 疏 (ant. qīn 親 "close") often refers to distance of relation in a more than purely physical sense.

3. Yōu 悠 and jiǒng 迥 is a poetic word describing as distant something which one wishes was near.

4. Liáo 遼 is a poetic referring to what is distant and remote in space and therefore an obscure place. Note liáo yuǎn 遼遠.

5. Miǎo 邈 is a rare poetic word, and from the few usages we have it seems more frequently to refer to distance in time.

6. Yáo 遙 is an elusive poetic word referring to a mystical distance, typically the distance into which one roams freely xiāo yáo 逍遙.

7. Qù 去 can refer to concrete or abstract distance, and in the abstract case the distance is close in meaning to difference.

8. Lí 離 in this sense is a purely geometrical terms that can sometimes refer to the distance of some object from another.

9. Jué 絕 "cut-off, distant" is a fairly elevated way of referring to the remoteness of a region.

10. Xiá 遐 (ant. ěr 邇 "close"), a distinctly rare and archaic word, describes something as not only distant, but also ethereal, remote and difficult of access.

Modern Chinese Criteria

遙遠

遙遙

遼遠

悠遠

修遠

迢迢

幽幽

修迥

杳渺

迢遞

千里迢迢

千山萬水

萬水千山

天南海北

遠在天邊

天各一方

天涯海角

十萬八千里

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 255

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

AFAR

procul refers to something being at a considerable distance but still within sight.

longe refers to something being at a great distance, generally out of sight.

e longinquo "from afar".

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 58

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 336

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 85

WANG TONGWEI 2010 "三國志"同義詞及其歷史演變 450-460

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1450

遐,遠,遙,遼,邈,迥

1. WL claims that xia2 遐 is older than yua3n 遠 but fulfilled the same functions during this earlier period. The evidence for this is extremely slim, and what evidence there is tends to suggest that xia2 遐 was a much more poetic word than the jejune and neutral yua3n 遠.

2. Ya2o 遙 does not have any current meaning 久遠 in the sources I have investigated. The word is poetic and refers to a spatial - often figurative and metaphysical - remote distance.

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 259

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 41
  • vtoN : 41
  • vadV : 38
  • vadN : 28
  • v[adN] : 14
  • VPi : 11
  • padN : 10
  • vt+prep+N : 6
  • vi : 5
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 5
  • v.red:adN : 5
  • nab : 4
  • NP[adN] : 3
  • vpostadV : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • vi.red : 3
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 3
  • VPtoN : 3
  • n : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • NP : 2
  • VPadV : 2
  • vi2 : 1
  • vtoN1.postN2:+V : 1
  • vvi : 1
  • vi-p : 1
  • vtoN.adV : 1
  • vtoN1.+N2 : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • vadV.red : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • v-V1.adV2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 35
  • 毛詩 : 22
  • 春秋左傳 : 20
  • 論語 : 17
  • 楚辭 : 16
  • 賢愚經 : 12
  • 荀子 : 10
  • 說苑 : 10
  • 百喻經 : 10
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 戰國策 : 8
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 5
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 管子 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 六祖壇經 : 5
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   yuǎn OC: ɢʷanʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn 99 Attributions

The clearly dominant term for distance in general is yuǎn 遠 (ant. jìn 近 "close").

  • vtoNfigurativeget far away from something (of principles, doctrine etc.)
  • DELETEfigurativeone who is on distant terms
  • v[adN]what is distant, a distant place
  • v[adN]timethose who are distant in time (i.e. long dead)
  • nabconceptdistance
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are distant; fig: the disaffected
  • vadNdistant, far-away; from far away
  • vadNfigurativeunrelated
  • vadNfigurativedistant in time
  • vadNoriginfrom a distant place
  • vadSin the distance
  • vadVin the far distance, far away; into the far distance; on a distant journey; over a long distance
  • vadVgradedat a greater distance, further away
  • vadVfromfrom a long distance
  • vibe distant; be far away, be far off; be a long way; go a long way
  • vifigurativebe far-reaching; have far-reaching significance
  • vpostadVgreatly; by a wide margin
  • vt(oN)imperativeyuàn: move off from a contextually determinate point in space
  • vt(oN)stativebe distant from the contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe further away than N, be more distant than N
  • vt+prep+NN=placebe far away in place N
  • vtoNbe far from
  • vtoNactkeep one's proper distance
  • vtoNcausativecause to be distant, keep (one's person) at a distance (from something); keep someone else at a distance
  • vtoNcausativebe kept at a distance
  • vtoNputativeregard as far away, regard as being a long distance to travel. Also pronounced as yuàn.
  • viactgo a long way; cover a large distance
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativebe widely different from; be at variance with
  • vtoNfigurativebe at variance with
  • vadNfigurative=far-reachingfar-reaching
  • vadVfigurativewith a long future perspective; with a long-term perspective; be far-reaching
  • vt1post-vt2oNbe distant from 與X遠 “be far away from X"
  • vt(oN.)[adN]those who are distant
  • v[adN]those people who are physically distant from the contextually determinate N
  • viconstitute a long distance
  • vi(of a journey to travel): be far
   shū OC: sqra MC: ʂi̯ɤ 21 Attributions

Shū 疏 (ant. qīn 親 "close") often refers to distance of relation in a more than purely physical sense.

  • vt(oN)figurativestay at distance from a contextually determinate person
  • v[adN]nonreferentialone who is distant, one who is not on close terms
  • vadNdistant; distantly related
  • vibe removed, be separated, estranged; have distant relations; have no direct access to the ruler;
  • vichangebecome (more and more) estranged
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativebe longer than (another period of time)
  • vt+prep+Nstativebe distant from
  • vtoNattitudinaltreat as distant; keep at a distance by failing to treat someone as a confidante
  • vtoNattitudinalbe treated as distant
  • vttoN1(.+prep+N2)causativekeep (oneself) at a distance from a contextually determinate N2
  • vadVat a distance
  • vifigurativemaintain a ritually proper distance to others
   yáo OC: k-lew MC: jiɛu 18 Attributions

Yáo 遙 is an elusive poetic word referring to a mystical distance, typically the distance into which one roams freely xiāo yáo 逍遙.

  • vadVinto the far distance; from a far distance; in the far distance; into the distance
  • vi.redbe very distant
  • vibe distant; far away; be further away
  • viactgo far away
   qù OC: khas MC: khi̯ɤ 11 Attributions

Qù 去 can refer to concrete or abstract distance, and in the abstract case the distance is close in meaning to difference.

  • vtoNbe distant from; be different from;
  • vtoNfigurativeto be removed in time (from somebody or from an event)
  • vttoN1.+N2at a distance of a length N2 from a place N1
  • vtoN1.postN2:+VN2 is far away N1 to the extent of V
  • vtoNcausativekeep at a distance; keep abay
   zēng OC: tsɯɯŋ MC: tsəŋ 10 Attributions
  • padNtimeremoved by one generation, great-(grandson)
   lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 8 Attributions

Lí 離 in this sense is a purely geometrical terms that can sometimes refer to the distance of some object from another.

  • vtoNstativebe (so-and-so much) distant from; be away from; fail to be close to; separate oneself out (from), deviate from; be quite distant/distinct from; be unassociated with
  • vt[oN]become distant from one
  • vtoN.adVfigurativemaintaining a distance from, standing apart from
   yōu OC: k-lɯw MC: jɨu 7 Attributions

Yōu 悠 and jiǒng 迥 is a poetic word describing as distant something which one wishes was near.

  • v.red:adNvery distant
  • vadV.redintensitiveinto the far distance
  • vadVin the distance
  • vi.redintensitivebe very distant
  • vidistant[far-reaching][CA]
   miǎo OC: mreewɡ MC: mɣɔk 7 Attributions

Miǎo 邈 is a rare poetic word, and from the few usages we have it seems more frequently to refer to distance in time.

  • v-V1.adV2from a distance
  • vi.redspacebe very distant
  • vitimebe distant in time
  • vi-pderivedbe absent-minded; have distant preoccupations
   xiá OC: ɡraa MC: ɦɣɛ 6 Attributions

Xiá 遐 (ant. ěr 邇 "close"), a distinctly rare and archaic word, describes something as not only distant, but also ethereal, remote and difficult of access.

  • vadNdistant
  • vadNfigurativefar-reaching; remote; distant; refecting
  • vadVinto the mystical distance; into the distance
  • vibe distant
泂 / 迥   jiǒng OC: ɡʷeeŋʔ MC: ɦeŋ jiǒng OC: ɡʷeeŋʔ MC: ɦeŋ 5 Attributions
  • vadNrare, poetic, SHI 251: be distant
  • vadVin/to/from a distant place
  • vibe long
千里   qiān lǐ MC: tshen liX OC: snʰiin ɡ-rɯʔ 5 Attributions
  • NP[adN]abstractdistance of one thousand Li
  • NPpostadVby a very long distance
  • VPito travel thousand miles, to travel a very long distance
   liáo OC: ɡ-reew MC: leu 4 Attributions

Liáo 遼 is a poetic referring to what is distant and remote in space and therefore an obscure place. Note liáo yuǎn 遼遠.

  • vadNbe distant
  • vi.redspacebe very distant
  • vispacepoetic, CC516: distant (view of mountains)
悠遠   yōu yuǎn OC: k-lɯw ɢʷanʔ MC: jɨu ɦi̯ɐn 4 Attributions
  • VPiintensitivebe very distant
遠近   yuǎn jìn OC: ɢʷanʔ ɡɯnʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn gɨn 4 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptdistance
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative distance
   xīn OC: siŋ MC: sin 3 Attributions
  • nfigurativestranger
  • nabfeaturedistance of relationship, lack of depth of friendship
   miǎo OC: mewʔ MC: miɛu 3 Attributions
  • nsubjectwhat is distant; the distant
  • vibe distant
  • vviderivedreach far into the (metaphysical) distance
疏遠   shū yuǎn OC: sqra ɢʷanʔ MC: ʂi̯ɤ ɦi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • VP[adN]a distant person; distant people, people not in close relations with someone in power
  • VPiabstract: be alienated
  • VPtoNattitudinalkeep at a distance
遼遠   liáo yuǎn OC: ɡ-reew ɢʷanʔ MC: leu ɦi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • VPadVin distant places
  • VPibe distant
  • VPiacthave come a long way
   miǎo OC: mewʔ MC: miɛu 2 Attributions
  • vadNdistant
四遠   sì yuǎn OC: plids ɢʷanʔ MC: si ɦi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • NPadNfrom all distant directions and quarters
  • NPadVfrom all distant directions
深遠   shēn yuǎn OC: qhljum ɢʷanʔ MC: ɕim ɦi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • VPi(temporally) far away; far (in the past or future)
  • VPt[oN]be (spatially) far away from here
離別   lí bié OC: b-rel bred MC: liɛ biɛt 2 Attributions
  • NPabfeatureseparation, state of separation
  • VPtoNbe separated from; become separated from
   shū MC: -- OC: sqra 2 Attributions
  • vtoN= 疏, keep N at bay, get estranged with N
  • vi2change= shu1 疏: to get estranged from each other
   jiōng OC: kʷeeŋ MC: keŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNdistant; outlying; far from the capital
   píng OC: beeŋ MC: beŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadNremote and obscure
  • vadVfar off; far away; isolated and remote
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 1 Attribution

Jué 絕"cut-off, distant" is a fairly elevated way of referring to the remoteness of a region.

  • vadNdistant 絕域 "cut-off distant regions"
  • vitimebe far removed in time
  • vtoNstativebe far removed from (DCD 9)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2cause N1 to be away from N2> keep away from
   pì OC: beɡ MC: biɛk 1 Attribution
  • vibe far away
   suì OC: sqluds MC: si 1 Attribution
  • vadNdistant; deep; remote
  • viCC 340: deep, remote (chambers); post-Han: remote (antiquity etc)
間 / 間閒   jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn  OC:  MC:  1 Attribution
  • vtoNstativebe distant from
僻遠   pì yuǎn OC: pheeɡ ɢʷanʔ MC: phek ɦi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • NPremote place
別疏   bié shū OC: bred sqra MC: biɛt ʂi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause to be distant from each other
屏處   píng chù OC: beeŋ qhljas MC: beŋ tɕhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • NPremote place
楚越   chǔ yuè OC: skhraʔ ɢʷad MC: ʈʂhi̯ɤ ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPifigurativethe states of Chǔ and Yuè > be as distant as the states of Chǔ and Yuè > be distant from
短長   duǎn cháng OC: toonʔ ɡrlaŋ MC: tʷɑn ɖi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeatureimminence or distance in time
迥然   jiǒng rán OC: ɡʷeeŋʔ njen MC: ɦeŋ ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVtoa distant place
遠邇   yuǎn ěr OC: ɢʷanʔ mljelʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐn ȵiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative distance
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN1.+N2at a distance of N2 from N1
緜邈   mián miǎo MC: mjien maewk OC: men mreewɡ 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]what towers remote, what is imposing and remote
   bié OC: pred MC: piɛt 0 Attributions
  • nabpsychproper distancing
  • vibe far removed, be far away
   xiòng OC: - MC: hiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • viguliang: distant
   yǎo OC: qeewʔ MC: ʔeu 0 Attributions
  • vifigurativefar-reaching
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

yín

  • nccsubjectHNZ: distant place; remote region
   chuō OC: rtheewɡ MC: ʈhɣɔk 0 Attributions
  • viactSJ: (walk) over a long distance
釗 / 釗   jiāo OC: kleew MC: keu zhāo OC: kljew MC: tɕiɛu 0 Attributions
       kuò OC: khood MC: khʷɑt 0 Attributions
    • viSHI 31: (cut off and) separated (in life and death), far away
    別離   bié lí OC: bred b-rel MC: biɛt liɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNstativebe separated from each other
    悠邈   yōu miǎo OC: k-lɯw mreewɡ MC: jɨu mɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • VPibe sadly distant
    脩遠   xiū yuǎn OC: sqlɯw ɢʷanʔ MC: sɨu ɦi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
    • VPiintensitive: be very far
    迢遰   tiáo dì OC: ɡ-leew deeds MC: deu dei 0 Attributions
         wài OC: ŋoods MC: ŋɑi 0 Attributions
      • vtoNYIJING, XICI: keep at a distance, refuse to associate with 外君子 “keep gentlemen at a distance"
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • NP[adN]abstractdistance of one thousand Li
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • VP[adN]what towers remote, what is imposing and remote

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: