RESPECT  尊敬

ADMIRE as NOBLE AND SERVE POLITELY.
ESTEEMREGARDHIGH OPINIONADMIRATIONREVERENCEDEFERENCEHONORDUE REGARDPOLITENESSCOURTESYCIVILITYDEFERENCEESTEEMADMIRETHINK HIGHLY OFHAVE A HIGH OPINION OFHOLD IN HIGH REGARDHOLD IN (HIGH) ESTEEMLOOK UP TOREVEREREVERENCEHONOR
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for typically public respectful attitudes and actions is jìng 敬 (ant. màn 慢 "fail to show proper respect for").

2. Gōng 恭 (ant. jù 倨 "behave in an informal impolite way") refers specifically to private proper polite and respectful attitudes shown to a deserving person.

3. Zūn 尊 (ant. bǐ 鄙 "consider as not worthy of any veneration or respect") refers to psychological public or private respect for someone in a very exalted social, cultural, religious and/or political position, and the degree of public respect is much greater that that in jìng 敬 and reaches into the past to ancestors.

4. Chóng 崇 and zōng 宗 refers to distant and typically religious veneration of a spirit or person very highly regarded. SHI 靡神不宗 "there are no spirits which we have not honoured"

5. Lǐ 禮 (ant. màn 慢 "treat without proper ritual respect") refers to a proper show of public demonstrative respect for someone on the part of a host or a superior.

6. Wèi 畏 (ant. xiá 狎 "treat without the proper respect due to someone in high position, treat with improper familiarity") refers to awe-struck respect for a person in authority.

7. Lóng 隆 typically refers to due diligent respect for abstract values.

8. Qīn 欽 is an archaic courtly word referring to formal conformity with the rules of polite respect for superiors on public occasions.

9. Zhī 知 focusses on proper appreciation of a person, accompanied by recognition of that person's worth.

Modern Chinese Criteria

恭敬

虔敬

恭謹

尊敬

尊重

威信

威望

恂恂

肅然起敬

必恭必敬

穆穆肅肅

相敬如賓

舉案齊眉

正襟危坐

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

Jìng 敬 stresses concern for others and for business at hand, gōng 恭 stresses respectful polite behavior as such.

  • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 1178

  • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 159

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 319

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    REVERENTIA

    VERECUNDIA

  • Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian ( Mel'cuk 1984) p. 152

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 1.75

    ACHTUNG

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 410

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 506

  • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.178:123

    RESPECT.EGARDS.CONSIDERATION.DEFERENCE

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.238.195

    ADORER.HONORER.REVERER; VENERATION.RESPECT

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 215

  • Reverence ( WOODRUFF 2001) p.

    reverence

    hosiotēs

    eusebeia

    aidōs

  • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 50A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 217
  • nab : 30
  • vadV : 22
  • vt[oN] : 22
  • vt+prep+N : 16
  • VPtoN : 14
  • VPi : 13
  • vi : 12
  • VPt(oN) : 10
  • NPab : 9
  • vt(oN) : 7
  • vadN : 5
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 5
  • vi : 4
  • VPadV : 2
  • VPt[oN] : 2
  • n : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • vpostadV : 1
  • NPadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 71
  • 韓非子 : 58
  • 論語 : 38
  • 荀子 : 34
  • 說苑 : 30
  • 孝經 : 28
  • 禮記 : 17
  • 孟子 : 17
  • 呂氏春秋 : 16
  • 祖堂集 : 12
  • 賢愚經 : 10
  • 戰國策 : 8
  • 毛詩 : 8
  • 史記 : 8
  • 尚書 : 6
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 管子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   jìng OC: kreŋs MC: kɣaŋ 78 Attributions

The current general word for respectful attitudes and actions is jìng 敬 (ant. màn 慢 "fail to show proper respect for").

  • nabactearnest and respectful diligence; respectful devotion
  • vadNrespectful, devoted 敬色
  • vadVrespectfully 敬服
  • vpostadVgradedrespectfully
  • vt(oN)show the proper and required respect for the contextually determinate object
  • vt[oN]show respect where respect is due
  • vt+prep+Nshow respect to
  • vtoN.adVrespecting N to V
  • vtoNshow respect for; show obedient unquestioning respect for
  • vtoNcausativecause to be or become respected
  • vtoNpsychfeel respect for and act earnestly on the basis of this
  • vtoNfigurativetake seriously as dangerous
  • vtoNcausativeensure that N is diligent and respectful
  • vtoNpassiveget properly respected
   wèi OC: quls MC: ʔɨi 53 Attributions

Wèi 畏 (ant. xiá 狎 "treat without the proper respect due to someone in high position, treat with improper familiarity") refers to awe-struck respect for a person in authority.

  • vadVwith respectful fear
  • vibe awe-struck; stand in awe
  • vt[oN]stand in awe of those in authority
  • vt+prep+Nfeel respect for
  • vtoNpassivebe respected, be held in awe
  • vtoNputativeHS, Dongfang Shuo: admire as outstanding, stand in awe of
  • vtoNstative[cognate with wēi 威 "authority"] fear and revere; stand in awe of 畏天之威
  • vt(oN)stand in awe of a person
  • nabpsychrespect, respect mixed with fear
   zūn OC: tsuun MC: tsuo̝n 45 Attributions

Zūn 尊 (ant. bǐ 鄙 "consider as not worthy of any veneration or respect") refers to public respect for someone in a very exalted social, cultural, religious and/or political position, and the degree of public respect is much greater that that in jìng 敬 and reaches into the past to ancestors.

  • nabactbeing respected> respect
  • vtoNattitudinalshow proper respect for; venerate, revere, show respect for; treat with demonstrative respect
  • vtoNattitudinalbe treated with respect, enjoy respect
  • vtoNcausativecause to be highly respected; elevate to a respectful position; show respect for
  • vtoNputative(regard as distinguished>) to honour as deserving public respect; ensure position of public honour and esteem;
  • vtoNpassivebe respected
恭 / 共   gōng OC: koŋ MC: ki̯oŋ gōng OC: koŋ MC: ki̯oŋ 35 Attributions

Gōng 恭 (ant. jù 倨 "behave in an informal impolite way") refers specifically to private proper polite and respectful attitudes shown to a deserving person. Gōng 恭 (ant. jù 倨 "behave in an informal impolite way") refers specifically to private proper polite and respectful attitudes shown to a deserving person.

  • nabacthumble respectfulness, humility, humble politeness; polite correctness in behaviour
  • vadNrespectful
  • vadVrespectfully
  • vt[oN]show one's humble respect as required by etiquette; be respectful and polite
  • vipsychhave a deeply respectful or reverential attitude to others
  • vtoNcausativeensure that (someone) is polite and respectful, ensure that (someone) shows humble politeness
  • vtoNpsychshow polite respect to (oneself)
  • vtoNshow obedient respect for
  • viact respectfully
  • viact respectfully
  • vibe respectful (of demeanour)
   lǐ OC: riiʔ MC: lei 18 Attributions

Lǐ 禮 (ant. màn 慢 "treat without proper ritual respect") refers to a proper show of public demonstrative respect for someone on the part of a host or a superior.

  • nabpsychrespect, obeisance
  • vt[oN]display proper respect towards others
  • vtoNgradedshow proper respect to; treat with proper politeness See HOSPITALITY 甚禮之
  • vt+prep+Nshow respect to; treat with polite consideration; pay special ritual respect to
   zhòng OC: doŋʔ MC: ɖi̯oŋ 16 Attributions
  • vadNimportant; esteemed; morally weighty
  • vt+prep+Nattach importance to> show respect for
  • vtoNattitudinalregard as being of great importance and as deserving great respect (a person or a thing); treat as important
  • vtoNpassivebe regarded with great respect (by someone)
   chóng OC: dzruŋ MC: ɖʐuŋ 15 Attributions

Chóng 崇 and zōng 宗 refers to distant and typically religious veneration of a spirit or person very highly regarded. SHI 靡神不宗"there are no spirits which we have not honoured"

  • nobjectmost respected person
  • vtoNpay due respect to; to hold in very high esteem, admire
恭敬   gōng jìng OC: koŋ kreŋs MC: ki̯oŋ kɣaŋ 14 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actproper respectful reverence and diligence in the performance of one's duties
  • VPishow every kind of respectful diligence in action
  • VPt(oN)show great respect to the contextually determinate N
  • VPtoNrespect; show a politely considerate attitude towards
  • VPisubject=nonhumanbe respectful
   zōng OC: tsuuŋ MC: tsuo̝ŋ 13 Attributions

Chóng 崇 and zōng 宗 refers to distant and typically religious veneration of a spirit or person very highly regarded. SHI 靡神不宗"there are no spirits which we have not honoured"

  • nadNrespected
  • vt+prep+Npay one's respects to (as in an ancestral temple)
  • vtoNpay one's high and religious respects to (someone) as one's ancestor or as a revered spirit
  • vtoNpassivebe held in the highest esteem
  • vt(oN)hold in high religious respect
  • vtoNintensitivehold on high respect, revere
   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 13 Attributions

Zhī 知 focusses on proper appreciation of a person, accompanied by recognition of that person's worth.

  • vtoNappreciate properly, recognise (a person for his true value); repect properly for what a person is
  • vtoNpassivebe appreciated properly, be respected properly; be understood properly
   zhī OC: tjil MC: tɕi 7 Attributions
  • vadVrespectfully
  • viarchaic/poetic, SHI, SHU: be respectfully diligent
  • vtoNfollow respectfully
  • v[adN]N=humthose who are respectful
   jǐn OC: klɯnʔ MC: kɨn 6 Attributions
  • vadVrespectfully
  • viactshow diligent respect
   lóng OC: ɡ-rum MC: luŋ 6 Attributions

Lóng 隆 typically refers to due diligent respect for abstract values.

  • vtoNXUN 1: hold in high public esteem, show deep reverence for (as for ritual, or for a teacher)
愛敬   ài jìng OC: qɯɯds kreŋs MC: ʔəi kɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • NPabpsychlove and respect; loving respect
  • VPt[oN]show respect to others
  • VPtoNshow loving respect for
   xià OC: ɢraas MC: ɦɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • nabdisposition/actionrespectful attitude
  • vtoNhumble oneself before> show respect to 下人"(as a superior) treat others with respect" to treat with humility, treat deferentially (persons whom one is not obliged to treat that way); mix congenially with (those who are of lower status)
   mèi OC: mrils MC: mi 5 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nshow exceedingly polite (religious) respect for; show great respect for (SHI also: the common people??????)
  • vtoNshow intense respect for
敬心   jìng xīn OC: kreŋs slɯm MC: kɣaŋ sim 5 Attributions
  • NPabpsychpious respect
  • NPadVwith respectful hearts> respectfully
  • VPibe full of respect
禮謝   lǐ xiè OC: riiʔ MC: lei zɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)omBUDDH: ?? to express one's respect and gratitude through bowing to; to ritually bow to N as expression of gratitude (with contextually determinate object)
  • VPtoNBUDDH: ?? express one's respect and gratitude through bowing to; to ritually bow to N as expression of gratitude
   qián OC: ɡren MC: giɛn 4 Attributions
  • nabpsychrespect
  • vadVrespectfully
  • vtoNbe respectful to
辭讓   cí ràng OC: zɯ njaŋs MC: zɨ ȵi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}dispositiondeference
  • VPiactbe polite and respectful
   qīn OC: khrɯm MC: khim 3 Attributions

Qīn 欽 is an archaic courtly word referring to formal conformity with the rules of polite respect for superiors on public occasions.

  • viimperativebe diligently respectful!
  • vtoNhold in high esteem
   guì OC: kluds MC: kɨi 3 Attributions
  • vtoNappreciate and respect
  • vtoNpassivebe appreciated and respected
   fèng OC: boŋʔ MC: bi̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNrespect
   kè OC: khlaaɡ MC: khɑk 2 Attributions
  • nsubjectthe honoured one (state)
  • vadVrespectfully; earnestly
  • vibe respectful and diligent (with respect to things)
  • vtoNarchaic/poetic, SHI, SHU: make a diligent and earnest show of respect
   cháo OC: daw MC: ɖiɛu 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Npay one's respects to
  • vtoNshow one's respect by visiting the court of
  • vtoNN=abstractshow one's respect to at court
尊敬   zūn jìng OC: tsuun kreŋs MC: tsuo̝n kɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNrespect, honor
崇敬   chóng jìng OC: dzruŋ kreŋs MC: ɖʐuŋ kɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNrespect
  • VPtoNreflexive.自respect oneself
敬共 / 敬恭   jìng gōng OC: kreŋs koŋ MC: kɣaŋ ki̯oŋ jìng gōng OC: kreŋs koŋ MC: kɣaŋ ki̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)show obedient respect to
敬重   jìng zhòng OC: kreŋs doŋʔ MC: kɣaŋ ɖi̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychrespectfulness
  • VPtoNshowshow respect for N
   dài MC: tojH OC: k-lɯɯs 2 Attributions
  • vtoNreflexive.己have (self)-esteem
   hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtake seriously and respect
   tíng OC: deeŋ MC: deŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactshow respect to the court?? ????
   sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNshow respect, esteem
  • vtoNcausativemake respectful
   sù OC: sɯwɡ MC: suk 1 Attribution
  • viactLIJI 1.27: show earnst respect
  • vadVgravely; seriously, with serious respectful diligence
   zhì OC: kljiɡs MC: tɕi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpay the ultimate respect to
尊重   zūn zhòng OC: tsuun doŋʔ MC: tsuo̝n ɖi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)venerate the contextually determinate N
忠敬   zhōng jìng OC: krluŋ kreŋs MC: ʈuŋ kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdevoted respect> respectful devotion
   jìng OC: kreŋs MC: kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNshow profound respect for
敬待   jìng dài OC: kreŋs ɡ-lɯɯʔ MC: kɣaŋ dəi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNshow respect for
敬服   jìng fú OC: kreŋs bɯɡ MC: kɣaŋ buk 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)show respect for the contextually determinate N
珍重   zhēn zhòng OC: k-lɯn doŋʔ MC: ʈin ɖi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNthink highly of, respect
畏忌   wèi jì OC: quls ɡɯs MC: ʔɨi gɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]show proper respect to one's superiors/to things deserving respect
致敬   zhì jìng OC: k-liɡs kreŋs MC: ʈi kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)show one's respect to the contextually determinate N
  • VPtoNshow one's respect to (by paying a visit)
謙敬   qiān jìng OC: khleem kreŋs MC: khem kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychhumble respect
踧爾   cù ěr OC: sklɯwɡ mljelʔ MC: tsuk ȵiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVrespectfully
靖共   jìng gōng MC: dzjengX kjowng OC: dzeŋʔ koŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNattitudinalapproach earnestly and with full respect
恭己   gōng jǐ MC: kjowng kiX OC: koŋ kɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactshot self-respect
攝齊   shè qí MC: syep dzej OC: qhljeb dziil 1 Attribution
  • VPadVrespectfully pulling up one garment in order to avoid stumbling> respectfully
供冀   gōng jì MC: kjowng kijH OC: koŋ krɯls 1 Attribution
  • VPi(possibly = gong1yi4 恭翼) be respectful, to show respect
   dàn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe feared and respected
   lì OC: b-riɡ MC: lit 0 Attributions
  • virespectful (K) ????
   qiān OC: khran MC: khiɛn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNlift clothes as a sign of respect
敬忠   jìng zhōng OC: kreŋs krluŋ MC: kɣaŋ ʈuŋ 0 Attributions

respectfully to do one's devoted best

  • VPiactbe respectfuly diligent
畏重   wèi zhòng OC: quls doŋʔ MC: ʔɨi ɖi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
    禮下   lǐ xià OC: riiʔ ɢraaʔ MC: lei ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNshow ritually correct/proper respect to
    踧然   cù rán OC: sklɯwɡ njen MC: tsuk ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
    • VPadNrespectful
       kè OC: khraaɡ MC: khɣɛk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNattitudinaltreat politely as a guest
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNreflexive.己have (self)-esteem

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: