DILIGENT  勤奮

EAGER to ACHIEVE one's TASK USING APPROPRIATE EFFORT.
INDUSTRIOUSHARD-WORKINGASSIDUOUSCONSCIENTIOUSPARTICULARPUNCTILIOUSMETICULOUSPAINSTAKINGRIGOROUSCAREFULTHOROUGHSEDULOUSEARNESTPERSEVERINGPERSISTENTTENACIOUSZEALOUSDEDICATEDCOMMITTEDUNFLAGGINGUNTIRINGTIRELESSINDEFATIGABLEDOGGEDARCHAIC LABORIOUS
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current word for (typically respectful) meticulous and almost fastidious diligence is jǐn 謹 (ant. màn 慢 "be neglectful").

2. Shèn 慎 (ant. hū 忽 "be neglectful") "be careful and cautious" emphasises not only careful attention but also wariness of possible danger.

3. Lì 力 emphasises total devotion of all one's physical and mental effort, and in this meaning the word is normally adverbial.

4. Qín 勤 (ant. duò 惰 "without proper strenuous and dutiful effort") emphasises dutiful mental effort.

5. Quàn 勸 focusses on the externally induced enthusiasm with which something is done.

6. Miǎn 勉 focusses on externally or internally generated extraordinary enthusiasm for a task.

7. Què 愨 emphasises the moral appropriateness of the diligence in question.

8. Yuàn 愿 (not to be confused with yuàn 願 "hope") is an elevated rare word referring to respectful diligence of the people.

9. Jìng 敬 often refers to respectful diligence in action imposed by one's respect rather than to the attitude or the explicit direct show of respect as such.

Modern Chinese Criteria

勤奮

勤勉

勤勞

勤懇

勤快

勤謹

細心

細緻

周密

手勤

勤苦

辛勤

努力

奮勉

巴結

宵旰

兀兀

乾乾

孜孜不倦

篤行不倦

臥薪嘗膽

櫛風沐雨

吃苦耐勞

不辭辛勞

不辭勞苦

不辭勞瘁

任勞任怨

摩頂放踵

克盡厥職

事必躬親

身體力行

發憤忘食

廢寢忘食

宵衣旰食

旰食宵衣

人一己百

笨鳥先飛

精衛填海

磨杵成針

駑馬十駕

鍥而不舍

有志竟成

稍盡微勞 (lit) refers to doing one's best for a cause.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 509©

DILIGENTIA res exeqvendi debitum studium. Quod si fit

1. cum lubentia, dicitur Alacritas

2. cum attenta Cogitatione, Cura

3. cum anxia etiam cura, Solicitudo

4. pertinaciter continuata, Assiduitas v. Sedulitas

5. cum severa Celeritate, Strenuitas.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

INDUSTRIOUSNESS

industria refers to activity as a habitual quality of an elevated sort, the impulse to activity that animates the hero or the statesman.

sedulitas refers to an activity that shows itself in small matters, often even of a comic sort, the indefatigable bustling of the busy housewife, of the good-natured nurse.

assiduitas refers to an extensive tendency to put in a worthy uninterrupted effort.

diligentia reers to intensive careful application to whatever is needed in order to the aims of one's industry.

studium refers to the inclination and loe towards the object of one's industry, as an inward impulse.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 324

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 115

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

DILIGENTIA

INDUSTRIA

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1294

謹,慎

1. WL claims that ji3n 謹 refers to chariness, sparseness and carefulness in the use of language whereas she4n 慎 refers to intellectual sincerity and strenuous severe effort. In fact, ji3n 謹 is a technical term for the opposite of sparseness in the use of language, i.e. the meticulous and almost fastidious making explicit of things that might seem superfluous, as in ji3n zhi1 謹之 "be meticulous about something" e.g. a date: 謹而日之 "record the day meticulously". Moreover, the speech radical and LY 10.1 not withstanding, and quite predominantly, ji3n 謹 does not refer to any diligence with language at all. It seems perniciously dangerous to follow tradition and take the radical to indicate basic meaning. Basic meaning must emerge from attested usage.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 335

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 437

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.327:219

PROMPTITUDE.CELERITE.VITESSE.DILIGENCE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.72.53

ATTENTION.EXACTITUDE.VIGILANCE

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 58B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 93
  • vadV : 76
  • vi : 55
  • vt prep N : 20
  • VPadV : 12
  • nab : 10
  • vpostadVtoN : 9
  • VPi : 9
  • vt[oN] : 9
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • vtoN : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • VPt+V[0] : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • vpostadV : 2
  • VPt(oN) : 2
  • vi.red-p:adV : 1
  • nab.t : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • v-p.adV : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • NPab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 管子 : 57
  • 韓非子 : 42
  • 史記 : 28
  • 論語 : 24
  • 春秋左傳 : 17
  • 賢愚經 : 16
  • 禮記 : 15
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 15
  • 韓詩外傳 : 12
  • 說苑 : 11
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 法句經 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 百喻經 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 鹽鐵論 : 3
  • 孝經 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 孟子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 漢書 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 五行 : 1

Words

   jǐn OC: klɯnʔ MC: kɨn 158 Attributions

The current word for (typically respectful) meticulous and almost fastidious diligence is jǐn 謹 (ant. màn 慢 "be neglectful").

  • nab.tactdiligent attention to N
  • nabactdiligence
  • nabdispositiondiligence;
  • vadNmeticulous, painstaking
  • vadVpainstakingly, diligently, carefully; meticulously; unfailingly 謹而
  • vibe (overly) meticulous, be fastidious???
  • viactbe diligent; be meticulous; be assiduous; show diligence
  • vpostadVtoNgradeddiligently; with diligent attention to detail 遇客甚謹
  • vt+prep+Nbe diligent about, pay painstaking attention to
  • vt+V[0]be careful to V
  • vtoNactbe diligent about, take pains with; devote oneself meticulously to; be meticulous on the point of; be vigilant regarding
  • vtoNcausativecause to be diligent
  • vtoNpassivebe paid painstaking attention to
  • vtoNpsychpay diligent attention to, pay close attention to; be carefully attentive to
  • vt(oN)pay diligent attention to
   shèn OC: djins MC: dʑin 38 Attributions

Shèn 慎 (ant. hū 忽 "be neglectful") "be careful and cautious" emphasises not only careful attention but also wariness of possible danger.

  • nabpsychdiligence; preoccupation with which one is carefully or warily concerned; moral carefulness
  • vadVcarefully, warily
  • viactbe advertent; be careful
  • vt+prep+Nreflexive.己be diligent and cautious with respect to (oneself)
  • vt+V[0]be careful in V-ing; take care to V [This is a clear case where vadV is indistinguishable from vt+V.]
  • vtoNpay careful attention to; be careful to avoid; show special care for
  • vtoNreflexive.己be diligent and careful with respect to (oneself)
  • vt(oN)be diligent with respect to
  • vtoNpassivebe paid careful attention to
  • vt prep Npay careful attention to N
   jìng OC: kreŋs MC: kɣaŋ 28 Attributions

Jìng 敬 refers to respectful diligence in action.

  • nabactrespectful diligence in practice
  • viactshow respectful diligence in action
  • vt[oN](degree verb, see 甚敬)be morally earnest in one's behaviour and attitudes; show a respectful attitude
  • vtoNpay diligent attention to, attend diligently to
  • vtoNreflexive.己cause oneself to be reverently diligent in one's actions
  • vadVwith devoted diligence, diligently
  • vtoNimperativebe diligent about N!
   qín OC: ɡlɯn MC: gɨn 10 Attributions

Qín 勤 (ant. duò 惰 "without proper strenuous and dutiful effort") emphasises dutiful mental effort.

  • vadNdiligent
  • vadVdiligently
  • viactbe industrious and strenous in one's efforts, make strenuous efforts, be assiduous
  • vt+prep+Nbe diligent with regard to
   shóu OC: djɯwɡ MC: dʑuk 7 Attributions
  • vadVthoroughly, carefully, closely
  • vibe mature, well-considered
謹慎   jǐn shèn OC: klɯnʔ djins MC: kɨn dʑin 7 Attributions
  • NPabactproper careful diligence
  • VPibe properly diligent
  • VPt+V[0]be meticulous about Ving
  • VPtoNbe diligent about
   hǎo OC: qhuuʔ MC: hɑu 6 Attributions
  • vadVimperativeproperly, carefully
  • vpostadVcompletely, properly
   shěn OC: qhjɯmʔ MC: ɕim 5 Attributions
  • vadVdiligently, carefully, meticulously
  • viactbe diligent
  • vt+V[0]take meticulous care in V-ing, V with critical attention
  • vtoNbe meticulous about
  • vtoNpassivebe practised with diligence
   què OC: khrooɡ MC: khɣɔk 5 Attributions

Què 愨 emphasises the moral appropriateness of the diligence in question.

  • nabdispositionearnest decency, naive diligence
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are diligent; the diligent
  • viactbe decent, be dutiful and diligent in an unsophisticated way; naive and morally diligent; straightforwardly decent
  • vichangebecome trustily diligent
   yuàn OC: ŋɡons MC: ŋi̯ɐn 4 Attributions

Yuàn 愿 (not to be confused with yuàn 願 "hope") is an elevated rare word referring to respectful diligence of the people.

  • nabactdiligence
  • viactbe attentive and make an honest effort, sincere and diligent SW: 謹也
精勤   jīng qín OC: tseŋ ɡlɯn MC: tsiɛŋ gɨn 4 Attributions
  • VPadVwith careful diligence
   bó OC: bɯɯd MC: buot 3 Attributions
  • viintensitivebe serious, be officious
   quàn OC: khons MC: khi̯ɐn 3 Attributions

Quàn 勸 focusses on the externally induced enthusiasm with which something is done.

  • vifeel encouraged to make strenuous efforts; LY feel enthusiasticSAME AS "DILIGENT" vt-pass delenda (vi should be vt-pass)
  • vtoNbe encouraged to work diligently for (rewards etc); fell impelled to work for
   shàn OC: ɡjenʔ MC: dʑiɛn 3 Attributions
  • vadVproperly; carefully 善聽
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nbe elaborate with respect to
  • vtoNcausative(cause to be elaborate>) be fastidious about; to elaborate, make elaborate
   dì OC: k-leeɡs MC: tei 3 Attributions
  • vadVpaying diligent attention to all details
   hù OC: ɢʷaaɡs MC: ɦuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNtake care with, be careful about
作意   zuò yì OC: tsaaɡ qɯɡs MC: tsɑk ʔɨ 3 Attributions
  • VPadVwith attention, carefully
  • VPt(oN)imperativepay diligent attention (to what I am saying)
  • VPt+V[0]pay attention to V-ing
踧踖   cù jí OC: sklɯwɡ skaɡ MC: tsuk tsiɛk 2 Attributions
  • VPiintensitivebe very reverent
前後   qián hòu MC: dzen huwX OC: dzeen ɡooʔ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVthoroughly, from all perspectives
   lì OC:  MC: lɨk 1 Attribution
  • vadVdiligently
   lì OC: ɡ-rɯɡ MC: lɨk 1 Attribution

Lì 力 emphasises total devotion of all one's physical and mental effort, and in this meaning the word is normally adverbial.

  • nadVinstrumentwith all one's might, all one can
徠 / 徠   lài OC: rɯɯs MC: ləi lài OC: rɯɯs MC: ləi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNread la4i: practise diligently
   qín OC: ɡlɯn MC: gɨn 1 Attribution
  • vibe careful, diligent, zealous
   mào OC: moos MC: mu 1 Attribution
  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe diligent; the zealous ones
  • viactbe diligent; be energetic
  • viimperativebe they diligent!
  • vt+V[0]exert oneself in VERBING
  • vtoNcausativecause to strive diligently
   sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe cared for; keep in apprehension
  • vtoNbe careful about (GY)
   cù OC: sklɯwɡ MC: tsuk 1 Attribution
  • v-p.adVdiligently, reverently
  • viintensitiveshow diligent reverence 踧踖 show respectful unease
勤意   qín yì OC: ɡlɯn qɯɡs MC: gɨn ʔɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVwith careful attention
子細   zǐ xì OC: sklɯʔ snɯɯs MC: tsɨ sei 1 Attribution
  • VPadVin detail > diligently, carefully, with great care
恭勤   gōng qín OC: koŋ ɡlɯn MC: ki̯oŋ gɨn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVdiligently
恭謹   gōng jǐn OC: koŋ klɯnʔ MC: ki̯oŋ kɨn 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbe respectfully diligent
戒慎   jiè shèn OC: krɯɯɡs djins MC: kɣɛi dʑin 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbe very careful
謹而   jǐn ér OC: klɯnʔ njɯ MC: kɨn ȵɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVmeticulously
采顧   cǎi gù OC: tshɯɯʔ klaas MC: tshəi kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)colloquialcolloquial: pay attention to, show respect to, care about
   xián OC: ɡiin MC: ɦen 1 Attribution
  • vibe worthy and diligent
   xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpay diligent attention to, be careful with
敬慎   jìng shèn MC: kjaengH -- OC: kreŋs -- 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbe diligent and careful in action
   zhěng MC: tsyengX OC: tjeŋʔ 1 Attribution
  • vi.red-p:adVfor all one's diligent effort
脩然   xiū rán MC: sjuw nyen OC: sqlɯw njen 1 Attribution
  • VPadVcarefully
   jié OC: khriid MC: khɣɛt 0 Attributions
  • vadVdiligent
   miǎn OC: mronʔ MC: miɛn 0 Attributions

Miǎn 勉 focusses on externally or internally generated extraordinary enthusiasm for a task.

  • viactbe diligent
   jù OC: kʷas MC: ki̯o 0 Attributions
  • vibe careful; be circumspect
   shéng OC: sbljɯŋ MC: ʑɨŋ 0 Attributions
  • vi.red:-p::adVbe careful
   xiān OC: sem MC: siɛm 0 Attributions
  • vadVfigurativemeticulously
  • vi.red:adVdelicately
   jí OC: skaɡ MC: tsiɛk 0 Attributions
  • viintensitivereverently and politely
勤心   qín xīn OC: ɡlɯn slɯm MC: gɨn sim 0 Attributions
  • NPadVwith a diligent heart> diligently, strenuously, with appropriate effort
微密   wēi mì OC: mɯl mbriɡ MC: mɨi mit 0 Attributions
  • VPiactpay meticulous attention to details
慎謹   shèn jǐn OC: djins klɯnʔ MC: dʑin kɨn 0 Attributions
  • VPibe careful and diligent
懃仂   qín lì OC: ɡlɯn MC: gɨn lɨk 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe diligent
篤敬   dǔ jìng OC: tuuɡ kreŋs MC: tuok kɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe diligent
黽勉   mǐn miǎn OC: mblinʔ mronʔ MC: min miɛn 0 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]actSHI: make a diligent effort to V
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe diligent and careful in action
    0 Attributions
  • vibe diligent

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: