WORK  工作

Make an EFFORT ENDURINGLY CONFORMING to a PLAN, IN ORDER TO ACHIEVE an AIM, and OFTEN IN ORDER TO be PAID a SALARY.
LABORTOILSLOGDRUDGERYEXERTIONEFFORTINDUSTRYSERVICEINFORMAL GRINDSWEATELBOW GREASETOILLABOREXERT ONESELFSLAVE (AWAY)KEEP AT ITPUT ONE'S NOSE TO THE GRINDSTONEINFORMAL SLOG (AWAY)PLUG AWAYPUT ONE'S BACK INTO ITKNOCK ONESELF OUTSWEAT BLOODLABOUR
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general term for work is gōng 工 (ant. xiū 休 "rest"), but the word refers specifically to skilled work.

2. Shì 事 (ant. xián 閒 "be at leisure") refers primarily to an official or regular working effort made on behalf of and in the service of an employer or a ruler.

3. Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "take a rest from work") refers to manual work.

4. Chǎn 產 refers to the pursuance of a traditional family trade.

5. Yè 業 refers to the pursuance of one's own professional career or one's career as a skilled artisan, farmer etc..

6. Wù 務 refers to work imposed on one because of one's public employment.

7. Shēng 生 can occasionally come to refer to something like one's daily work.

8. Zhì 治 is mostly used verbally and refers to putting a coherent organised effort into something or work at something.

9. Gān 干 is only used verbally and refers to the concerted effort or working towards an end.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

TRADE 17. TRADE 17. 雇傭。

傭,出賣勞動力長期服務於固定的雇主。

賃,出賣勞動力服務於臨時雇主。

雇,有償使用他人勞動力。

Modern Chinese Criteria

工作

幹活兒

做活兒

做事

行事

辦事

視事

上工

上班

出勤

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BIERWISCH 2003 Die Rolle der Arbeit in verschiedenen Epochen und Kulturen

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.12

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.13

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 159

OPUS, OPERATIO

401. Inter Opus et operationem. Opus dicitur ipsum quod fit, operatio autem ipsa rei actio est.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

WORK

opera refers to an activity without intense exertion, as merely or turning one's hand to, something as opposed to momentary inactivity, and also in opposition to thinking, speaking, advisign.

labor refers to strenuous exertion which is typically followed by fatigue.

FRANKE 1974 China Handbuch 30

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 1.154-215

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

LABOR

NEGOTIUM

OCCUPATIO

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 13

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.1554-1.1564

Travail

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1554

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.480

ARBEIT

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 17

WAGNER 2003 The concept of Work/Labor,Arbeit in the Chinene World BIERWISCH 2003: 103-136

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

BAECHTHOLD-STAEUBLI 1987 Handwörterbuch des deutschen Aberglaubens 1.572

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.361

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

HINSCH 2011 Women in ancient China 475

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 60A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 110
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 60
  • vtoN : 44
  • nab : 20
  • VPi : 17
  • nab : 15
  • NPab : 10
  • NP : 7
  • VPt+prep+N : 5
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • nab.post-N : 4
  • VPtoN : 3
  • vi.red : 3
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • n : 2
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT} : 2
  • nab[.post-N] : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1
  • VPt+prep+Nab : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • vi.red:adN : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 93
  • 春秋左傳 : 43
  • 說苑 : 31
  • 論語 : 25
  • 荀子 : 14
  • 呂氏春秋 : 13
  • 管子 : 12
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 墨子 : 7
  • 祖堂集 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 史記 : 5
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 朱子語類 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 121 Attributions

Shì 事 (ant. xián 閒 "be at leisure") refers primarily to an official or regular working effort made on behalf of and in the service of an employer or a ruler.

  • nab.post-Nthe matter for which N is responsible, the task of N
  • nab.post-V{NUM}act(especially official) matter, especially: public task, official business; public event; public project, (military) undertaking, task; one's professional concern 五事
  • nab.red:-V{NUM}actevery task, every piece of work
  • nabactofficial business; official purpose; public affairs; public duties 倦於事
  • viactengage in public or official work
  • vtoNwork at, try to achieve; busy oneself with, interfere with
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actkinds of official task
  • nab.post-Nthe public tasks and official affairs of N
  • vtoNoccupy oneself with in a public capacity, as public business
  • nabimportant business to work on
  • nab[.post-N]his/one's own proper task
   lì OC: ɡ-rɯɡ MC: lɨk 24 Attributions

Lì 力 emphasises the strength needed to make a working effort.

  • nabactstrenuous manual labour; meritorious effort, meritorious contribution; exercise of strength, powerful effort; contribution
  • v[adN]pluralthose who work hard
  • viactput in energetic work, work hard
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT}work hard at
  • vt+V[0]use all one's strength on, do one's best in (weaving and housework)
  • vtoNwork hard at
   yè OC: ŋab MC: ŋi̯ɐp 21 Attributions

Yè 業refers to the pursuance of one's own professional career or one's career as a skilled artisan, farmer etc..

  • nabactprofession, professional work, trade; professional tasks; performance of one's duties, professional achievements
  • viactengage in serious educational activity or study
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 17 Attributions
  • vtoNwork on, be engaged in, cultivate (literary pursuits, gardening etc); have as one's main concern
   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 14 Attributions
  • nabactsuccessful enterprise, completed undertaking; successful working efforts 土功 "earth works"
  • nabactprojected work
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 13 Attributions

Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "take a rest from work") refers to manual work. Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "take a rest from work") refers to manual work. Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "take a rest from work") refers to manual work.

  • viactdo unskilled manual work; work, do productive work
  • nabactwork
從事   cóng shì OC: dzoŋ dzrɯs MC: dzi̯oŋ ɖʐɨ 9 Attributions
  • VPiactwork; do one's work; work hard as one should
  • VPt+prep+Nwork hard at
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 8 Attributions

Zhì 治 is mostly used verbally and refers to putting a coherent organised effort into something or work at something.

  • vtoNwork at, work professionally with; deal with properly
   wù OC: mos MC: mi̯o 7 Attributions

Wù 務 refers to work imposed on one because of one's public employment.

  • nabactprofession; preoccupation; important task; most important task
  • vtoNwork at, work on
  • vt[oN]work on things
  • nabderivedthe most important work, the most important duty; the most important task
   chǎn OC: sqreenʔ MC: ʂɣɛn 6 Attributions

Chǎn 產 refers to the pursuance of a traditional family trade.

  • nabactproductive effort; productive activities; profession; line of profesional activity 經產,末產, 產業
   zhí OC: kljɯɡ MC: tɕɨk 6 Attributions
  • viactperform one's official duties
  • nabactofficial tasks; official function; function; official duties
  • vtoNassign as a duty
   yíng OC: ɢʷleŋ MC: jiɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • viactengage in work, busy oneself
  • vtoNwork at; work with
  • vt+prep+Nwork at; work with
   gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 4 Attributions

The current general term for work is gōng 工 (ant. xiū 休 "rest"), but the word refers specifically to skilled work.

  • nabactskilled work, specialised work; craftsmanship
  • viwork with skill, deploy one's skill in work; act as a craftsman should
五事   wǔ shì OC: ŋaaʔ dzrɯs MC: ŋuo̝ ɖʐɨ 4 Attributions
  • NPfive types of obligatory behaviour/tasks 指古代統治者修身的五件事,謂貌恭、言從、視明、聽聰、思睿。《書‧洪範》:"五事:一曰貌,二曰言,三曰視,四曰聽,五曰思。貌曰恭,言曰從,視曰明,聽曰聰,思曰睿。"
刑名   xíng míng OC: ɡeeŋ meŋ MC: ɦeŋ miɛŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPabactperformance and job description
   cóng OC: dzoŋ MC: dzi̯oŋ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNwork at, work with; carry out (tasks)
   máng OC: maaŋ MC: mɑŋ 3 Attributions
  • vi.red:adNintensitivevery busy, restless
  • viactpreoccupied with work, busy
   gōng OC: kuuŋ MC: kuo̝ŋ 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nwork hard at, direct one's attention at
  • vtoNto work on intensely, with a big effort; to work hard at
普請   pǔ qǐng OC: phaaʔ tsheŋʔ MC: phuo̝ tshiɛŋ 3 Attributions

This word appeared during the Tang and the original meaning is: "to gather the assembly of monks/nuns". In the Chán Buddhist context it assumed the extended meaning of "gathering the monks of a monastery in order to engage in manual labour on the monastery property (fields)".

  • VPiactBUDDH: engage in manual work; work on the fields (of the monastery)
  • VPt+V[0]BUDDH: work (at the monastery property) with Ving; do fieldwork Ving
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 2 Attributions
  • nabactobligation; performance (of duties)
  • vtoNfulfilment of obligations ????
   shuò OC: sqrooɡ MC: ʂɣɔk 2 Attributions
  • vi.redactPRONUNCIATON UNCERTAIN ACCORDING TO JDSW: be eagerly preoccupied
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 2 Attributions

Shēng 生 can occasionally come to refer to something like one's daily work.

  • nabact(enjoy one's) work
事業   shì yè OC: dzrɯs ŋab MC: ɖʐɨ ŋi̯ɐp 2 Attributions
  • NPjob, occupation
奔命   bēn mìng OC: pɯɯn mɢreŋs MC: puo̝n mɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactwork with due diligence and haste; follow one's instructions in all haste
緣事   yuán shì OC: k-lon dzrɯs MC: jiɛn ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactmundane tasks
走使   zǒu shǐ OC: tsooʔ srɯʔ MC: tsu ʂɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactrun errands; work hard
   zhù OC:  MC: ɖʐi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vibe engaged in work on public fields as a form of taxation (eufemism?)
   pǔ OC: paaʔ MC: puo̝ 1 Attribution
  • nsubject=humangardener
   shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 1 Attribution
  • nabactassigned task, official work; task performed
   yōng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • nservice rendered
   sāo OC: suu MC: sɑu 1 Attribution
  • vi.redintensitivebe very much preoccupied, bustle about working
   xiá OC: ɡraab MC: ɦɣap 1 Attribution
  • vtoNlabour (on fields)
   lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 1 Attribution
  • viactdo one's assigned work
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactbe on guard duty (during the night)
九一   jiǔ yī OC: kuʔ qliɡ MC: kɨu ʔit 1 Attribution
  • VPito work on the 1/9 system
事務   shì wù OC: dzrɯs mos MC: ɖʐɨ mi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPabacttask; official task
事要   shì yào OC: dzrɯs qews MC: ɖʐɨ ʔiɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactimportant political undertakings; important matters
作務   zuò wù OC: tsaaɡ mos MC: tsɑk mi̯o 1 Attribution
  • VPiactwork, carry out work
作勞   zuò láo OC: tsaaɡ raaw MC: tsɑk lɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPiactengage in tiring activities
功作   gōng zuò OC: kooŋ tsaaɡ MC: kuŋ tsɑk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactconstruction work DCD: 指土木營造之事。
加事   jiā shì OC: kraal dzrɯs MC: kɣɛ ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nabwork on
執勞   zhí láo OC: tjib raaw MC: tɕip lɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNactwork hard, put in an effort
守業   shǒu yè OC: qhjuʔ ŋab MC: ɕɨu ŋi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNperform the duties of
官事   guān shì OC: koon dzrɯs MC: kʷɑn ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution

tasks of an official

  • NPabactofficial tasks
客作   kè zuò OC: khraaɡ tsaaɡ MC: khɣɛk tsɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPiactwork away from home
為臣   wéi chén OC: ɢʷal ɡjiŋ MC: ɦiɛ dʑin 1 Attribution

job of being official, post of minister [DS]

  • VPijob of being official, post of minister [DS]
疲役   pí yì OC: bral ɢʷleɡ MC: biɛ jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPiactslave away; work slavishly hard
客作兒   kè zuò ér OC: khraaɡ tsaaɡ ŋje MC: khɣɛk tsɑk ȵiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPcolloquialworker working away from home; hired field worker; GERMAN: Gastarbeiter
   dòng OC: dooŋʔ MC: duŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactwork
述職   shù zhí MC: zywit tsyik OC: ɢljud kljɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPitake up an appointment
敦比   duī bǐ MC: twoj pjijX OC: tuul piʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoN= dui1pi3 敦庀: to manage, to administrate, to work on
   zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdevote oneself completely to every aspect of
   huàn OC: ɢʷraans MC: ɦɣan 0 Attributions
  • viactbe on official business, be officially employed; study to become an official; serve as a slave or low official
   gān OC: kaan MC: kɑn 0 Attributions

Gān 干 is only used verbally and refers to the concerted effort or working towards an end.

  • vtoNwork on, work for LY 干祿
   gàn OC: kaans MC: kɑn 0 Attributions
  • nabactoccupation; job
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNwork on
   jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabactlarge undertakings; work
作使   zuò shǐ OC: tsaaɡ srɯʔ MC: tsɑk ʂɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactdo one's job as bidden
作息   zuò xī OC: tsaaɡ sqlɯɡ MC: tsɑk sɨk 0 Attributions
  • VPiactwork away, do one's work
勞倦   láo juàn OC: raaw ɡrons MC: lɑu giɛn 0 Attributions
  • NPabacthard work
竭智   jié zhì OC: ɡad tes MC: gi̯ɐt ʈiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactuse all one's intellectual resources, do one's intellectual best
   nòng OC: ɡ-rooŋs MC: luŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNwork with, work on 十三弄文史 "at thirteen he worked with/studied literature and histories"
   gōng OC: klooŋ MC: kuŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabactpublic duties

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: