GOVERN  統治

MANAGE AND CONTROL a WHOLE STATE or a BIG TERRITORY.
GOVERNPRESIDE OVERCONTROLLEADDOMINATERUNHEADADMINISTERMANAGEBE IN POWERBE IN CONTROLBE IN COMMANDBE IN CHARGEGOVERNREIGNBE MONARCHBE SOVEREIGN
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word for governing, administering or ordering things is zhì 治, old reading chí.

2. Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

3. Nán miàn 南面, tīng zhèng 聽政, and the late jiàn zuò 踐祚 "ascend the throne and hold control" are polite ways of referring to the occupation of ruler's position by a legitimate incumbent.

4. Zhèng 政 refers to the basically bureaucratic administration of a state, practical implementation of governmental measures.

5. Shù 術 refers to the "philosophical" and political art of statecraft.

6. Xiǎng 享 refers to government of a state as a privilege enjoyed by the legitimate ruler.

7. Wàng 王 is the proper government of a state by its legitimate ruler, and term often has "idealising" nuances.

8. Jūn 君 refers to de-facto government by a ruler without any idealising or approving nuances being implied.

9. Zhuān 專 refers to the (often illegal or not entirely law-based) monopolising of power, and the word often has negative connotations.

10. Xiàng 相 refers to senior roles in government bureaucracy other than those of the ruler.

11. Sī 司 refers to administration on a scale below that of a state.

12. Shǐ 使 refers to leadership, typically of the people.

13. Mù 牧 refers to government as a paternalistic responsibility of the ruler.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 16. 主持、掌管。

典,用於掌管一個方面的事務,多為宮廷服務性官稱。

掌,使用範圍較廣,是上古掌管的通稱。

主,後接表一個方面事務的賓語。

尚,多用於服務皇帝的具體事務。

司,主掌某一方面的重大事務,使用最為普遍;後世成為政務分工的普遍用語,并成為主管機構的類詞。

Modern Chinese Criteria

統治

秉國

秉政

執政

當政

當道

當路

當途

當國

當權

在朝

在位

拿權

掌權

掌印

用事

執要

秉鈞

坐江山

坐天下

坐龍庭

秉國政

秉朝政

掌印把子

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.31

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 549

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 68

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 140A

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 302

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 5.361-422

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 2

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.140

DESPOTIE

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.1084

HERRSCHAFT

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.1096

HERRSCHAFTSFORMEN

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no 101

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO. 101

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 140A

ADMINISTRATION

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 368
  • nab : 163
  • vi : 41
  • VPi : 28
  • nab.t : 20
  • NPab : 16
  • vt[oN] : 13
  • nab.post-N : 6
  • VPI : 6
  • n : 6
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 6
  • VPtoN : 5
  • nab(post-N{OBJ}) : 4
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • nadN : 3
  • VPadN : 3
  • nab(post-N) : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • v[adN] : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • VPi0 : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • vt+V[0] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 196
  • 春秋左傳 : 112
  • 論語 : 58
  • 孟子 : 55
  • 說苑 : 42
  • 戰國策 : 27
  • 管子 : 27
  • 荀子 : 25
  • 禮記 : 21
  • 呂氏春秋 : 17
  • 莊子 : 13
  • 論衡 : 11
  • 孝經 : 11
  • 史記 : 10
  • 尚書 : 8
  • 尹文子 : 8
  • 鹽鐵論 : 6
  • 墨子 : 5
  • 晏子春秋 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 4
  • 法言 : 4
  • 長短經 : 3
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 老子 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 忠經 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 中說 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1

Words

   zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 145 Attributions

Zhèng 政 refers to the basically bureaucratic administration of a state, practical implementation of governmental measures.

  • nab.tactadministration of (some state N etc) Note: 夏政 1. administration by the Xia; 2. administration of the Xia kingdom
  • nabactadministration of a state, public administration; administrative measure; administrative method; administrative tasks and problems; administrative practice
  • nabactadministration of one's family
  • nabconceptthe general question of political administration
  • nabmethodmethods of government
  • nadNadministrative
  • viactconduct political administration
  • nab(post-N{OBJ})the government (of a contextually determinate state) 某某國之政
  • nab(post-N)actone's administration
  • nab.post-Nadministration of the object N
  • nab.post-Nsocialadministrative practice in the place N
  • nab.post-Npolitical administration as practised by N
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 131 Attributions

The general word for governing, administering or ordering things is zhì 治, old reading chí.

  • vttoN.+prep+Nab{S}inchoativestart putting N into order at the stage of S
  • nsubjectthat which is functioning well, that which is well-ordered and well-governed
  • nab.post-Npassive: the government of N
  • nabactgood government; governing; matters of proper government
  • vt[oN]govern others; conduct government
  • vt+prep+Nconduct government in relation to
  • vtoNto reduce to order; to put in order (the administration etc); to be in administrative charge of, to deal with, take care of; to be in charge of, take administrative responsibility for; to regulate, make regular, control (as breath)
  • vtoNpositivegovern N properly
  • vtoNpassivebe governed; be reduced to proper order
  • vtoNreflexive.自figurative: govern (oneself) properly
  • vidispositionbe talented for government; be interested in government; be government-minded (治於 be more govt-minded than...)
  • vt(oN)govern the contextually determinate N properly
  • vt[oN]perfectivegovern one's people successfully
  • nabautonymthe word chí "governing, reducing to order"
   wàng OC: ɢʷaŋs MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 50 Attributions

Wàng 王 is the proper government of a state by its legitimate ruler, and term often has "idealising" nuances.

  • nabactruling as a king, kingly rulership
  • nabprocessbecoming a true king
  • viact不王 "be unkingly in one's behaviour" engage in government as a king; act properly as a king; be kingly in one's behaviour
  • vichangegain royal supremacy, reign supreme; become a king, get to rule as king; become a proper king
  • vifigurativehold the dominant position
  • vtoNrule over as king
  • vt[oN](come to/get to) rule over something as king
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 37 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • vtoNHF 9.2.34: be formally or effectively in charge of (a state); control (a person) 有國
  • vtoNinchoativecome to control, come to ruler over, come to be in charge of 有國"take over govt"
  • vtoNpassivebe governed and effectively controlled (by one) 不足有
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 35 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • vt[oN]govern [a polity], run a government, run official affairs
  • vtoNgovern; run the government of (a state)
  • vtoNpassivebe governed
  • vtoNperfectivemanage (to rule), gain (political power)
  • vtoNpsychcontrol (oneself) properly
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 24 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • vtoNgovern (a state, as prime minister etc); be de facto in charge of
  • vt(oN)
   lì OC: ɡ-rɯbs MC: li 18 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • vtoNbe formally in charge of, deal with (administrative matters); sometimes used as a success verb: deal effectively with, govern properly, lead with natural authority
   zhǔ OC: tjoʔ MC: tɕi̯o 17 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]preside over the V-ing
  • vtoNbe the leader of; be in charge of (tasks), take responsibility for; preside over
  • vtoNfigurativebe in charge of (things not literally governed); preside over
   jūn OC: klun MC: ki̯un 15 Attributions

Jūn 君 refers to de-facto government by a ruler without any idealising or approving nuances being implied.

  • viactact as ruler
  • vtoNrule over as a ruler; lord it over (subjects or a state)
   lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 15 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • vtoNdeal with administratively; deal with effectively; come to be in effective control of, dominate; take spiritual charge of
為政   wéi zhèng OC: ɢʷal tjeŋs MC: ɦiɛ tɕiɛŋ 13 Attributions
  • VPiactconduct government; be in charge of the government (of a contextually determinate state)
  • VPt+prep+Nrun the administration of
  • VPifigurativeengage in government
  • NPabactgovenment
   fǔ OC: mʰaʔ MC: phi̯o 12 Attributions
  • vtoNto pacify, bring peace to, look well after the concerns of; euphemistic for "subjugate"
   qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 11 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativesort out properly
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe properly sorted out
使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 10 Attributions

Shǐ 使 refers to leadership, typically of the people.

  • vt(oN)deploy and organise the contextually determinate object (typically the people) properly
  • vtoNdeploy and organise (the people, one's inferiors etc) properly
  • vtoNpassivebe administered, be dealt with, be governed
   tīng OC: theeŋ MC: theŋ 9 Attributions
  • nabactattending to government
  • viactperform one's administrative duties, attend meetings
  • vtoNjudge; attend to (matters of government), conduct (government); supervise
   chì OC: khrlɯɡ MC: ʈhɨk 9 Attributions
  • vi(of human relationships) be (not) in good order
  • vtoNLIJI 5.10: put (bells) in good order; GY: improve (a person) through instruction�
  • vtoNpassivebe put in good order
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 8 Attributions
  • vtoNmaintain, be in charge of; be in firm control and take good care of
  • vtoNpassivebe sorted out; be dealt with
   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 8 Attributions

Xiàng 相 refers to senior roles in government bureaucracy other than those of the ruler.

  • vtoNbe in charge of, oversee (e.g. a state, or a clan/family)
   lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 7 Attributions

Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

  • nabstativegood political order
  • vibe well governed
  • vtoNgovern
  • vtoNfigurativesort out properly, take care of; deal with; work on
  • vtoNpassivebe governed
  • vtoNreflexive.自govern (oneself) properly
  • vtoNderivedpassive: be properly sorted out
   shù OC: ɢljud MC: ʑʷit 7 Attributions

Shù 術 refers to the "philosophical" and political art of statecraft.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}methodmethod of government, art of government, statecraft; political philosophy, philosophy of government; professional skill in government
  • nabmethod of government, art of government, professional skill in government
   mù OC: mɯɡ MC: muk 6 Attributions

Mù 牧 refers to government as a paternalistic responsibility of the ruler.

  • vtoNto shepherd, take care of, take good care of, be responsible for the welfare of
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 6 Attributions
  • vtoNbe in charge of (punishments and like); take charge of, take responsibility for (duties that need to be performed)
   shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 5 Attributions
  • viactrun the administration; run an administration
  • vt(oN)govern the contextually determinate object; remain in charge of the contextually determinate place N so as to safeguard it
  • vtoNbe in charge of, keep order in
   lì OC: ɡ-rub MC: lip 5 Attributions
  • viinchoativebe established as ruler[See also ESTABLISH][CA]
  • vicontinuativemiddle voice: be established as ruler
南面   nán miàn OC: noom mens MC: nəm miɛn 5 Attributions

Nán miàn 南面, tīng zhèng 聽政, and the late jiàn zuò 踐祚 "ascend the throne and hold control" are polite ways of referring to the occupation of ruler's position by a legitimate incumbent.

  • VPiactgovern as king feudal lord; occasionally by extension: act in place of a king
  • VPibegin to govern as ruler
從政   cóng zhèng OC: dzoŋ tjeŋs MC: dzi̯oŋ tɕiɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • NPabactthe conduct of government
  • VPiactconduct government, be in practical charge of government
當途 / 當塗   dāng tú OC: taaŋ laa MC: tɑŋ duo̝ dāng tú OC: taaŋ laa MC: tɑŋ duo̝ 5 Attributions
  • VP[adN]those who are in effective control
  • VPadNin local control; in charge
  • VPibe locally in charge
   xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions

Xiǎng 享 refers to government of a state as a privilege enjoyed by the legitimate ruler.

  • vtoNenjoy the privileges of being a ruler over
   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 4 Attributions
  • vt(oN)be formally in charge of the contextually determinate object
  • vtoNKNOW ALL ABOUT> be fully in charge of, be formally and politically in charge of
  • vtoNpassivebe supervised and administered
   jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 4 Attributions
  • nab.tactgovernment of N, regular administration of N
  • vibe well-ordered
  • vtoNgovern well, govern properly; deal with efficiently as the person responsible
  • vtoNreflexive.自govern (oneself)
知政   zhī zhèng OC: te tjeŋs MC: ʈiɛ tɕiɛŋ 4 Attributions
  • VPiacttake personal charge of the affairs of government; take charge of (a business)
   yǐn OC: k-lunʔ MC: jʷin 3 Attributions
  • vtoNgovern; serve as leader of
  • v[adN]N=humadministrator
   diǎn OC: tɯɯnʔ MC: ten 3 Attributions
  • vtoNarchaic or technically official, SHU: be in charge of (music) take charge of; lunheng: be in charge of (a city)
   sī OC: sqlɯ MC: sɨ 3 Attributions

Sī 司 refers to administration on a scale below that of a state.

  • vtoNbe empowered by higher authorities to be in charge of (e.g. the war horses)
  • vtoNfigurativesort out
  • vtoNpsychgovern (oneself)
   shī OC: qhlji MC: ɕi 3 Attributions
  • vtoNgovern as a nominal head only
   chǔ OC: khljaʔ MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • viactmanage; govern, administrate
  • vtoNsort out properly
   xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNrun, govern (an army, the world)
國政   guó zhèng OC: kʷɯɯɡ tjeŋs MC: kək tɕiɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPadministrator of the state> chief administrator
  • NPabactadministration of the state
聽政   tīng zhèng OC: theeŋ tjeŋs MC: theŋ tɕiɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • VPiactattend to government of one's state
   yì OC: ŋads MC: ŋi̯ɐi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNarchaic: govern
  • vtoNpassivebe well-governed
  • vadVin a properly regulated way
   luàn OC: ɡ-roons MC: lʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNarchaic: govern well
  • vtoNreflexive.自archaic: govern (oneself)
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • viactoccasionally: take official responsibility for the political administration
  • vtoNgovern, take responsibility for; hold office in
   zhuān OC: tjon MC: tɕiɛn 2 Attributions

Zhuān 專 refers to the (often illegal or not entirely law-based) monopolising of power, and the word often has negative connotations.

  • viactmonopolise power
  • vt+prep+Nhave sole political control in N
  • vtoNhave the sole administrative control (in a state)
   shàng OC: djaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNbe administratively and bureaucratically in charge of (by imperial authority) 尚書"official in charge of documents"
殿   diàn OC: dɯɯns MC: den 2 Attributions
  • vtoNstrengthen the government of SHI
   tǒng OC: thuuŋs MC: thuo̝ŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNgovern harmoniousely; sort out coherently
  • vtoNpassivebe governed/controlled and harmonised
  • nabsocialharmonious government system, comprehensive government system
   zhí OC: kljɯɡ MC: tɕɨk 2 Attributions

Zhí 職 refers specifically to official public duties that are part of one's public office.

  • vtoNto be in charge (of something)
至理   zhì lǐ OC: kljiɡs ɡ-rɯʔ MC: tɕi lɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabstativegood government; perfect government
  • VPi0there was principled government
刑名   xíng míng MC: heng mjieng OC: ɡeeŋ meŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactapplication of punishments and honorary titles
   gàn OC: kaans MC: kɑn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNuse a stem for> manage
   zhēng OC: tɯŋ MC: ʈɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNadminister
   qǐ OC: kheeʔ MC: khei 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgain political control of
   gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNarchaic/poetic: govern, regulate, control
   lí OC: ɡ-rɯ MC: lɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto govern; regulate
   xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNactenjoy (the benefits of ruling a state), enjoy the position of a ruler of
司牧   sī mù OC: sqlɯ mɯɡ MC: sɨ muk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgovern as a shepherd does his sheep
執柄   zhí bìng OC: tjib pqraŋs MC: tɕip pɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiacthold the handles of government> be in political control
   shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfirst gain political control of
政治   zhèng zhì OC: tjeŋs rlils MC: tɕiɛŋ ɖi 1 Attribution
  • NPabactgovernment
有事   yǒu shì OC: ɢʷɯʔ dzrɯs MC: ɦɨu ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiofficiate, be in ceremonial charge
治政   zhì zhèng OC: rlɯs tjeŋs MC: ɖɨ tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactconduct of government
  • VPiactconduct government
當國   dāng guó OC: taaŋ kʷɯɯɡ MC: tɑŋ kək 1 Attribution
  • VPiacttake charge of the state
經營   jīng yíng OC: keeŋ ɢʷleŋ MC: keŋ jiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNorganise
經理   jīng lǐ OC: keeŋ ɡ-rɯʔ MC: keŋ lɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNmanage, be in charge of
蒞政   lì zhèng OC: ɡ-rɯbs tjeŋs MC: li tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiacttake charge of government
軍政   jūn zhèng OC: kun tjeŋs MC: ki̯un tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactproper military administration
集有   jí yǒu OC: sɡub ɢʷɯʔ MC: dzip ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeassemble under one's political control
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution
  • vtoNgovern in a principled way
指使   zhǐ shǐ MC: tsyijX sriX OC: kjiʔ srɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPIorder about; be in charge of
為國   wéi guó  MC: hjweH kwok  OC: ɢʷal kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
  • NPabactgoverning a state; the government of a state
   wén MC: mjun OC: mɯn 1 Attribution
  • vt(oN)take charge of a bureaucratic administration of the contextually determinate N
政事   zhèng shì MC: tsyengH dzriH OC: tjeŋs dzrɯs 1 Attribution
  • NPabactadministration, administrative procedures
   gōng OC: kuuŋ MC: kuo̝ŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNHF 8.6.25: pursue one's political purposes, conduct government of
   duī OC: tuul MC: tuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vtoNoversee; direct
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbe in charge of
刑政   xíng zhèng OC: ɡeeŋ tjeŋs MC: ɦeŋ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabsociallegal system and government> public administration
當道   dāng dào OC: taaŋ ɡ-luuʔ MC: tɑŋ dɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe in political control
踐阼   jiàn zuò OC: dzenʔ dzaaɡs MC: dziɛn dzuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactacend the throne
邦柄   bāng bìng OC: prooŋ pqraŋs MC: pɣɔŋ pɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfigurativehandles of government of a state
   píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNsort out with proper administrative care
   zhí OC: dɯɡ MC: ɖɨk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNtake charge of, be in charge of; administer; accept responsibility for
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPIorder about; be in charge of

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: