GOVERN  統治

MANAGE AND CONTROL a WHOLE STATE or a BIG TERRITORY.
GOVERNPRESIDE OVERCONTROLLEADDOMINATERUNHEADADMINISTERMANAGEBE IN POWERBE IN CONTROLBE IN COMMANDBE IN CHARGEGOVERNREIGNBE MONARCHBE SOVEREIGN
Hypernym

MANAGECONTROL ENDURINGLY OR SUCCESSFULLY -> CONTROLINTERACT so as to CAUSE TO BE OR ACT RESEMBLE:as one DESIRES. -> INTERACTACT so as to CAUSE ANOTHER TO REACT. -> ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • BUREAUCRACY COMPLEX LEGITIMATE SYSTEM of GOVERNMENT, USING MANY OFFICES FORMING a HIERARCHY.
    • AUTONOMY GOVERN ONESELF AND DECIDE ONESELF the MORAL LAWS one is to FOLLOW.
      • GOVERN CONCURRENTLY GOVERN SOMETHING WHILE GOVERNING SOMETHING OTHER.
        • GOVERN INSTEAD GOVERN>administer an OFFICE REPLACING SOMEONE OTHER.
          Old Chinese Criteria

          1. The general word for governing, administering or ordering things is zhì 治, old reading chí.

          2. Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          3. Nán miàn 南面, tīng zhèng 聽政, and the late jiàn zuò 踐祚 "ascend the throne and hold control" are polite ways of referring to the occupation of ruler's position by a legitimate incumbent.

          4. Zhèng 政 refers to the basically bureaucratic administration of a state, practical implementation of governmental measures.

          5. Shù 術 refers to the "philosophical" and political art of statecraft.

          6. Xiǎng 享 refers to government of a state as a privilege enjoyed by the legitimate ruler.

          7. Wàng 王 is the proper government of a state by its legitimate ruler, and term often has "idealising" nuances.

          8. Jūn 君 refers to de-facto government by a ruler without any idealising or approving nuances being implied.

          9. Zhuān 專 refers to the (often illegal or not entirely law-based) monopolising of power, and the word often has negative connotations.

          10. Xiàng 相 refers to senior roles in government bureaucracy other than those of the ruler.

          11. Sī 司 refers to administration on a scale below that of a state.

          12. Shǐ 使 refers to leadership, typically of the people.

          13. Mù 牧 refers to government as a paternalistic responsibility of the ruler.

          黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

          HUANG JINGUI 2006

          GOVERNMENT/LAW 16. 主持、掌管。

          典,用於掌管一個方面的事務,多為宮廷服務性官稱。

          掌,使用範圍較廣,是上古掌管的通稱。

          主,後接表一個方面事務的賓語。

          尚,多用於服務皇帝的具體事務。

          司,主掌某一方面的重大事務,使用最為普遍;後世成為政務分工的普遍用語,并成為主管機構的類詞。

          Modern Chinese Criteria

          統治

          秉國

          秉政

          執政

          當政

          當道

          當路

          當途

          當國

          當權

          在朝

          在位

          拿權

          掌權

          掌印

          用事

          執要

          秉鈞

          坐江山

          坐天下

          坐龍庭

          秉國政

          秉朝政

          掌印把子

          rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

          • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 19.31

          • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 549

          • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 68

          • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 140A

          • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 302

          • Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe ( KOSELLECK 1972-97) p. 5.361-422

          • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 2

          • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 2.140

            DESPOTIE

          • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 3.1084

            HERRSCHAFT

          • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 3.1096

            HERRSCHAFTSFORMEN

          • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no 101

          • A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms ( T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004) p. NO. 101

          • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 140A

            ADMINISTRATION

          Attributions by syntactic funtion

          • vtoN : 182
          • nab : 64
          • vi : 26
          • vt[oN] : 11
          • nab.t : 9
          • NPab : 7
          • nab.post-N : 6
          • VPI : 6
          • n : 4
          • VPi : 3
          • VPtoN : 3
          • vt(oN) : 2
          • nadN : 2
          • nab(post-N) : 2
          • nab(post-N{OBJ}) : 2
          • VPi0 : 1
          • vadV : 1
          • vt+V[0] : 1
          • vt+prep+N : 1

          Attributions by text

          • 孟子 : 55
          • 說苑 : 42
          • 戰國策 : 27
          • 管子 : 27
          • 荀子 : 25
          • 禮記 : 21
          • 呂氏春秋 : 17
          • 莊子 : 13
          • 論衡 : 11
          • 孝經 : 11
          • 尹文子 : 8
          • 尚書 : 8
          • 鹽鐵論 : 6
          • 墨子 : 5
          • 晏子春秋 : 5
          • 韓詩外傳 : 5
          • 韓非子 : 4
          • 史記 : 4
          • 法言 : 4
          • 賢愚經 : 4
          • 老子 : 3
          • 文子 : 3
          • 長短經 : 3
          • 毛詩 : 3
          • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
          • 太平經 : 2
          • 淮南子 : 2
          • 忠經 : 2
          • 法句經 : 2
          • 孫子 : 2
          • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
          • 中說 : 1
          • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
          • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
          • 周易 : 1
          • 百喻經 : 1

          Words

             chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 84 Attributions

          The general word for governing, administering or ordering things is zhì 治, old reading chí.

          • vttoN.+prep+Nab{S}inchoativestart putting N into order at the stage of S
          • nsubjectthat which is functioning well, that which is well-ordered and well-governed
          • nab.post-Npassive: the government of N
          • nabactgood government; governing; matters of proper government
          • vt[oN]govern others; conduct government
          • vt+prep+Nconduct government in relation to
          • vtoNto reduce to order; to put in order (the administration etc); to be in administrative charge of, to deal with, take care of; to be in charge of, take administrative responsibility for; to regulate, make regular, control (as breath)
          • vtoNpositivegovern N properly
          • vtoNpassivebe governed; be reduced to proper order
          • vtoNreflexive.自figurative: govern (oneself) properly
          • vidispositionbe talented for government; be interested in government; be government-minded (治於 be more govt-minded than...)
          • vt(oN)govern the contextually determinate N properly
          • vt[oN]perfectivegovern one's people successfully
          • nabautonymthe word chí "governing, reducing to order"
             zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 56 Attributions

          Zhèng 政 refers to the basically bureaucratic administration of a state, practical implementation of governmental measures.

          • nab.tactadministration of (some state N etc) Note: 夏政 1. administration by the Xia; 2. administration of the Xia kingdom
          • nabactadministration of a state, public administration; administrative measure; administrative method; administrative tasks and problems; administrative practice
          • nabactadministration of one's family
          • nabconceptthe general question of political administration
          • nabmethodmethods of government
          • nadNadministrative
          • viactconduct political administration
          • nab(post-N{OBJ})the government (of a contextually determinate state) 某某國之政
          • nab(post-N)actone's administration
          • nab.post-Nadministration of the object N
          • nab.post-Nsocialadministrative practice in the place N
          • nab.post-Npolitical administration as practised by N
             wàng OC: ɢʷaŋs MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 36 Attributions

          Wàng 王 is the proper government of a state by its legitimate ruler, and term often has "idealising" nuances.

          • nabactruling as a king, kingly rulership
          • nabprocessbecoming a true king
          • viact不王 "be unkingly in one's behaviour" engage in government as a king; act properly as a king; be kingly in one's behaviour
          • vichangegain royal supremacy, reign supreme; become a king, get to rule as king; become a proper king
          • vifigurativehold the dominant position
          • vtoNrule over as king
          • vt[oN](come to/get to) rule over something as king
             wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 17 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • vt[oN]govern [a polity], run a government, run official affairs
          • vtoNgovern; run the government of (a state)
          • vtoNpassivebe governed
          • vtoNperfectivemanage (to rule), gain (political power)
          • vtoNpsychcontrol (oneself) properly
             yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 13 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • vtoNgovern (a state, as prime minister etc); be de facto in charge of
          • vt(oN)
             yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 12 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • vtoNHF 9.2.34: be formally or effectively in charge of (a state); control (a person) 有國
          • vtoNinchoativecome to control, come to ruler over, come to be in charge of 有國"take over govt"
          • vtoNpassivebe governed and effectively controlled (by one) 不足有
             lín OC: b-rɯm MC: lim 8 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • vtoNdeal with administratively; deal with effectively; come to be in effective control of, dominate; take spiritual charge of
             chì OC: khrlɯɡ MC: ʈhɨk 8 Attributions
          • vi(of human relationships) be (not) in good order
          • vtoNLIJI 5.10: put (bells) in good order; GY: improve (a person) through instruction�
          • vtoNpassivebe put in good order
             qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 8 Attributions
          • vtoNcausativesort out properly
          • vtoNmiddle voicebe properly sorted out
             zhǔ OC: tjoʔ MC: tɕi̯o 7 Attributions
          • vt+V[0]preside over the V-ing
          • vtoNbe the leader of; be in charge of (tasks), take responsibility for; preside over
          • vtoNfigurativebe in charge of (things not literally governed); preside over
             chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 7 Attributions
          • vtoNmaintain, be in charge of; be in firm control and take good care of
          • vtoNpassivebe sorted out; be dealt with
             jūn OC: klun MC: ki̯un 6 Attributions

          Jūn 君 refers to de-facto government by a ruler without any idealising or approving nuances being implied.

          • viactact as ruler
          • vtoNrule over as a ruler; lord it over (subjects or a state)
             lì OC: ɡ-rɯbs MC: li 6 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • vtoNbe formally in charge of, deal with (administrative matters); sometimes used as a success verb: deal effectively with, govern properly, lead with natural authority
             lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 5 Attributions

          Wéi 為, yǒu 有, yòng 用, lín 臨, lì 蒞, lǐ 理 are polite ways of referring to the government by a legitimate ruler.

          • nabstativegood political order
          • vibe well governed
          • vtoNgovern
          • vtoNfigurativesort out properly, take care of; deal with; work on
          • vtoNpassivebe governed
          • vtoNreflexive.自govern (oneself) properly
          • vtoNderivedpassive: be properly sorted out
             fǔ OC: mʰaʔ MC: phi̯o 4 Attributions
          • vtoNto pacify, bring peace to, look well after the concerns of; euphemistic for "subjugate"
             mù OC: mɯɡ MC: muk 4 Attributions

          Mù 牧 refers to government as a paternalistic responsibility of the ruler.

          • vtoNto shepherd, take care of, take good care of, be responsible for the welfare of
             zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 4 Attributions
          • vt(oN)be formally in charge of the contextually determinate object
          • vtoNKNOW ALL ABOUT> be fully in charge of, be formally and politically in charge of
          • vtoNpassivebe supervised and administered
             yì OC: ŋads MC: ŋi̯ɐi 2 Attributions
          • vtoNarchaic: govern
          • vtoNpassivebe well-governed
          • vadVin a properly regulated way
             luàn OC: ɡ-roons MC: lʷɑn 2 Attributions
          • vtoNarchaic: govern well
          • vtoNreflexive.自archaic: govern (oneself)
             xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

          Xiǎng 享 refers to government of a state as a privilege enjoyed by the legitimate ruler.

          • vtoNenjoy the privileges of being a ruler over
          使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 2 Attributions

          Shǐ 使 refers to leadership, typically of the people.

          • vt(oN)deploy and organise the contextually determinate object (typically the people) properly
          • vtoNdeploy and organise (the people, one's inferiors etc) properly
          • vtoNpassivebe administered, be dealt with, be governed
             diǎn OC: tɯɯnʔ MC: ten 2 Attributions
          • vtoNarchaic or technically official, SHU: be in charge of (music) take charge of; lunheng: be in charge of (a city)
             shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 2 Attributions
          • viactrun the administration; run an administration
          • vt(oN)govern the contextually determinate object; remain in charge of the contextually determinate place N so as to safeguard it
          • vtoNbe in charge of, keep order in
             guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 2 Attributions
          • viactoccasionally: take official responsibility for the political administration
          • vtoNgovern, take responsibility for; hold office in
             tǒng OC: thuuŋs MC: thuo̝ŋ 2 Attributions
          • vtoNgovern harmoniousely; sort out coherently
          • vtoNpassivebe governed/controlled and harmonised
          • nabsocialharmonious government system, comprehensive government system
             jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 2 Attributions
          • nab.tactgovernment of N, regular administration of N
          • vibe well-ordered
          • vtoNgovern well, govern properly; deal with efficiently as the person responsible
          • vtoNreflexive.自govern (oneself)
             tīng OC: theeŋ MC: theŋ 2 Attributions
          • nabactattending to government
          • viactperform one's administrative duties, attend meetings
          • vtoNjudge; attend to (matters of government), conduct (government); supervise
          南面   nán miàn OC: noom mens MC: nəm miɛn 2 Attributions

          Nán miàn 南面, tīng zhèng 聽政, and the late jiàn zuò 踐祚 "ascend the throne and hold control" are polite ways of referring to the occupation of ruler's position by a legitimate incumbent.

          • VPiactgovern as king feudal lord; occasionally by extension: act in place of a king
          • VPibegin to govern as ruler
          為政   wéi zhèng OC: ɢʷal tjeŋs MC: ɦiɛ tɕiɛŋ 2 Attributions
          • VPiactconduct government; be in charge of the government (of a contextually determinate state)
          • VPt+prep+Nrun the administration of
          • VPifigurativeengage in government
          • NPabactgovenment
          至理   zhì lǐ OC: kljiɡs ɡ-rɯʔ MC: tɕi lɨ 2 Attributions
          • NPabstativegood government; perfect government
          • VPi0there was principled government
          刑名   xíng míng MC: heng mjieng OC: ɡeeŋ meŋ 2 Attributions
          • NPabactapplication of punishments and honorary titles
             sī OC: sqlɯ MC: sɨ 1 Attribution

          Sī 司 refers to administration on a scale below that of a state.

          • vtoNbe empowered by higher authorities to be in charge of (e.g. the war horses)
          • vtoNfigurativesort out
          • vtoNpsychgovern (oneself)
             shī OC: qhlji MC: ɕi 1 Attribution
          • vtoNgovern as a nominal head only
             zhēng OC: tɯŋ MC: ʈɨŋ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNadminister
             xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

          Xiàng 相 refers to senior roles in government bureaucracy other than those of the ruler.

          • vtoNbe in charge of, oversee (e.g. a state, or a clan/family)
             lì OC: ɡ-rub MC: lip 1 Attribution
          • viinchoativebe established as ruler[See also ESTABLISH][CA]
          • vicontinuativemiddle voice: be established as ruler
             gāng OC: kaaŋ MC: kɑŋ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNarchaic/poetic: govern, regulate, control
             zhí OC: kljɯɡ MC: tɕɨk 1 Attribution

          Zhí 職 refers specifically to official public duties that are part of one's public office.

          • vtoNto be in charge (of something)
             chǔ OC: khljaʔ MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
          • viactmanage; govern, administrate
          • vtoNsort out properly
             xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNrun, govern (an army, the world)
             shù OC: ɢljud MC: ʑʷit 1 Attribution

          Shù 術 refers to the "philosophical" and political art of statecraft.

          • nab.post-V{NUM}methodmethod of government, art of government, statecraft; political philosophy, philosophy of government; professional skill in government
          • nabmethod of government, art of government, professional skill in government
             lí OC: ɡ-rɯ MC: lɨ 1 Attribution
          • vtoNto govern; regulate
          政治   zhèng zhì OC: tjeŋs rlils MC: tɕiɛŋ ɖi 1 Attribution
          • NPabactgovernment
          治政   zhì zhèng OC: rlɯs tjeŋs MC: ɖɨ tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
          • NPabactconduct of government
          • VPiactconduct government
          經營   jīng yíng OC: keeŋ ɢʷleŋ MC: keŋ jiɛŋ 1 Attribution
          • VPtoNorganise
          經理   jīng lǐ OC: keeŋ ɡ-rɯʔ MC: keŋ lɨ 1 Attribution
          • VPtoNmanage, be in charge of
          集有   jí yǒu OC: sɡub ɢʷɯʔ MC: dzip ɦɨu 1 Attribution
          • VPtoNresultativeassemble under one's political control
          指使   zhǐ shǐ MC: tsyijX sriX OC: kjiʔ srɯʔ 1 Attribution
          • VPIorder about; be in charge of
          為國   wéi guó  MC: hjweH kwok  OC: ɢʷal kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
          • NPabactgoverning a state; the government of a state
             wén MC: mjun OC: mɯn 1 Attribution
          • vt(oN)take charge of a bureaucratic administration of the contextually determinate N
          政事   zhèng shì MC: tsyengH dzriH OC: tjeŋs dzrɯs 1 Attribution
          • NPabactadministration, administrative procedures
             yǐn OC: k-lunʔ MC: jʷin 0 Attributions
          • vtoNgovern; serve as leader of
          • v[adN]N=humadministrator
             zhuān OC: tjon MC: tɕiɛn 0 Attributions

          Zhuān 專 refers to the (often illegal or not entirely law-based) monopolising of power, and the word often has negative connotations.

          • viactmonopolise power
          • vt+prep+Nhave sole political control in N
          • vtoNhave the sole administrative control (in a state)
             shàng OC: djaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNbe administratively and bureaucratically in charge of (by imperial authority) 尚書"official in charge of documents"
             gàn OC: kaans MC: kɑn 0 Attributions
          • vtoNuse a stem for> manage
             gōng OC: kuuŋ MC: kuo̝ŋ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNHF 8.6.25: pursue one's political purposes, conduct government of
             qǐ OC: kheeʔ MC: khei 0 Attributions
          • vtoNgain political control of
             duī OC: tuul MC: tuo̝i 0 Attributions
          • vtoNoversee; direct
          殿   diàn OC: dɯɯns MC: den 0 Attributions
          • vtoNstrengthen the government of SHI
             dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNbe in charge of (punishments and like); take charge of, take responsibility for (duties that need to be performed)
             guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
          • vtoNbe in charge of
             xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNactenjoy (the benefits of ruling a state), enjoy the position of a ruler of
          刑政   xíng zhèng OC: ɡeeŋ tjeŋs MC: ɦeŋ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPabsociallegal system and government> public administration
          司牧   sī mù OC: sqlɯ mɯɡ MC: sɨ muk 0 Attributions
          • VPtoNgovern as a shepherd does his sheep
          國政   guó zhèng OC: kʷɯɯɡ tjeŋs MC: kək tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPadministrator of the state> chief administrator
          • NPabactadministration of the state
          執柄   zhí bìng OC: tjib pqraŋs MC: tɕip pɣaŋ 0 Attributions
          • VPiacthold the handles of government> be in political control
             shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 0 Attributions
          • VPtoNfirst gain political control of
          從政   cóng zhèng OC: dzoŋ tjeŋs MC: dzi̯oŋ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPabactthe conduct of government
          • VPiactconduct government, be in practical charge of government
          有事   yǒu shì OC: ɢʷɯʔ dzrɯs MC: ɦɨu ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
          • VPiofficiate, be in ceremonial charge
          當國   dāng guó OC: taaŋ kʷɯɯɡ MC: tɑŋ kək 0 Attributions
          • VPiacttake charge of the state
          當途 / 當塗   dāng tú OC: taaŋ laa MC: tɑŋ duo̝ dāng tú OC: taaŋ laa MC: tɑŋ duo̝ 0 Attributions
          • VP[adN]those who are in effective control
          • VPadNin local control; in charge
          • VPibe locally in charge
          當道   dāng dào OC: taaŋ ɡ-luuʔ MC: tɑŋ dɑu 0 Attributions
          • VPiactbe in political control
          知政   zhī zhèng OC: te tjeŋs MC: ʈiɛ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • VPiacttake personal charge of the affairs of government; take charge of (a business)
          聽政   tīng zhèng OC: theeŋ tjeŋs MC: theŋ tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • VPiactattend to government of one's state
          蒞政   lì zhèng OC: ɡ-rɯbs tjeŋs MC: li tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • VPiacttake charge of government
          踐阼   jiàn zuò OC: dzenʔ dzaaɡs MC: dziɛn dzuo̝ 0 Attributions
          • VPiactacend the throne
          軍政   jūn zhèng OC: kun tjeŋs MC: ki̯un tɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPabactproper military administration
          邦柄   bāng bìng OC: prooŋ pqraŋs MC: pɣɔŋ pɣaŋ 0 Attributions
          • NPabfigurativehandles of government of a state
              OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
          • vtoNgovern in a principled way
             píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 0 Attributions
          • vtoNsort out with proper administrative care
             zhí OC: dɯɡ MC: ɖɨk 0 Attributions
          • vtoNtake charge of, be in charge of; administer; accept responsibility for
              MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
          • VPIorder about; be in charge of

          Existing SW for

          Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: