DESTROY  消滅

DAMAGE something so as to CAUSE it to CEASE to EXIST.
DEMOLISHKNOCK DOWNLEVELRAZE (TO THE GROUND)FELLWRECKRUINSHATTERBLASTBLOW UPDYNAMITEEXPLODEBOMB
Taxonoymy

ATTACKBURNGRIND

Antonymy

ESTABLISHREPAIR

See also

BREAK OFF

Kind Of

DAMAGE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for destruction of any kind is huǐ 毀, and what is destroyed may anything from a toy or a house to a state.

2. Miè 滅 refers to the physical destruction of cities or states, and the word implies the use of external military force, and typically military resistance.

3. Pò 破 is always violent destruction of concrete objects of any kind.

4. Cán 殘 focusses on the reckless attitude shown by the destroyer.

5. Yāng 殃 focusses on the disaster constituted by destruction, and this word is used mostly nominally.

6. Suì 碎 focusses on complete smashing into small pieces of what is destroyed.

7. Huài 壞 and huī 墮 / 隳 are "to be destroyed, to collapse" but the words are also used transitively "cause to be destroyed, cause to collapse".

8. Wáng 亡 (ant. fù 復 "reestablish") refers to the political/social ruin of a state and does not focus on any form of physical annihilation or damage.

9. Bài 敗 and zéi 賊 are currently used for the destruction of abstract things such as dé 德 "virtue".

Modern Chinese Criteria

消滅 is perhaps the most general modern word for destroying.

毀滅 refers to complete destruction.

損壞 refers to destruction as impairment.

弄壞 is a mild word for ruining something.

破壞 refers to smashing and ruining something.

毀壞 focusses on the annihilation of what is ruined, (but may also just indicate damage).

覆亡 (of dynasties etc) refers to the demise of an institution.

破裂

摧殘

摧毀

損害

損壞

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 11.27

Comenius 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 449

ABOLERE, destruere, annihilare. Ab esse ad non esse deducere.

[See also CHANGE]

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien 1

abolere is to reduce to nothing, perhaps like mie4 滅, whereas

delere is only to ruin, reduce to ruins, make useless.

ABOLERE means to annul, to annihilate, and, as far as possible, to remove from the universe and cast into oblivion; but d e 1 e r e to destroy, to bring a thing to nought, and make it useless.

DESTROY

vastare refers to the laying waste, from rage or a policy to destroy the prperty of an enemy.

populari is to plunder for one's own profit on a large scale.

diripere is to plunder on a small scale.

spoliari is an act of plundering as part of open warfare.

expilare is to plunder in times of peace.

peculari is to plunder so as to take away large amounts of money from someone.

DESTROY

perdere refers to destruction by breaking to pieces or any other mode of destroying.

pessundare refers to destruction by sinking or any other mode of getting rid of.

evertere refers to destroying by digging up and tearing up what is fastened in the ground.

pervertere refers to destruction by punshing down what stands fast.

subvertere refers to destruction by secretly digging under, and withdrawing the basis.

DESTROY

destruere refers to destroying a temporary structure.

demoliri refers to destroying a solid permanent structure.

DESTRUCTION

pernicies refers to destruction of a living person by murder.

exitium refers to violent (passive) destruction even of lifeless objects by annihilation

interitus refers indifferently to the destruction of living or lifeless objects by general decay.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 137

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 152

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 107

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 250

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 617

亡,滅

1. WL claims that wa2ng 亡 cannot be used as a transitive verb. In fact, however, wa2ng 亡 is common as a causative verb "cause to be ruined". Wa2ng 亡 is quite commnon as a transitive vrb, but the same time it remains remarkable that suo3 wa2ng 所亡 "what is lost" does not seem to mean "what is destroyed", neither does wa2ng zhi1 亡之 come to mean "destroyed it".

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 302

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 92

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 222

殲滅

消滅

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 350

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.342:229

DEMOLIR.RASER.DEMATELER.DETRUIRE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.295.256

ANEANTIR.DETRUIRE

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 235

DESTRUCTION OF CITY

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 57B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 274
  • vi : 36
  • nab : 29
  • VPtoN : 26
  • vadN : 24
  • vpostadV : 5
  • VPi : 4
  • vtadN : 3
  • v[adN] : 3
  • NPab : 3
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • ntpost-N : 2
  • nab.t : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vi0 : 1
  • vtoN1.+VtoN2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 122
  • 春秋左傳 : 79
  • 戰國策 : 18
  • 說苑 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 17
  • 賢愚經 : 16
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
  • 呂氏春秋 : 14
  • 百喻經 : 14
  • 管子 : 11
  • 史記 : 9
  • 法句經 : 9
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 論語 : 8
  • 莊子 : 8
  • 荀子 : 7
  • 臨濟錄 : 6
  • 法集要頌經 : 6
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 六祖壇經 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   wáng OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 107 Attributions

Wáng 亡 (ant. fù 復 "reestablish") refers to the political/social ruin of a state and does not focus on any form of physical annihilation or damage.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}processruination, ruin (may be counted) 三亡
  • nabeventruination
  • v[adN]those doomed to destruction; that which is doomed to disappear
  • vadNfuturedoomed to ruin 亡國,亡主
  • vadNpassiveruined
  • vichangelose out; be ruined, be annihilated, be ruined
  • vigradedbe bound for ruin, doomed to be ruined 愈亡
  • vtoNcausative(cause to be ruined>) to ruin (a state or a ruler, one's peson)
  • vtoNcausativebring ruin upon (oneself)
  • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be ruined> destroy/ruin (oneself)
  • vtoNfigurativecause to disappear > destroy; remove (an object)
  • vtoNpassivebe destroyed by
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe bound to be ruined
  • vtoNmiddlevoiceevent: get destroyed; be ruined; get annihilated
   miè OC: med MC: miɛt 67 Attributions

Miè 滅 refers to the physical destruction of cities or states, and the word implies the use of external military force, and typically military resistance.

  • nabeventdestruction
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: cessation, extinction (as part of the four phases of birth, continuation, change, and extinction)
  • nabprocessdestruction, vanishingIn the BUDDH. context referring to the vanishing of dharmas
  • vadNdecimated, destroyed
  • vi0there will be destruction ???
  • vt(oN)destroy the contextually determinate N
  • vt+prep+Ndestroy
  • vtoNdestroy; annihilate; wipe out, obliterate (may occasionally take abstract objects)
  • vtoNcausativecause to have (one's own things) destroyed, have (one's own things) destroyed
  • vtoNfigurativedestroy
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe destroyed, be reduced to nothing
  • vtoNN=abstractdestroy (something abstract)
  • vtoNpassivebe destroyed, be eroded; be annihilated
  • vtoNreflexive.自destoy (oneself)
  • vadNdoomed to destruction, headed for destruction
   huài OC: ɡruuls MC: ɦɣɛi 30 Attributions

Huài 壞 and huī 墮/隳 are "to be destroyed, to collapse" but the words are also used transitively "cause to be destroyed, cause to collapse".

  • nabconceptdestruction
  • nabprocessdestruction
  • vt(oN)destroy the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNdestroy, smash; inflict serious damage on (physical objects), destroy (a state); ruin (the legal system); to do in (a person)
  • vtoNfigurativedestroy (abstract objects like virtues etc)
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe ruined and collapse; be made ineffective; get broken down; get smashed
  • vtoNfigurativebe ruined; collapse; be destroyed
   pò OC: phaals MC: phʷɑ 27 Attributions

Pò 破 is always violent destruction of concrete objects of any kind.

  • vadNruined
  • vpostadVdegreeV to the extant that N is destroyed (complement of degree/resultative complement) 打破
  • vt(oN)destroy the contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+Nfigurativedestroy
  • vtoNsmash to pieces; ruin;
  • vtoNfigurativedestroy > refute (a proposition)
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget destroyed, get smashed
   huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ 23 Attributions

The current general word for destruction of any kind is huǐ 毀, and what is destroyed may anything from a toy or a house to a state.

  • vtoNdestroy, ruin; smash; deliberately ruin (e.g. new trousers so they look old); sometimes metaphorical: maltreat (oneself)
  • vtoNfigurativedestroy > inactivate, destroy the effectiveness of
  • vtoNmiddle voicecollapse, be destroyed
  • vtoNreflexive.自destroy (oneself)
  • nabactdeliberate maltreatment (typically during the period of ritual mourning)
   cán OC: dzaan MC: dzɑn 20 Attributions

Cán 殘 focusses on the reckless attitude shown by the destroyer.

  • nab.tprocessdestruction of N
  • vadNgiven to destroying
  • vtoNdestroy recklessly or cruelly, rout completely; ruin, spoil (crops)
  • vtoNpassivebe destroyed
   bài OC: braads MC: bɣɛi 15 Attributions

Bài 敗 and zéi 賊 are currently used for the destruction of abstract things such as dé 德 "virtue".

  • nabpassivedestruction, ruin
  • vtoNfigurativeto ruin (also abstract things, e.g. the legal system)
  • vtoNpassivebe physically ruined, be wrecked, be destroyed
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget destroyed
   huī OC: qhlol MC: hiɛ 13 Attributions
  • vichangefall into complete decline, be destroyed; fall out (of hair)
  • vifigurativebe destroyed> come to nothing
  • vtoNcause to collapse> ruin and destroy; dismantle; ruin (a person)
  • vtoNfigurativebe destroyed > be refuted (a thesis, proposition)
   zéi OC: sɡɯɯɡ MC: dzək 11 Attributions
  • ntpost-Ndestroyer (with genitivus objectivus), villain against 國之賊也
  • vtoNruin, damage irrecoverably; pervert and ruin; inflict serious harm on
  • vtoNreflexive.自seriously impair (oneself)
  • vtadNN=objdamaged N; crippled N
   sàng OC: smaaŋs MC: sɑŋ 8 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause to be lost> destroy
  • vtoNfigurativecause to be ruined
  • vtoNreflexive.自destroy (oneself); cause one's own ruin
   yāng OC: qaŋ MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions

Yāng 殃 focusses on the disaster constituted by destruction, and this word is used mostly nominally.

  • vtoNbring disaster to, ruin
  • vtoNpassivebe destroyed; be damaged
  • vtoNreflexive.自destroy (oneself); cause one's own disaster
氓泯 / 泯    OC:  MC:  mín OC: min MC: min 6 Attributions
  • vtoNeliminate destroy
  • vtoNpassivebe destroyed, be eliminated
  • vtoNchangemiddle voice: be destroyed > vanish
   yí OC: li MC: ji 5 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativeflatten> destroy
  • vtoNcausativecause to become flat> flatten, destroy
   suì OC: squuds MC: suo̝i 4 Attributions

Suì 碎 focusses on complete smashing into small pieces of what is destroyed.

  • vtoN.+VDELETE
  • vtoNsmash to pieces
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget smashed to pieces
  • vtoN1.+VtoN2smash N1 with the effect/result of becoming N2
   huī OC: qhlol MC: hiɛ 4 Attributions

Huài 壞 and huī 墮/隳 are "to be destroyed, to collapse" but the words are also used transitively "cause to be destroyed, cause to collapse".

  • nabprocessdestruction
  • vtoNruin; smash
  • vtoNpassivecollapse, tumble down; be ruined (also of abstract things)
   cuò OC: skools MC: tsʷɑ 3 Attributions
  • viactto be destructive
  • vtoNdestroy (GY); attack and destroy
  • vtoNfigurative"break and crush" with the literary force of the brush
   tiǎn OC: ɡ-lɯɯnʔ MC: den 3 Attributions
  • vadV(act) destructively
  • vtoNdestroy completely and utterly
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget ruined
   xiāo OC: smew MC: siɛu 3 Attributions
  • vichangedisintegrate, dissolve
  • vtoNcausativecause to dissolve > disintegrate; use up; dissolve
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   fù OC: phuɡ MC: phuk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNdestroy
  • vtoNreflexive.自ruin yourself, destroy oneself
傾覆   qīng fù OC: khʷleŋ phuɡ MC: khiɛŋ phuk 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativeoverturn/destroy (a state)
  • VPtoNpassivebe toppled; get destroyed; get overturned
撲滅   pū miè OC: phooɡ med MC: phuk miɛt 3 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativebeat down so as to destroy
  • VPtoNpassivebe beaten down and destroyed
散壞   sàn huài OC: sqaans ɡruuls MC: sɑn ɦɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • NPabeventdisintegration and destruction
  • VPtoNmiddle voicebe scattered and destroyed
墜 / 隊   zhuì OC: ɡrluds MC: ɖi duì OC: ɡ-luuls MC: duo̝i 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcausative[CAUSE TO FALL AND BE DESTROYED>] destroy, have destroyed 隊其師 "have destroyed the army"
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 2 Attributions
  • vichangebe done for, be destroyed
   zhé OC: kljed MC: tɕiɛt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNeliminate
  • vtoNpassiveget broken and destroyed
   juān OC: ɢʷlen MC: jiɛn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNannihilate
   cuì OC: sɡuds MC: dzi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNmiddle voiceget worn out and ruined
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNdestroy
  • vtoNfigurativeanihilate and remove
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcause to discontinue> cut in two, destroy
毀壞   huǐ huài OC: qhʷralʔ ɡruuls MC: hiɛ ɦɣɛi 2 Attributions
  • NPabprocessdestruction, process of decline and disintegration
  • VPtoNfigurativedestroy> make ineffective; offend against
  • VPtoNresultativedestroyed
隙穴   xì xué OC: khaɡ ɢʷliiɡ MC: khɣɛk ɦet 2 Attributions
  • VPadNdestructive, subversive
  • VPibe desstructive and subversive
   kuì  MC: hwojH  OC: ɡluuds  2 Attributions
  • vtoNbreak through (the siege)
   tián OC: diin MC: den 1 Attribution
  • vtoNannihilate, kill off completely HYDCD: 12. 滅絕,參見填4服。
   píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdestroy completely, level completely with the gound
推 / 推   tuī OC: kh-luul MC: thuo̝i chuī OC: khljul MC: tɕhi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpush over> knock over, destroy
   yì OC: laɡ MC: jiɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassiveSHU: get destroyed
   miè OC: meed MC: met 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdestroy
   dàng OC: ɡ-laaŋʔ MC: dɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause to collapse; overthrow
   bó OC: bɯɯɡ MC: bək 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativecause to stumble> ruin
   yà OC: qriiɡ MC: ʔɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcrush, run over
令滅   lìng miè OC: ɡ-reŋs med MC: liɛŋ miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe deliberately destroyed
壞隳   huài huī OC: ɡruuls qhlol MC: ɦɣɛi hiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdestruction of any kind
打破   dǎ pò OC: rtaaŋʔ phaals MC: tɣaŋ phʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeto break by hitting, to destroy, to smash, break to pieces
禽滅 / 擒滅   qín miè OC: ɡrɯm med MC: gim miɛt qín miè OC: ɡrɯm med MC: gim miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativecapture so as to reduce to nothing
擊毀   jī huǐ OC: keeɡ qhʷralʔ MC: kek hiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeknock to pieces
擊滅   jī miè OC: keeɡ med MC: kek miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeattack so as to destroy
敗壞   bài huài OC: praads ɡruuls MC: pɣɛi ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativedestroy
殘亡   cán wáng OC: dzaan maŋ MC: dzɑn mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe destroyed and disappear: be utterly destroyed, be completely destroyed
毀折   huǐ zhé OC: qhʷralʔ kljed MC: hiɛ tɕiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNmiddle voiceget destroyed or maimed
滅亡   miè wáng OC: med maŋ MC: miɛt mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPipassivebe ruined, get destroyed
滅盡   miè jìn OC: med dzinʔ MC: miɛt dzin 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativedestroy completely
滅覆   miè fù OC: med phuɡ MC: miɛt phuk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassivebe destroyed so as to be completely overturned
烹滅   pēng miè OC: pqhraaŋ med MC: phɣaŋ miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeboil away so as to annihilate
燬滅   huǐ miè OC: qhʷralʔ med MC: hiɛ miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativeburn down so as to destroy completely
破壞   pò huài OC: phaals ɡruuls MC: phʷɑ ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPabpassivedestruction
  • VPimiddle voiceget completely destroyed
  • VPtoNfigurativedestroy
破毀   pò huǐ OC: phaals qhʷralʔ MC: phʷɑ hiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpassiveget completely destroyed
碎為   suì wéi OC: squuds ɢʷal MC: suo̝i ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativebe smashed so as to become
磨滅   mó miè OC: maal med MC: mʷɑ miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPimiddle voicebe destroyed
自喪   zì sāng OC: sblids smaaŋ MC: dzi sɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactself-destruction
衰滅   shuāi miè OC: srul med MC: ʂi miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNmiddle voiceget destroyed
誅滅   zhū miè OC: to med MC: ʈi̯o miɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativepunish severely so as to destroy
   yǔn  MC: hwinX  OC: ɢunʔ  1 Attribution
  • vtoNdamage heavily
   cuī OC: sɡluul MC: dzuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vimiddle voicebe destroyed, collapse
   dān OC: taan MC: tɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdestroy
   mín OC: min MC: min 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdestroy
   huǐ OC: qhʷralʔ MC: hiɛ 0 Attributions
  • viactdestroy things, do serious harm to things
   zhōng OC: tjuŋ MC: tɕuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNOBI: put an end to, destroy
   huò OC: qhʷaad MC: hʷɑt 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbreak, crack
   tuí OC: ɡ-luul MC: duo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vtoNtear down (a wall)
剖破   pōu pò OC: phɯʔ phaals MC: phu phʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativecut to pieces
消去   xiāo qù OC: smew khaʔ MC: siɛu khi̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    消奪   xiāo duó OC: smew dood MC: siɛu dʷɑt 0 Attributions
    • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
    消滅   xiāo miè OC: smew med MC: siɛu miɛt 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNmiddle voiceget destroyed
    照破   zhào pò OC: kljews phaals MC: tɕiɛu phʷɑ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNresultativedestroy by shining light on
    盡壞   jìn huài OC: dzinʔ ɡruuls MC: dzin ɦɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • NPabeventdestruction, annihilation
    破殘   pò cán OC: phaals dzaan MC: phʷɑ dzɑn 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNutterly destroy
    絕滅   jué miè OC: dzod med MC: dziɛt miɛt 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNresultativeuproot so as to destroy
    蕩覆   dàng fù OC: ɡ-laaŋʔ phuɡ MC: dɑŋ phuk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNfigurativeoverturn (a state)
    齏粉   jī fěn OC: pɯnʔ MC: tsei pi̯un 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpassivebe destroyed

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: