ARISE  產生

The EVENT that something BEGINS to EXIST.
COME TO LIGHTBECOME APPARENTAPPEAREMERGECROP UPTURN UPSURFACESPRING UPOCCUR
Taxonoymy

HAPPEN

Antonymy

STOP

See also

BEGIN

Kind Of

EVENT

Old Chinese Criteria

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE]

[INCHOACTIVE/PERFECTIVE]

1. The most current general word for something arising is probably qǐ 起 (ant. zhǐ 止 "cease to exist").

[GENERAL]

2. Méng 萌 is inchoative and refers to the initial stage of arising.

[INCHOATIVE]

3. Shēng 生 (ant. miè 滅 "be extinguished (as dinosaurs)") refers to the coming into existence of something which did not previously exist.

[PERFECTIVE]

4. Xīng 興 (ant. xí 息 "cease to be virulent") and fā 發 refer to something moving from an "incubatory" state to a state of manifest "virulence" and full development.

[HIGH-DEGREE], [PERFECTIVE]

5. Chū 出 (NB: rù 入 cannot be used as an antonym for this meaning.) refers to something that pre-exists emerging or moving from an initial state of hiddenness or non-obviousness to a state of manifest visibility (in analogy with the basic meaning of the word "to come out").

[SPECIFIC]

6. Zuò 作 (ant.* xiē 歇 "cease to exist, cease to be active, cease to happen") typically refers to something happening or arising for the first time, but the word can also refer to the emergence of persons like sages.

[ORIGINAL], [SPECIFIC]

NB: This group needs to be viewed together with BEGIN, and the line between the two is by no means always clear.

Modern Chinese Criteria

發生

產生

發出

生出

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. Some verbs are inchoative (méng 萌 "begin to arise", qǐ 起 ) others are perfective (chū 出, shēng 生 "come into existence", zuò 作, xīng 興 ).

2. Some verbs describe the emergence or origination of something for the first time (chū 出, méng 萌, shēng 生 ), others describe indifferently the emergence or re-emergence of something (qǐ 起, zuò 作, xīng 興 ).

3. Some verbs refer to the emergence of a concrete event or type of event (qǐ 起, zuò 作, zhì 至, xīng 興, shī 失 ), others refer to the coming into existence of anything abstract or concrete (chū 出, shēng 生 ).

4. Some verbs only refer to the eruption of a process (fā 發 ), the others refer indifferently to processes, events, persons, or things. jiang

DOEDERLEIN 1826-32 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.417

URSPRUNG

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae B 29

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 119
  • vt+prep+N : 34
  • vtoN : 22
  • vt0oN{SUBJ} : 8
  • VPi : 8
  • nab : 6
  • vi : 5
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • nab{PRED} : 1
  • nt : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 49
  • 說苑 : 19
  • 春秋左傳 : 16
  • 孟子 : 14
  • 荀子 : 9
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 9
  • 論語 : 8
  • 墨子 : 6
  • 管子 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 6
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 六祖壇經 : 5
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 孝經 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 山海經 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 笑林一卷 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 58 Attributions

Shēng 生 (ant. miè 滅 "be extinguished (as dinosaurs)") refers to the coming into existence of something which did not previously exist. [PERFECTIVE]

  • nsubjectthing that has originated
  • nabprocessemergence, arising
  • vadNthat has arisen, that has materialised; that is arising; (of moon) that begins to wax
  • viperfectiveoriginate; come to emerge; be naturally found in (of inanimate subjects), occur naturally in
  • vt+prep+Npassive?arise from 生於
  • vt+prep+NPab{S}arise from S being the case
  • vt0oN{SUBJ}changearise; appear 生民; come to birth (with postposed subject)
  • vt prep Nmiddle voicebe produced> arise from; arise therefrom
  • vtoNcausativecause to come into existence, cause to exist
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 32 Attributions

The most current general word for something arising is probably qǐ 起 (ant. zhǐ 止 "cease to exist"). [GENERAL]

  • vichangearise
  • vt+prep+Narise from 起於
  • vt+prep+Ncausativegive rise to, cause to arise in yourself
  • vtoNcausativecause to arise> allow to arise, give rise to, generate
  • nab{PRED}processemergence
  • vtoNarise from N
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 22 Attributions

Zuò 作 (ant.* xiē 歇 "cease to exist, cease to be active, cease to happen") typically refers to something happening or arising for the first time, but the word can also refer to the emergence of persons like sages. [ORIGINAL], [SPECIFIC] Zuò 作 (ant.* xiē 歇 "cease to exist, cease to be active, cease to happen") typically refers to something happening or arising for the first time, but the word can also refer to the emergence of persons like sages. [ORIGINAL], [SPECIFIC] Zuò 作 (ant.* xiē 歇 "cease to exist, cease to be active, cease to happen") typically refers to something happening or arising for the first time, but the word can also refer to the emergence of persons like sages. [ORIGINAL], [SPECIFIC]

  • vicome into being for the first time, make one's appearance, appear on the scene
  • vtoNpassivearise from
  • vtoNcausativemake something emerge, provoke something
  • nabprocessthe coming into existence; origin
  • vt+prep+NN=placeto arise in/at N
   chū OC: khljud MC: tɕhʷit 20 Attributions

Chū 出 (NB: rù 入cannot be used as an antonym for this meaning.) refers to something that pre-exists emerging or moving from an initial state of hiddenness or non-obviousness to a state of manifest visibility (in analogy with the basic meaning of the word "to come out"). [SPECIFIC]

  • ntsubjectwhat arises (from something else)
  • vichangecome into existence
  • vimiddle voiceget produced emerge; arise; originate
  • vt+prep+Nobject=sourcearise (from something or somebody); proceed (from something or somebody); take (something) as one's point of departure
  • vtoNemerge from, originate from
  • nabprocessorigin
  • vt prep Nemerge from N
   zhì OC: kljiɡs MC: tɕi 17 Attributions
  • nabeventoccurrence
  • viprocessoccur, take place 大風至
   méng OC: mreeŋ MC: mɣɛŋ 10 Attributions

Méng 萌 is inchoative and refers to the initial stage of arising. [INCHOATIVE]

  • nabmetaphysicalsubtle beginnings, incipient signs of things to come
  • vichangebegin to arise, come into existence 未萌
  • vtoNarise from ZZ 所萌
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 9 Attributions

Xīng 興 (ant. xí 息 "cease to be virulent") and fā 發 refer to something moving from an "incubatory" state to a state of manifest "virulence" and full development. [HIGH-DEGREE], [PERFECTIVE]

  • vi(of disease) break out, become virulent; come out into the open
  • vichangeerupt into action, develop; erupt, emerge; develop one's skills
  • vt prep Narise in N; arise from N
   xīng OC: qhɯŋ MC: hɨŋ 8 Attributions

Xīng 興 (ant. xí 息 "cease to be virulent") and fā 發 refer to something moving from an "incubatory" state to a state of manifest "virulence" and full development. [HIGH-DEGREE], [PERFECTIVE]

  • viprocessarise; emerge
  • vtoNcausativecause to arise
   lái OC: m-rɯɯ MC: ləi 6 Attributions
  • viprocesscome to pass, arise
  • nabeventarising, occurrence
出現   chū xiàn OC: khljud ɡeens MC: tɕhʷit ɦen 3 Attributions
  • VPichangecome forth and show itself > appear
  • VPt+prep+Nemerge and become visible > show oneself in, emerge in, appear in (also: be born into)
   shǐ OC: lʰɯʔ MC: ɕɨ 2 Attributions
  • viprocessfirst arise
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativeCAUSE TO HAPPEN> produce; lead to
   chǎn OC: sqreenʔ MC: ʂɣɛn 2 Attributions
  • vibe produced> arise 亂之所以產
興起   xīng qǐ OC: qhɯŋ khɯʔ MC: hɨŋ khɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPichangeappear in abundance; arise fully, achieve its full development
   dào OC: k-laaws MC: tɑu 1 Attribution
  • viarise
   shēng OC: qhljɯŋ MC: ɕɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vichangearise
   shī OC: lʰiɡ MC: ɕit 1 Attribution
  • vt0oN{SUBJ}eventoccasionally, with postposed subject: come about: 失火 "fire breaks out"
   gòu OC: koos MC: ku 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassivebe made; be created > ensue, arise
   jié OC: kiid MC: ket 1 Attribution
  • viprocesstake shape, arise
   xí OC: zɯb MC: zip 1 Attribution
  • vichangeto arise occasionally and pass away rapidly;
內生   nèi shēng OC: nuubs sraaŋ MC: nuo̝i ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiprocessarise in the mind
生起   shēng qǐ OC: sraaŋ khɯʔ MC: ʂɣaŋ khɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiarise
發中   fā zhōng OC: pod krluŋ MC: pi̯ɐt ʈuŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiarise on the inside
發生   fā shēng OC: pod sraaŋ MC: pi̯ɐt ʂɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPichangearise, come into existence
萌興   méng xīng OC: mreeŋ qhɯŋ MC: mɣɛŋ hɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiprocesscome to arise and flourish
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • vieventcome to exist
  • viprocessturn up
   dòng OC: dooŋʔ MC: duŋ 1 Attribution
  • viprocessarise, start occurring
發起   fā qǐ OC: pod khɯʔ MC: pi̯ɐt khɨ 0 Attributions
  • NPabarising, setting in motion
萌生   méng shēng OC: mreeŋ sraaŋ MC: mɣɛŋ ʂɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPieventarise

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: