STOP  停止

ACT so as NOT to CONTINUE NOW:present ACTION.
CEASEDISCONTINUEDESIST FROMBREAK OFFGIVE UPABANDONABSTAIN FROMCUT OUTINFORMAL QUITLEAVE OFFKNOCK OFFPACK INLAY OFFGIVE OVER.PUT AN END/STOP/HALT TOBRING TO AN END/STOP/HALT/CLOSE/STANDSTILLENDHALTFINISHTERMINATEDISCONTINUECUT SHORTINTERRUPTNIP IN THE BUDDEACTIVATESHUT DOWN
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard current word for ceasing in an activity is zhǐ 止 (ant. xíng 行 "carry on with"), and this word can to any concrete or abstract activity; the ceasing may be final or temporary.

2. Definitive discontinuation, often of inanimate processes, is yǐ 已 (ant. zuò 作 "break into action"). See FINISH.

3. Bà 罷 is to deliberately discontinue a course of action one is embarked on, particularly a military action.

4. Ceasing in a human activity, for a while, is xí 息 and the somewhat rarer xiū 休 (all ant. zuò 作 "break into action").

5. Jué 絕 (ant. jì 繼 "continue") is to disrupt one's current (human) activity, and fèi 廢 (ant. qín 勤 "continue to make a serioues effort") is to discontinue such an acitivity permanently.

6. Shě 舍 (often negated) is to relent in a certain activity.

7. Chuò 輟 (ant.* láo 勞 "put in a continued honest effort") is temporary discontinuation of human action.

8. Zhì 滯 can be used to refer to the involuntary discontinuation in an activity.

9. Xiē1 歇 refers to the discontinuation of a process (like that of worrying).

Modern Chinese Criteria

停止

使停止

阻礙

止步

滯留

終止

逗留

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 14.28

  • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 23

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 140

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p.

  • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 110

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.124.89

    FINIR.CESSER.DISCONTINUER

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.351

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 136
  • vi : 114
  • vt(+V[0]) : 17
  • vt+V[0] : 15
  • vadN : 6
  • vt(oN) : 5
  • vpostadV : 5
  • vadV : 4
  • VPtoN : 3
  • vi(0) : 2
  • vttoN.+VtoS : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 1
  • vipost-vt{NEG}.postadV : 1
  • vtoNPab{S} : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vtoNab : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 89
  • 春秋左傳 : 41
  • 臨濟錄 : 18
  • 戰國策 : 17
  • 呂氏春秋 : 16
  • 荀子 : 15
  • 論語 : 11
  • 祖堂集 : 11
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 史記 : 9
  • 賢愚經 : 8
  • 管子 : 7
  • 百喻經 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 法句經 : 6
  • 論衡 : 5
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 文子 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 典論一卷 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1

Words

   zhǐ OC: kljɯʔ MC: tɕɨ 76 Attributions

The standard current word for ceasing in an activity is zhǐ 止 (ant. xíng 行 "carry on with"), and this word can to any concrete or abstract activity; the ceasing may be final or temporary.

  • nabactdesisting; ceasing to do what one was doing
  • viactstop walking or running
  • vichangestop, fail to go on doing what one was doing; desist MOVE THESE TO THE NEXT LEXEME ENTRY
  • viactdesist, not go or get through with a planned action; stop one's habitual action
  • viinchoativeget bogged down
  • vt(+V[0])desist from doing what one was going to do
  • vt(oN)stop a contextually determinate person
  • vt(oN)N=humanstop a contextually determinate person
  • vt(oN)N=nonrefstop the contextually determinate object (in good time)
  • vtoNcausativecause to stop; put a stop to
  • vtoNcausativecause to desist from an intended course of action
  • vtoNcausativeget to cease;
  • vtoNcausativecause to stop up in the process of walking, bring to a halt
  • vtoNcausativemiddle voice/passive: be stopped
  • vtoNreflexive.自stop (oneself)
  • vt(oN)deriveddecide not to do what one was going to do
  • vtoNpassivebe stopped
  • vttoN.+VtoSconativetry to stop somebody by saying S
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 41 Attributions

Jué 絕 (ant. jì 繼 "continue") is to disrupt one's current (human) activity, and fèi 廢 (ant. qín 勤 "continue to make a serioues effort") is to discontinue such an acitivity permanently.

  • vadNpassivediscontinued, broken off
  • viprocesscease; be cut short
  • vt+V[0]stop (the current practice of) V-ing
  • vtoNcausativecause to be discontinued, discontinue, cut off; put a stop to
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe discontinued, be broken off
  • vtoNpassivebe broken off by
  • vtoNreflexive.自put an end to (oneself)
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2omcut off the contextually determinate N1 from from N2, keep the determinate N1 away from N2
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 30 Attributions

Definitive discontinuation, often of inanimate processes, is yǐ 已 (ant. zuò 作 "break into action"). See FINISH.

  • vadNof stopping (time etc)
  • vi(0)that is the end of the matter (as in 而已)
  • viactdesist, give it a break; stop at a certain point, leave it at that, leave things as they are and do nothing about them
  • visubj=nonhumantypically of situations and conditions: stop, cease, finish
  • vtoNcausativeput a stop to
   chuò OC: krlod MC: ʈiɛt 17 Attributions

Chuò 輟 (ant.* láo 勞 "put in a continued honest effort") is temporary discontinuation of human action.

  • vt(+V[0])stop doing what one is doing
  • vt+V[0]stop (doing something) 輟行 "stop walking"
  • vtoNdiscontinue, cease (a military campaign)
   bà OC: breelʔ MC: bɣɛ 15 Attributions

Bà 罷 is to deliberately discontinue a course of action one is embarked on, particularly a military action.

  • viactcease, cease to operate; desist; relax specifically: relent at (a place)
  • viperfectivecease, come to an end
  • vtoNstop at, encamp at
  • vtoNcausativecause to cease (military action); relieve ( a siege); discontinue; abolish (a monopoly)
  • vtoNfinish, discontinue (a hunt etc)
   xiū OC: qhu MC: hɨu 14 Attributions

Ceasing in a human activity, for a while, is xí 息 and the somewhat rarer xiū 休 (all ant. zuò 作 "break into action").

  • vadN(time) when one stops
  • viactdesist, cease; stop going on
  • vtoNcausativeget to stop; put an end to
  • vtoNreflexive.自stop oneself
   duàn OC: doonʔ MC: dʷɑn 14 Attributions
  • viactinterrupt oneself in doing what one is doing
  • vt+V[0]stop V-ing
  • vtoNstop; put a stop to
  • vtoNfigurativecut oneself of from, desist from; abstain from
  • vtoNfigurativebe cut off (with abstract nouns)
   jìn OC: krɯms MC: kim 12 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]prevent (V-ing), stop (V-ing) by others
  • vtoNprevent
  • vtoNpassivebe prevented, be stopped
  • vtoNPab{S}prevent NP-ing
   xī OC: sqlɯɡ MC: sɨk 11 Attributions

Ceasing in a human activity, for a while, is xí 息 and the somewhat rarer xiū 休 (all ant. zuò 作 "break into action").

  • viactstop an activity; be inactive, be non-functional, cease to function, cease to be practised (e.g. the law)
  • vtoNput a stop to
  • vtoNcausativeput to rest > cause to cease, stop
  • vtoNcausativecause to rest 可息"can be made to cease"
   mǐ OC: meʔ MC: miɛ 9 Attributions
  • vtoNput an end to; stop; reduce radically
  • vtoNpassivebe stopped
  • vtoNreflexive.自cause (oneself) to stop
   fèi OC: pods MC: pi̯ɐi 8 Attributions
  • viactgive up, cease
  • vt(+V[0])cease (V-ing)
  • vt+V[0]cease to do; stop to do something, abandon an aktivity
   xiē OC: qhad MC: hi̯ɐt 7 Attributions

Xiē1 歇 refers to the discontinuation of a process (like that of worrying).

  • viprocesscease, come to a stop (of abstract activities)
  • vt(oN)causativecause to cease / rest > stop, bring to a rest
  • vtoNcausativecause to cease > stop; put to rest
   shě OC: lʰaʔ MC: ɕɣɛ 7 Attributions
  • viactdesist, give up one's ways, give up one's efforts
  • vtoNgive up on (an activity one is egaged in)
   zhù OC: tos MC: ʈi̯o 5 Attributions
  • vpostadVverbal complement indicating the stopping or "freezing" of a movement or action
  • vtoNpost-Han: stop, desist
   tíng OC: deeŋ MC: deŋ 5 Attributions
  • vadNTYM: stopping> hovering (of clouds)
  • viZZ 190: be at rest (as still water); stop and rest for a while, come to a stop
  • vipost-vt{NEG}.postadVstop
  • vtoNcausativecause to stop> bring to a halt, stop
  • vtoNcolloquialcause to stop and rest > contain, accept ??
  • vtoNN=placestop at
   qǐn OC: skhimʔ MC: tshim 5 Attributions
  • vtoNstop (arms/warfare)
   jì OC: kɯds MC: kɨi 4 Attributions
  • vadVafter having; having finished; in absolute usage: after a while
   jì OC: tsiils MC: tsei 4 Attributions
  • vichangeabate or stop (of wind); clear away (of rain or clouds)
  • vifigurativeHANSHU: abate (of anger)
   bù OC: pɯʔ MC: pi̯ut 3 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]cease to V; start not to V
   yǎn OC: qanʔ MC: ʔi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • vtoNstop (warfare), lay down (weapons)
   què OC: khaɡ MC: khi̯ɐk 3 Attributions
  • viacthalt, stop
  • vtoNcausativecause to stop
  • vttoN.+V[0]prevent N from V-ing (with obligatory cumulative negation, as common in French)
   jiě OC: kreeʔ MC: kɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • vichangediscontinue, cease
  • vtoNdiscontinue
  • vtoNcausativecause to stop
   è OC: qaad MC: ʔɑt 3 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]stop V-ing
  • vtoNabstop the Nab-ing
  • vtoNpassivebe stopped
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcause to stay put> hold back, stop (army)
   bì OC: pid MC: pit 2 Attributions
  • vicome to an end, finish with what one is doing
   dùn MC: twonH OC: tuuns 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpassive: be stopped, be hindered
  • vtoNstop, restrain
   ní OC: nil MC: ɳi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativeto obstruct (somebody); to make (somebody) to stop
   yì OC: ŋads MC: ŋi̯ɐi 1 Attribution
  • vichangecome to an end
   bì OC: pid MC: pit 1 Attribution
  • viactstop up as one is walking
  • vtoNiussiveorder passers-by to stop
   cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNrefuse access
   zhù OC: tos MC: ʈi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativestop, cease to move
抽身   chōu shēn OC: rlʰiw qhjin MC: ʈhɨu ɕin 1 Attribution
  • VPito cease one's activity, leave (one's work), retire
撫止   fǔ zhǐ OC: mʰaʔ kljɯʔ MC: phi̯o tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativetouch (someone's) arm so as to stop him in what he is doing
止泊   zhǐ bó OC: kljɯʔ blaaɡ MC: tɕɨ bɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPadNstop and anchor > stopping in order to settle
  • VPiactstop in order to settle
絕息   jué xī OC: dzod sqlɯɡ MC: dziɛt sɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativedisrupt so as to put a stop to
遏折   è shé OC: qaad ɡljed MC: ʔɑt dʑiɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自stop oneself from doing what one is about to do
   dìng OC: deeŋs MC: deŋ 1 Attribution
  • vistop
屯 / 屯   zhūn OC: tun MC: ʈʷin tún OC: duun MC: duo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vtoNstop (soldiers, horses etc, often for the night);
   bó OC: blaaɡ MC: bɑk 0 Attributions
  • viactpost-Han: SANGUOZHI: stop on a boatride, moor
   zhì OC: dads MC: ɖiɛi 0 Attributions

Zhì 滯 can be used to refer to the involuntary discontinuation in an activity.

    斷絕   duàn jué OC: doonʔ dzod MC: dʷɑn dziɛt 0 Attributions
    • VPieventcease
    酒闌   jiǔ lán OC: skluʔ ɡ-raan MC: tsɨu lɑn 0 Attributions
    • VPiactthe wine runs out
    駐足   zhù zú OC: tos tsoɡ MC: ʈi̯o tsi̯ok 0 Attributions
    • VPiactstop walking
       ān OC: qaan MC: ʔɑn 0 Attributions
    • vtoNorder to stop; stop; order to remain in one place 安兵
       lì OC: ɡ-rub MC: lip 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpost-Buddhist: stop, get to cease, bring to a standstill
       qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 0 Attributions
    • viactcease doing what one has been doing
       huán OC: ɡʷraan MC: ɦɣan 0 Attributions
    • vistop, cease
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNbe stopped, be hindered

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: