ACT  行為

MOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision.
BEHAVE
Old Chinese Criteria

[AD-HOC/SYSTEMATIC]

[AIMLESS/PURPOSEFUL]

[ARTIFICIAL/NATURAL]

[BASE/NOBLE]

[BASIC/MARGINAL]

[COMMENDATORY/DEROGATORY]

[CONATIVE/PERFECTIVE]

[DELIBERATE/INVOLUNTARY]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[HABITUAL/OCCASIONAL]

[HUMBLE/NOBLE]

[PHYSICAL/MENTAL]

[PRESCRIBED/SPONTANEOUS]

[PRIVATE/PUBLIC]

[RESPONSIBLE/UNACCOUNTABLE]

1. The current general word for any deliberate behaviour one may be held morally and/or administratively responsible for is xíng 行 (ant. zhǐ 止 "decide not to take action"), and this conduct is typically one engaged in on someone else's behalf.

[COMMENDATORY!], [GENERAL], [HABITUAL], [PHYSICAL], [RESPONSIBLE]

2. Wéi 為 (ant. wú wéi 無為 "not engage in purposeful and result-orientated self-assertive action") focusses not on the act itself but primarily on the results achieved or aimed for.

[OCCASIONAL], [PURPOSEFUL]

3. Jū 居, when used in this meaning, focusses not on the results of one's actions, or on the effect of one's actions on others, but on the moral character of one's behaviour as such.

[HABITUAL], [RESPONSIBLE], [SYSTEMATIC]

4. Shì 事 (ant.* xián 閒 "take it easy") primarily focusses on action as part of the fulfilment of a duty imposed by one's station in life or a task one has set oneself.

[PRESCRIBED], [PUBLIC!], [RESPONSIBLE]

5. Gōng 躬 (ant.* shǐ rén 使人 "get others to...") focusses on a person of considerable social status engaging personally in a (typically public) action. See SELF.

[MARGINAL], [NOBLE], [OCCASIONAL], [PUBLIC!]

6. Wěi 偽 (ant. tiān 天 "natural") refers to artificial or faked human action. See PRETEND.

[ARTIFICIAL], [DEROGATORY!]

7. Dòng 動 (ant. jìng 靜 "decide to remain inactive") typically refers to spontaneous purposeful action and focusses almost philosophically on the autonomous decision of the agent to act.

[OCCASIONAL], [DELIBERATE]

8. Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "fail to take the initiative, fail to become active") refers to the taking of an initiative for an action which would not have occurred without such a deliberate initiative, and the word is naturally associated with the notion of creativity.

SPONTANEOUS, OCCASIONAL, PERFECTIVE

9. Jǔ 舉 refers specifically to the undertaking of a well-considered major act, particularly as part of a political strategy.

[DELIBERATE], [PURPOSEFUL], [RESPONSIBLE]

NB: Fēng 風 refers rather generally and abstractly to a person's or a group's way or pattern of behaviour, and the word is usually used as a noun. See CUSTOM

10. Jiā 加 typically refers to action insofar as it affects others.

11. Xí 習 refers to the habitual repeated practice of something in order to achieve proficiency in the kind of action concerned.

Modern Chinese Criteria

作 is the standard modern word for any action.

辦 refers to deliberate strategic action.

幹 is the standard colloquial word for any action.

搞 is a very informal colloquial way of referring to any action.

弄 refers to action affecting things.

鬧 refers to typically unacceptable actions.

為 (lit) refers neutrally to actions, especially those one is particularly responsible for.

動手 focusses on taking an initiative in action.

下手 focusses on making a concrete beginning towards an action.

施行 refers to action as the realisation of a plan.

行為 is the standard noun for action as behaviour.

行止 (lit) is a more formal noun referring to demeanour and conduct.

作為 is currently used as a noun referring to typically successful patterns of action.

行事 (lit) refers to the conduct of affairs.

表現 refers specifically to one's appearance as created through behaviour.

行 (lit, obs) is a very literary monosylabic noun that can refer to human conduct.

所作所為 refers in a current but literary style to the patterns of (typically reprehensible) conduct of a person.

舉動

動作

行動

乘機而動

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The general term for action that humans are conceived as morally responsible for is xíng 行. The other common words jǔ 舉 and wéi 為 focus not on the moral quality of what is done but on the result.

2. Some action words refer predominantly to commendable actions (xíng 行 ), others predominantly in a derogatory way to misdeeds (zuò 作 (but NB that when zuò 作 means "create" the word has no negative connotations)).

3. Some action words refer to official activities that are part of one's regular standard duties (cóng 從, zhī 知 ), others refer predominantly to special tasks and specific official activities undertaken in this connection (shì 事 ); others are neutral in this respect (wéi 為 ).

4. Some actions are construed as being based on the actor's own intitiative (dòng 動 ) or artifice (wěi 偽 ).

5. Some action words focus on the immediate personal involvement of the actor who is not delegating the execution of an act to others (gōng 躬 ).

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.11

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 26

AGENCY

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 988

PRAXIS

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 452©©

Actio

est rei motus explicantis vim suam. Reqv.

1. Agens; et in agente Posse, Scire, Velle.

2. Agibile

3. Copula utriusque.

...

Sive Actionis gradus sunt 1. Deliberatio. 2. Decretum. 3. Exseqvutio.

Modi: Actio ex fine est seria vel ludicra.

458

AGERE, est vires in aliquid exserere. Concurrunt 1. Agens. 2. Agibile, seu Actum. 3. Actorium seu Instrumentum. Agentis reqvisita tria. Posse, Velle, Scire. Agere 1) nihil: vacare, otiari; 2) in seipsum, cohibendo seipsum; 3) opus, dicitur Facere.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ACT

agere is generally to act, typically in one's own interest.

gerere is to act on someone else's behalf.

facere is to make a physical object.

opus is the product of the creation of an object.

LW

facio, facere, additional, forms V 9 3 [XXXBX]

do, make; create; acquire; cause, bring about, fashion; compose; accomplish;

como, comere, compsi, comptus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXCO]

arrange/do (hair); adorn, make beautiful; embellish; arrange in order, set out;

como, comere, comsi, comtus V 3 1 TRANS [XXXCS]

arrange/do (hair); adorn, make beautiful; embellish; arrange in order, set out;

facesso, facessere, facessi, facessitus V 3 1 [XXXCX]

do; perpetrate; go away;

effectrix, effectricis N 3 1 F [XXXDO]

author (feminine), originator, she who creates/causes/effects; maker (Ecc); doe

ACTION

actio, actionis N 3 1 F [XXXAO]

act, action, activity, deed; incident;, plot (play); legal process, suit; plea;

actus, actus N 4 1 M [XDXBO]

act, performance (of play), delivery; action, deed; series/sequence; progress;

actum, acti N 2 2 N [XLXBO]

act, deed, transaction; acts (pl.), exploits; chronicles, (official) record;

factum, facti N 2 2 N [XXXCX]

fact, deed, act; achievement;

conversor, conversari, conversatus sum V 1 1 DEP [XXXCO]

consort/associate (with); be constant visitor (to); conduct oneself, behave/act;

acroama, acroamatis N 3 2 N [XXXDL]

entertainment at table/reading/music, act; reader, actor, singer, clown;

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 4

LALANDE 2002 Vocabulaire technique et critique de la philosophie 16; 19

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ACTIO

FACTUM

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 98

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 151

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.83

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.129

AKTION, PHILOSOPHIE DER

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 71

UEDING 1992ff Historisches Woerterbuch der Rhetorik 3.1286

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 367

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1.14

ACTION

BROWN 2005 Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.4:4

FAIRE.AGIR; ACTION.ACTE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.222

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.103

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 57A

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 59A

DURCHFUEHREN

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 432
  • nab : 189
  • vtoNab : 70
  • vi : 55
  • NPab : 38
  • VPi : 34
  • vt(oN) : 24
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 20
  • vt[oN] : 17
  • vi{=vt+npro} : 11
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 9
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 7
  • vi : 7
  • v[adNab] : 6
  • NPab{Nab1&Nab2} : 5
  • vt+V[0] : 4
  • vt+prep+N : 4
  • VPtoN : 3
  • vadN : 2
  • vt(oNab) : 2
  • NPadV : 2
  • nab.adN : 2
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 2
  • nab.t : 2
  • nab{PRED} : 1
  • nab(.post-N) : 1
  • nab.adV : 1
  • nab.post-N : 1
  • vi.red : 1
  • vtoN.+npro{Q} : 1
  • NP : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • NPab{PRED} : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 1
  • nadV : 1
  • n.red:adV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 213
  • 論語 : 85
  • 春秋左傳 : 73
  • 荀子 : 72
  • 說苑 : 69
  • 孟子 : 57
  • 呂氏春秋 : 32
  • 賢愚經 : 30
  • 孝經 : 28
  • 禮記 : 27
  • 論衡 : 27
  • 百喻經 : 25
  • 管子 : 19
  • 韓詩外傳 : 18
  • 晏子春秋 : 17
  • 祖堂集 : 17
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
  • 法句經 : 15
  • 戰國策 : 14
  • 莊子 : 13
  • 臨濟錄 : 11
  • 六祖壇經 : 9
  • 史記 : 8
  • 淮南子 : 7
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 5
  • 黃帝內經 : 5
  • 墨子 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 五行 : 4
  • 長短經 : 3
  • 老子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 尹文子 : 3
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 忠經 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 新序 : 1

Words

   xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 248 Attributions

The current general word for any deliberate action one may be held morally and/or administratively responsible for is xíng 行 (ant. zhǐ 止 "decide not to take action"). The nominal entries have the old reading xìng. [COMMENDATORY!], [GENERAL], [HABITUAL], [RESPONSIBLE]

  • n.red:adVallREDUP read xìng: in all the actions, in all conduct
  • v[adNab]metaphysicalmetaphysical agents
  • vadNaction-orientated
  • vadNpassiveconducted, performed (actions)
  • vi.redintensitivebe officiously active, be very busy
  • viactbehave properly as a moral agent; perform properly; act properly according to rule
  • viactengage in assertive action; comport oneself
  • vt(oN)do the contextually determinate thing N; act according to; carry out, practise (a contextually defined thing);
  • vt[oN]do things; act, behave as a moral agent; perform an act; engage in action
  • vt+prep+Npractise, do, act out; act in accordance with
  • vtoNpositiveenact; implement as an official; carry out as a morally responsible agent; put into practice, practise, carry out; operate according to; implement (a law) and apply it to
  • vtoNundertake, implement; enact, put into practice
  • vtoNnegativeact out; commit (improper or inappropriate acts)
  • vtoNcausativecause (laws) to be carried out
  • vtoNneutraldo; enact
  • vtoNobject=crimeperpetrate
  • vtoNN=placeenact in; put into practice in
  • vtoNobject=roleconduct (one's person); act out (the role of a gentleman etc);
  • vtoNpassivebe implemented; be acted on; be put into practice (ant. 廢 "be abandoned")
  • vtoNreflexive.自comport oneself [This is a highly problematic way of speaking which needs careful philosophical analysis: the person seems construed as acting itself out.]
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2reflexive.己show something as behaviour in (oneself)
  • vadNperforming, active
  • nab[post-N.]adVread xìng in one's behaviour
  • vt(oN)put into practice or act upon the contextually determinate N
  • viinchoativebecome active
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 151 Attributions

Wéi 為 (ant. wú wéi 無為 "not engage in purposeful and result-orientated self-assertive action") focusses not on the act itself but primarily on the results achieved or aimed for. [OCCASIONAL], [PURPOSEFUL]

  • vttoN.+prep+Nab{S}inchoativestart acting on N at the stage S
  • nabactaction; kind of behaviour
  • viactengage in assertive action, "try something funny"; be deliberate in action
  • viactengage in action, do what one does
  • vt(oN)do; commit; be engaged in a contextually determinate matter or undertaking
  • vt+V[0]"be being"be being (為恭 "you are being polite")
  • vtoNactfulfill the function of (occasionally also: pretend to be), impersonate,
  • vtoNcopulato be performed; to be emulated
  • vtoNdeliberateenact, practice, act out deliberately; act according to deliberately
  • vtoNpassiveto be done, be carried out 難為 "hard to do"
  • DELETEdeliberatebe acted out deliberately
  • vtoNabundertake; do deliberately (something right or something wrong), commit (a crime etc); act out (a virtue); conduct (government); engage in (thievery); set out to do
  • vtoNimperativetake on the function N!
  • vtoNact as, perform the role of
  • nabactaction> fault
  • vi.post-Sact accordingly
  • vt(oNab)practice the contextually determinate Nab.
  • vtoNimperativedo it!
   xíng OC: ɢraaŋs MC: ɦɣaŋ 119 Attributions
  • nab.adVread xìng: in action, in behaviour
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actread xìng: deed; effort; achievement (refers to the result of acting in proper way)
  • nab.tactenactment of N, proper enactment of N
  • nabactxìng: professional conduct, public demeanour, public conduct; personal conduct, behaviour
  • nabactread xìng: Buddhist practice
  • nabactread xìng: action which leads through karma to rebirth (the opposite of Buddhist 無為)
  • nabactact; acts
  • nabactread xìng: proper conduct, moral behaviour; ideal of behaviour; proper conduct
  • nabactbehaviour (of non-human subjects like Heaven and Earth etc)
  • nab(.post-N)actread xìng: one's actions
   jǔ OC: klaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ 31 Attributions

Jǔ 舉 refers specifically to the undertaking of a well-considered major act, particularly as part of a political strategy.

  • nabactaction
  • viactact, take action, engage in an undertaking;
  • vtoNundertake, carry out, do; to stage 舉事
  • vtoNpassivebe carried out, get carried out
  • vt(oN)do the contextually determinate thing
  • viactgo right through with an action
   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ 25 Attributions

Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "fail to take the initiative, fail to become active") refers to the taking of an initiative for an action which would not have occurred without such a deliberate initiative, and the word is naturally associated with the notion of creativity. >>SPONTANEOUS, OCCASIONAL, PERFECTIVE

  • vtoNengage in, perform, carry out; perpetrate; act according to 作亂 "start a rebellion"; 作孽 "do evil"; have the function of
  • nabactthe taking of initiatives
  • viactbecome active> twitch
  • vt(oN)carry out in practice
  • viactengage in action
   dòng OC: dooŋʔ MC: duŋ 24 Attributions

Zuò 作 (ant. xí 息 "fail to take the initiative, fail to become active") refers to the taking of an initiative for an action which would not have occurred without such a deliberate initiative, and the word is naturally associated with the notion of creativity. SPONTANEOUS, OCCASIONAL, PERFECTIVE

  • nab.post-V{NUM}actaction; initiative;
  • nabactthe taking of intiatives; activation; the initiating of an action
  • viactdecide to take an action, engage in action, become active; move to act
  • vtoNtake the initiative for
  • nab.post-Nactthe initation of action by N
  • viacttake assertive action
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 24 Attributions
  • nabactenactment
  • vtoNput into practice; deploy in practice; act on the basis of
  • vtoNpassivebe deployed in practice
  • vt(oN)put into practice, act on the basis of the contextually determinate N
   shì OC: dzrɯs MC: ɖʐɨ 18 Attributions

Shì 事 (ant.* xián 閒 "take it easy") primarily focusses on action as part of the fulfilment of a duty imposed by one's station in life or a task one has set oneself. [PRESCRIBED], [PUBLIC!], [RESPONSIBLE]

  • nabactphysical action; action; undertaking; concrete performance
  • viacttake action
  • vtoNinterfere with; deal with
   yè OC: ŋab MC: ŋi̯ɐp 12 Attributions
  • nab.adNactBUDDH: karmic; created by karma
  • nabact(major) undertaking, enterprise; project
  • nabactBUDDH: skr. karma; pali kamma (lit. action, deed of karmic significance)This is agency which brings forth 'existence' (yǒu 有 ) and is in turn caused by mental defilements (usually 'craving' (tṛṣṇā) and 'ignorance' (avidyā)); the concept of karma in India predates the emergence of Buddhism, but was somewhat redefined in Buddhism and Śākyamuni was said to have put much emphasis on the law of moral causality which is determined by one's actions; karma is often subdivided in three kind of actions: physical, shēnyè 身業, skr. kāya-karman, PALI kāya-kamma; verbal, kǒuyè 口業, SANSKRIT vāk-karman, PALI vacī-kamma; mental, yìyè 意業, skr. manas-karma, PALI mano-kamma, mental karma is sometims also referred to as 'non-manifest' or 'latent' action (skr. avijñapti, PALI aviññatti, wúbiǎoyè 無表業; another method of classifying karma is according to the nature of the actions, i.e. 'wholesome deeds', shànyè 善業, SANSKRIT kuśala-karman, PALI kusala-kamma; and 'evil deeds', èyè 惡業, skr. pāpa-karman, pali pāpa-kammaFocusing on the destiny after death which are caused by one's actions, karma is divided into fúyè 福業, 'meritorious actions' (skr. puṇya, pali puñña), and demeritorious actions, fēifúyè 非福業, skr. apuṇya, pali apuñña)(Actions which lead to rebirth in the three realms, sānjiè 三界 (including good and bad actions) are referred to as 'defiled actions' yǒulòuyè 有漏業, skr. sāsrava-karman; by contrast there are 'undefiled actions', wúlòuyè 無漏業, skr. anāsrava-karman (often referring to the actions of a Bodhisattva; in the case of Buddha one speaks of fóshì 佛事, 'Buddha-deeds', skr. buddha-kāryaThe concept of karma is further complicated by the question who and what transmigrates, since in Buddhism the existence of an entity surviving death is denied (one of the later approaches to solve thia aporia was the assumption of a 'storehouse-consciousness', ālaya-vijñāna by the Yogācāra School
  • nadVBUDDH: through deeds, caused by deeds
  • vtoNactundertake, decide to do
舉措   jǔ cuò OC: klaʔ skhaaɡs MC: ki̯ɤ tshuo̝ 12 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actraising and dismissing> one's (political) actions generally
  • NPab{PRED}be a matter of the (political) action one takes
  • VPiactraise and dismiss people> act politically
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 11 Attributions
  • vtoNengage in (action); to bring (something) about; to make (an effort etc)
  • vtoNinchoativeto undertake (something); set out (for a journey etc)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2N1=gift.N2=recipientbring about N1 to N2
   jū OC: ka MC: ki̯ɤ 10 Attributions

Jū 居, when used in this meaning, focusses not on the results of one's actions, or on the effect of one's actions on others, but on the moral character of one's behaviour as such. [HABITUAL], [RESPONSIBLE], [SYSTEMATIC]

  • nabactdeportment, comportment
  • viactbehave, act 安居"how shall I behave?"
  • vtoNcontinuousengage in (a practice); keep doing (something) as part of one's non-official personal conduct
   shī OC: lʰal MC: ɕiɛ 10 Attributions
  • vtoNput into proper practice; put into generous practice; get properly done
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2do (something N1) (to someone N2) 勿施於
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2reflexive.己do N1 to (oneself)
  • vtoNabpejorative: perpetrate (evil acts)
  • vtoNmiddle voiceenact, put into practice
如是   rú shì OC: nja ɡljeʔ MC: ȵi̯ɤ dʑiɛ 10 Attributions
  • VPiactact like this
   fù OC: buɡ MC: buk 9 Attributions
  • vtoNactcarry out (promises etc) in practice, act on; act out as appropriate
   cào OC: tshaaws MC: tshɑu 9 Attributions
  • nabactconduct, way of behaviour as something deliberately cultivated
  • vtoNtake on (a task); practice (an art)
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 9 Attributions
  • vt(oN)work successfully on a contextually determinate object
  • vtoNwork on, deal with, handle properly, carry out properly; LH 2 work for, work at
  • vtoNpassivebe worked on properly, be carried out properly
   chǔ OC: khljaʔ MC: tɕhi̯ɤ 9 Attributions
  • nabacttreatment; handling (of a matter); behavi5our
  • vtoNconduct (official duties); deal with, treat (one's children etc in a certain way)
  • vt[oN]deal with one's affairs
動作 / 動作 / 動作   dòng zuò OC: dooŋʔ tsaaɡs MC: duŋ tsuo̝ dòng zuò OC: dooŋʔ tsaals MC: duŋ tsɑ dòng zuò OC: dooŋʔ tsaaɡ MC: duŋ tsɑk 8 Attributions
  • VPiacttake any action
  • NPab{N1=N2}actgenerally: actions, initiatives; activities
起居   qǐ jū OC: khɯʔ ka MC: khɨ ki̯ɤ 8 Attributions
  • NPabactactivity and inactivity> deportment, behaviour, comportment; one's well-being
   rèn OC: njɯms MC: ȵim 7 Attributions
  • vtoNundertake to do something, be responsible for; have the responsibilities of; serve as
   wǎng OC: ɢʷaŋʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • viactgo to a place> go ahead and act; go on to act in the future; proceed to do what one is supposed to do
   cóng OC: dzoŋ MC: dzi̯oŋ 7 Attributions
  • viacttake action accordingly
  • vtoNactcarry out (government); pursue a policy of (e.g. enlarging the army) 從事
   tǐ OC: rʰiiʔ MC: thei 7 Attributions
  • nabactcomportment, demeanour
  • vtoNenact; realise in action (GR: 14. Mettre en pratique; réaliser.)
  • vt(oN)enact, embody the contextually determinate N
   rán OC: njen MC: ȵiɛn 6 Attributions
  • vi{=vt+npro}act thus, act in this way, behave in this way
行身   xíng shēn OC: ɢraaŋ qhjin MC: ɦɣaŋ ɕin 6 Attributions
  • NPabreflexive.身conducting oneself
  • VPireflexive.身conduct oneself
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 5 Attributions
  • vtoNacte.g. 何以哉 "what to do" use as an action (to deal with a situation)
  • DELETE何以哉 "what to do" do a thing (with preposed pronominal object)
   jiā OC: kraal MC: kɣɛ 5 Attributions

Jiā 加 typically refers to action insofar as it affects others.

  • vtoNobject=rankact as; hold the position of
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2cause the effect N2 on the contextually determinate N1
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2omdo the determinate thing N1 to (a person N2)
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2do (something N1) to (someone N2) 吾亦欲無加諸人
  • vttoN1(.+N2)apply N1 to a contextually determinate N2
   ěr OC: mljelʔ MC: ȵiɛ 5 Attributions
  • vi{=vt+npro}actact in the contextually determinate manner indicated by the obligatorily-zero pronoun
   fàn OC: bomʔ MC: bi̯ɐm 5 Attributions
  • vtoNcommit (a crime)
  • vtoNpassivebe committed (of a crime)
   fā OC: pod MC: pi̯ɐt 5 Attributions
  • vt(oN)set out to do the contextually determinate thing
  • vtoNto undertake (an action); to act out, to show in behaviour; to pose (a question)
  • nabpassivefigurative: being set in motion
態度   tài dù OC: nʰɯɯs ɡ-laaɡs MC: thəi duo̝ 5 Attributions
  • NPabactbehaviour, conduct, comportment
趨舍 / 趨捨   qū shě OC: tsho lʰaʔ MC: tshi̯o ɕɣɛ qū shě OC: tsho lʰaʔ MC: tshi̯o ɕɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • NPab{Nab1&Nab2}opting for and opting against, opting for or opting against; choices, preferences
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • vtoNact out completely
   yí OC: ŋral MC: ŋiɛ 4 Attributions
  • nabactdeportment
   zhí OC: tjib MC: tɕip 4 Attributions
  • vtoNconduct, carry out consistently; practise and advocate the use of
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 4 Attributions
  • nabactfor 刑: performance (according to job description míng 名 )
   jì, jī OC: sklaɡ MC: tsiɛk 4 Attributions
  • nabactbehaviour in the past; record of actions in the past
居處   jū chǔ OC: ka khljaʔ MC: ki̯ɤ tɕhi̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actcomportment, behaviour
  • NPadVactin one's comportment or behaviour, in one's daily life
從容   cōng róng OC: tshoŋ k-loŋ MC: tshi̯oŋ ji̯oŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPabactbehaviour, conduct, way of acting, way of behaviour
行己   xíng jǐ OC: ɢraaŋ kɯʔ MC: ɦɣaŋ kɨ 4 Attributions
  • NPabreflexive.己comportment of oneself> comportment, behaviour
  • VPireflexive.己comport oneself
   dé OC: tɯɯɡ MC: tək 4 Attributions
  • nabactmoral conduct
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNundertake to perform (a duty, hard work)
   jìn OC: dzinʔ MC: dzin 3 Attributions
  • vtoNactHF 1.2.68: exercise to the full, perform perfectly, act fully in accordance with
   ruò OC: njaɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk 3 Attributions
  • vtoN.+npro{Q}若君何 "How should we treat our ruler?"
  • vtoNact like (this)
   jiàn OC: dzenʔ MC: dziɛn 3 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativeact on (one's words)
  • vttoN1.+N2behave according to (something N1) vis-a-vis (someone N2)
   gōng OC: kʷɯŋ MC: kuŋ 3 Attributions

Gōng 躬 (ant.* shǐ rén 使人 "get others to...") focusses on a person of considerable social status engaging personally in a (typically public) action. See SELF. [MARGINAL], [NOBLE], [OCCASIONAL], [PUBLIC!]

  • viactbehave personally, comport oneself; take action personally
  • vtoNengage personally in, take personal charge of
作事   zuò shì OC: tsaaɡ dzrɯs MC: tsɑk ɖʐɨ 3 Attributions
  • VPiactdo things, carry out tasks
   dòng OC: dooŋʔ MC: duŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptthe dimension of activity or the taking of initiative versus refusal to act or to take initiatives
  • NPabactbehaviour, conduct, demeanour
容止   róng zhǐ OC: k-loŋ kljɯʔ MC: ji̯oŋ tɕɨ 3 Attributions
  • NPabactproper appearance and comportment
舉動   jǔ dòng OC: klaʔ dooŋʔ MC: ki̯ɤ duŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabactaction in general
  • NPadVin one's actions/behaviour
  • VPitake all sorts of actions
   lái OC: m-rɯɯ MC: ləi 2 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]inchoativestart doing something; indicates beginning of an action
   wěi OC: ŋgʷals MC: ŋiɛ 2 Attributions

Wěi 偽 (ant. tiān 天 "natural") refers to artificial or faked human action. See PRETEND. [ARTIFICIAL], [DEROGATORY!],

  • nabactdeliberate action; result of deliberate action; artifice
  • vadNresulting from a deliberate act, artificial
  • viactact deliberately
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 2 Attributions
  • vtoNact out in practice (what one has said or proposed)
振 / 振   zhèn OC: kljɯns MC: tɕin zhēn OC: kljɯn MC: tɕin 2 Attributions
  • vtoNorganise, stage (dances etc) [DIFFERENT SYNONYM GROUP?]
  • vitake effective action
   cuò OC: skhaaɡs MC: tshuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • nabact(administrative) action??
   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNactconduct (government)
  • vtoNN=virtueact according to
   qīn OC: tshiŋ MC: tshin 2 Attributions
  • viactundertake things personally; take action personally
  • vtoNdeal with N personally
   bàn OC: breens MC: bɣɛn 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)carry out the contextually determinate action N successfully
  • vtoNcarry out
  • vtoNpassivebe carried out, be put into practice
   zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNcommit and be responsible for (crimes etc)
作用   zuò yòng OC: tsaaɡ k-loŋs MC: tsɑk ji̯oŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactactionBUDDH: Function, activity (SANSKRIT vyāpāra, kāritra, pravartate)
  • VPiactengage in an action; BUDDH: engage in religious practice
操行   cào xíng OC: tshaaws ɢraaŋs MC: tshɑu ɦɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}actdemeanour
  • VPicomport oneself
施行   shī xíng OC: lʰal ɢraaŋ MC: ɕiɛ ɦɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactact, go through with an action
  • VPtoNact out; cultivate as a practice
梵行   fàn xíng OC: bloms ɢraaŋ MC: bi̯ɐm ɦɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: pure conduct (usually concretly referring to abstention from unchastity (monks/nuns) or adultery (laity)); skr. brahma-carya, pali brahma-cariya
次第   cì dì OC: snʰis liils MC: tshi dei 2 Attributions
  • NPabsequence > action, behaviour
舉事   jǔ shì OC: klaʔ dzrɯs MC: ki̯ɤ ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactundertaking tasks, the undertaking of tasks
  • VPiactundertake a task
行處   xíng chù OC: ɢraaŋ qhljas MC: ɦɣaŋ tɕhi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • nabactplace of behaviour> pattern of behaviour, sphere of proper behaviour (of a person)
脩 / 修   xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNput into practice, implement GUOYU: 脩天罰 "implement the punishments of Heaven"
   zēng OC: tsɯɯŋ MC: tsəŋ 1 Attribution
  • viactperform superbly???
  • vtoNpassivebe superbly/abundantly performed
   lǚ OC: riʔ MC: li 1 Attribution
  • nab.adVin one's behaviour
  • nabactdemeanour; behaviour; actions
  • vtoNfigurativeact according to
  • vtoNpassivebe acted out
   nòng OC: ɡ-rooŋs MC: luŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNperform (a piece of music), play (an instrument)????
   jìng OC: keeŋs MC: keŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNacttake direct action with respect to
   yì OC: lids MC: ji 1 Attribution
  • vtoNZUO Wen 4: practise, exercise (one's metier)
   zhì OC: k-liɡs MC: ʈi 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]get to the point of V-ing
   fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 1 Attribution

Fēng 風 refers rather generally and abstractly to a person's or a group's way or pattern of behaviour, and the word is usually used as a noun. See CUSTOM

  • nabactpattern of behaviour
事為   shì wéi OC: dzrɯs ɢʷal MC: ɖʐɨ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactaction
人事   rén shì OC: njin dzrɯs MC: ȵin ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPabacthuman actions
執事   zhí shì OC: tjib dzrɯs MC: tɕip ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPitake charge of a task
奉行   fèng xíng OC: boŋʔ ɢraaŋs MC: bi̯oŋ ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNenact politely or piously
實事   shí shì OC: ɢljiɡ dzrɯs MC: ʑit ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPactual practice
履行   lǚ xíng OC: riʔ ɢraaŋ MC: li ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)act on, put into practice a contextually determinate N
施為   shī wéi OC: lʰal ɢʷal MC: ɕiɛ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactaction, the engaging in actions
  • VPiactact, be active
正行   zhèng xíng OC: tjeŋs ɢraaŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcorrect behaviour, in accordance with ritual/buddhist precepts
為行   wéi xíng OC: ɢʷal ɢraaŋ MC: ɦiɛ ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactgo on to act; take action
發行   fā xíng OC: pod ɢraaŋ MC: pi̯ɐt ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactinitiative for action
  • VPiacttake initiative for action
縱橫   zòng héng OC: tsoŋs ɡʷraaŋ MC: tsi̯oŋ ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactact in all sorts of ways> engage in action
習行   xí xíng OC: sɢlɯb ɢraaŋ MC: zip ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNpractice routinely
行止   xíng zhǐ OC: ɢraaŋ kljɯʔ MC: ɦɣaŋ tɕɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}actacting and non-acting; acting in general
行為   xíng wéi OC: ɢraaŋ ɢʷal MC: ɦɣaŋ ɦiɛ 1 Attribution
  • nabactaction
行節   xíng jié OC: ɢraaŋs tsiiɡ MC: ɦɣaŋ tset 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1=N2}actdecent behaviour
身行   shēn xíng OC: qhjin ɢraaŋs MC: ɕin ɦɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactone's own behaviour
陳跡 / 陳蹟   chén jì, jī OC: ɡrliŋ sklaɡ MC: ɖin tsiɛk chén jì OC: ɡrliŋ skleɡ MC: ɖin tsiɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactrecorded performance (the traces of which remain visible after the actions are past)
   qǐ OC: khɯʔ MC: khɨ 1 Attribution
  • viactbegin to take action
   gān MC: kan OC: kaan 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcommit an act of, do
   xíng 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2reflexive.身implement in one's own person
   rú  MC: nyo  OC: nja  1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdiscontinuous如N何: deal with N; do something to N; inflict something on N; cf. modern 把N怎麼樣
   xíng 1 Attribution
  • nab.post-V{NUM}kind of behaviour
   xíng 1 Attribution
  • vtoNobject=psychto vent the emotion N (行怒 "to vent one's anger")
   xíng 1 Attribution
  • nab{PRED}actto be of such and such behaviour (禽獸之行而欲人之善己)
   zuò OC: skaas MC: tsuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNact out; act on
   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNact out; fulfill
   yōng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • nab.t:post-Nthe practice of N 中庸
  • nabactthe practice, the exercise
   chè OC: thed MC: ʈhiɛt 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)put into practice completely the contextually determinate thing
   nù OC: naas MC: nuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • vichangebecome active, spec: get errection (of penis)
   huī OC: qhul MC: hɨi 0 Attributions
  • nabactactivities
   guān OC: kroon MC: kɣan 0 Attributions
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcontinuativeput into practce, exercise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcontinuativeput into practce, exercise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcontinuativeput into practce, exercise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcontinuativeput into practce, exercise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcontinuativeput into practce, exercise
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNput into practice
       xí MC: zip OC: sɢlɯb 0 Attributions
    • vtoNput into practice
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNcommit an act of, do

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: