BATTLE  戰鬥

WARFARE in the form of FIGHTING AND USE of WEAPONS DURING A DEFINED SHORT PERIOD, AND where TYPICALLY ONE ARMY WINS.
FIGHTARMED CONFLICTCLASHSTRUGGLESKIRMISHENGAGEMENTFRAYDUELWARCAMPAIGNCRUSADEFIGHTINGWARFARECOMBATACTIONHOSTILITIESSCRAPDOGFIGHTSHOOT-OUTBRAWL
Kind Of

WARFARE

Old Chinese Criteria

[ACTION/PROCESS]

[BASIC/MARGINAL]

[[COMMON/RARE]]

[GENERAL/SPECIFIC]

[INOFFICIAL/OFFICIAL]

[LASTING/TEMPORARY]

1. The general term is zhàn 戰 (ant. hé 和 "ceasing of hostilities, ceasefire") and refers to any military engagement at a given time.

[GENERAL], [TEMPORARY]

2. An extended official and centrally organised campaign lasting some time and viewed as a task for the military is yì 役.

[PROCESS], [LASTING]

3. Zhēng 征 refers to an official military campaign as conducted by a state. See ATTACK

[ACTION], [LASTING], [OFFICIAL]

4. Chén 陳 refers to the the forming of a battle array. See BATTLE ARRAY

[SPECIFIC]

5. Jūn 軍 can come to refer generally to military action or military campaigns of any kind.

[ACTION], [MARGINAL]; [[RARE]]

Modern Chinese Criteria

作戰

打仗

戰鬥

交戰

交火

交鋒

交兵

構兵

爭戰

上陣

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 20.12

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 422

78. Vide Serv., ad illud VIII Aen.: Qui sese in bella sequantur.

-- In bello. C. Fronto.

-- Tuba praelii. Ex Serv., XI Aen., ad illud: Bello dat signum, et ipse Etymolog. lib. XVIII, cap. 1 et 4.

-- Praelium pars. Sic Non. dict. Bellum.

[col. 19C] Ibid. Vat. omittit, id est, totus conflictus. Barthius memoria haec digna esse ait, sive ea ex sua observatione Isidorus promat, sive more suo aliunde describat. Quod autem Barthius saepe lectionem sui Codicis conjectura emendare conatur, actum plerumque agit; nam jam ea fere omnia in Editione Grialiana correcta erant, saltem cum Adversaria Barthii in lucem venerunt, quem aliquando Editionem Grialii vidisse constat. [AREV.]

]

78. Inter Bellum et praelium. Bellum indicitur, praelium geritur. In bello enim non statim praelium; in praelio autem statim et bellum. Unde et apud antiquos tuba praelii signum erat, belli buccina. Item bellum totum est, id est, totus conflictus, ut Jugurthinum [ Al., jurgium), civile, Punicum. Pugna unius diei, praelium pars pugnae, licet et pugna duorum sit [col. 19A] aliquando, et sine ferro, unde et a pugno dicta est.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

BATTLE Schulz 379b

pugna refers to any battle of any kind, from a minor fight or skirmish to a major battle.

acies can refer to a major battle of two contending armies drawn up in battle array, the pitched battle, typically on land.

proelium refers to the occasional encounter of separate divisions of the armies, as an engagement, action, skirmish.

certamen refers to a conflict of any kind, of words of of arms, with emphasis on the competitive element.

dimicatio refers to armed conflict insofar as it threatens one's life and the emphasis is on the defensive aspect of the struggle.

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 148ff

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 153 AND 67

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

SCHLACHTEN

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.99.75

BATAILLE.COMBAT

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.323

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 39
  • nab : 34
  • vtoN : 14
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 6
  • vadV : 3
  • vt1post.vt2oN : 2
  • vi2 : 2
  • vt+prep+N : 2
  • NPab : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • VPt.postVtoN{OBJ} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 56
  • 韓非子 : 24
  • 孟子 : 7
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 史記 : 4
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 論語 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1

Words

   zhàn OC: tjans MC: tɕiɛn 67 Attributions

The general term is zhàn 戰 (ant. hé 和 "ceasing of hostilities, ceasefire") and refers to any military engagement at a given time. [GENERAL], [TEMPORARY]

  • nab.post-V{NUM}acta battle
  • nabactwarfare
  • nadNbattle-
  • vadVin battle
  • viactengage in battle, give battle; be professionally engaged in an act of warfare [NB: giving battle is not a vi2. The use of 戰 with two subjects is actually not very common.]
  • vt+prep+Nmutualto engage (someone) in battle 與X戰
  • vt1post.vt2oNgo to war against; go to battle against; wage war against
  • vtoNcausativecause (the people etc) to fight, send into battle
  • vtoNcausativebe made to go to battle
  • vtoNpassivebe gone to battle with
  • vi2actengage in battle with each other
  • nabactbattle
   yì OC: ɢʷleɡ MC: jiɛk 22 Attributions

An extended official and centrally organised campaign lasting some time and viewed as a task for the military is yì 役. [PROCESS], [LASTING]

  • nabactmilitary campaign (including battles and marches)
  • vtoNjoin the battle against (as conscript etc)
  • viactmeet up for military service in a campaign
   jūn OC: kun MC: ki̯un 4 Attributions

Jūn 軍 can come to refer generally to military action or military campaigns of any kind. [ACTION], [MARGINAL]

  • nabactwarfare
  • nabeventmilitary action
   lù OC: ɡ-raaɡs MC: luo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNmeet in battle, go out to meet in battle
   yù OC: ŋos MC: ŋi̯o 2 Attributions
  • viactface the enemy in battle
  • vtoNface in battle
   zhēng OC: tjeŋ MC: tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution

Zhēng 征 refers to an official military campaign as conducted by a state. See ATTACK [ACTION], [LASTING], [OFFICIAL]

  • viactgo on a campaign
  • vtoNlead into battle
   huì OC: ɡloobs MC: ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • vito join the battle; to encounter the enemy in battle
   nì OC: ŋɡlaɡ MC: ŋɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmeet in battle; go out to meet in battle when attacked or provoked
   zhèn OC: ɡrliŋs MC: ɖin 1 Attribution

Chén 陳refers to the the forming of a battle array. See BATTLE ARRAY [SPECIFIC]

  • viactline up for battle, make battle arrangements for attack
   hòng OC: ɡooŋs MC: ɦuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Nmutualto clash (with somebody) in a battle
治戎   chí róng OC: rlɯ njuŋ MC: ɖɨ ȵuŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactdo battle
為惡   wéi è OC: ɢʷal qaaɡ MC: ɦiɛ ʔɑk 1 Attribution
  • VPt.postVtoN{OBJ}engage in hostilities with
稱兵   chēng bīng OC: thjɯŋ praŋ MC: tɕhɨŋ pɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nmake battle against
地戰   dì zhàn MC: dijH tsyenH OC: lils tjans 1 Attribution
  • NPabactland battle
征戍   zhēng shù OC: tjeŋ qhjos MC: tɕiɛŋ ɕi̯o 0 Attributions
  • NPabactmilitary campaign
戰陳   zhàn zhèn OC: tjans ɡrliŋs MC: tɕiɛn ɖin 0 Attributions
  • NPabactbattle; warfare

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: