SACRIFICE  祭祀

RITUAL in the form of GIVING gifts to DEITIES.
RITUAL SLAUGHTEROFFERINGOBLATIONIMMOLATION.IMMOLATE
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general word for making sacrificial offerings of wine and food to spirits of Heaven, of Earth and to the ancestors (perhaps primarily to the spirits of Earth and of the ancestors) is jì 祭 which has become the most common word in Warring States times, replacing sì 祀, which was more common in SHU and SHI.

2. Sì4 祀 is an archaic word which refers to the making of sacrificial offerings of wine and food to the spirits of Heaven, of Earth and to the ancestors, perhaps primarily and originally to the spirits of Heaven.

3. Xiǎng 饗/享 refers to making sacrificial offerings in the form of food to one's ancestors.

4. Diàn 奠 refers specifically to making formal sacrifices to the deceased not too long after his death.

5. Là 臘 refers specifically to the winter sacrifice to Heaven and Earth.

6. Fēng 封 refers to an imperial sacrifice to the spirits of Heaven at mount Taishan, where an altar had to be established for the occasion.

7. Shàn 禪 refers specifically to the imperial sacrifice to the spirits of the Earth at the foot of mount Taishan,.

8. Wàng 望 refers to sacrifices to the spirits of mountains and streams.

9. Yì 瘞 refers to placing something (typically jade, or domestic animals) in the ground as part of or as a form of sacrifice to a deceased person.

10. Lèi 酹 refers to the pouring of libations of wine on the ground.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

SACRIFICE 1.

祭,有牲供獻之祭,泛指祭祀。

祀,永久祭祀。後泛指祭祀,不含永久義。

SACRIFICE 2.

祠,春祭。

礿,夏、商兩代春祭為礿,周代夏祭為礿。

嘗,秋祭。烝,冬祭。

祫,集合遠近祖先神主於太廟大合祭。

禘,宗廟五年一次的舉行的大祭。

禫,除喪服時舉行祭禮。

祔,新死者附祭於先祖。

祥,古喪制,有大小祥之分。周年祭為小祥,兩周年祭為大祥。

SACRIFICE 12. THANKSGIVING 報,秋冬酬神祭。

賽,神靈滿足了願望而酬神致祭。

祠,得福謝神。漢代之後 “ 祠 ” 泛指祭祀。

蠟,年終大索百神的報謝祭。

Modern Chinese Criteria

祭祀 is the current modern word, just as it is the current general classical word for sacrifice.

奉祀 focusses on the offering up of the sacrifice to the deities.

祝福 refers specifically to the New Year Sacrifice in which offerings are made to ask for good fortune.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 22.15

  • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 319

    523. Etymolog. lib. VI, cap. 19.

    ]

    523. Inter Sacrificium et hostiam haec vetus erat discretio, quod sacrificium spontanea oblatio erat; hostia vero quae devictis hostibus immolabatur. Haec et victima vocabatur. Alii victimam 67 ideo dictam putant, quia ictu percussa cadit, vel quia vincta ad aras perducitur.

  • Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen ( FINSTERBUSCH 1966) p. 227

    Opferszene:

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 280

  • Semantica del Griego Antiguo ( HERNANDEZ 2000) p. 43n184

    Casabona, Sacrifice

  • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

    SACRIFICIUM

  • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 87

  • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 4.489

  • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 6.1224

  • 中國文化史三百題 ( SANBAITI 1987) p. 364-367

  • "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China" ( UNGER SACH) p.

    OPFER

  • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 664

  • 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci ( WU SANXING 2008) p. 274ff

  • Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology ( BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002) p.

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.260

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.266

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 337

  • Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography ( ROBERTS 1998) p. 771

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 48
  • nab : 45
  • vi : 43
  • vt+prep+N : 14
  • vt[oN] : 9
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 8
  • nadN : 6
  • VP[adN].adV : 4
  • VPtoN : 4
  • VPi : 4
  • n : 4
  • vt(oN) : 3
  • NP : 1
  • NP{vadN} : 1
  • nab.t:post-N : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 55
  • 禮記 : 50
  • 論語 : 11
  • 呂氏春秋 : 11
  • 孝經 : 10
  • 韓非子 : 10
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 毛詩 : 7
  • 山海經 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 尚書 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 孟子 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   sì OC: sɢlɯʔ MC: zɨ 45 Attributions

Jì4 祀 is an archaic word which refers to the making of sacrificial offerings of wine and food to the spirits of Heaven, of Earth and to the ancestors, perhaps primarily and originally to the spirits of Heaven.

  • nOBI 2, Period V: ritual cycle. By Period V the ritual cycle occupied practially all of the year.
  • nab.t:post-NN=indirOBJsacrifice to N
  • nabactsacrifice
  • viactcarry out the yearly sacrifices symbolic of the continuance of the state, directed to (the deceased ruler)
  • vt+prep+Nsacrifice to N
  • vtoNcarry out the yearly sacrifices symbolic of the continuance of the state, directed to (the deceased ruler); offer sacrifices to (a mountain etc)
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2sacrifice the contextually determinate N1 to N2
  • vttoN1:postvtoN2sacrifice N2 to N1
   jì OC: skeds MC: tsiɛi 44 Attributions

The most general word for making sacrificial offerings of wine and food to spirits of Heaven, of Earth and to the ancestors (perhaps primarily to the spirits of Earth and of the ancestors) is jì 祭 which has become the most common word in Warring States times, replacing sì 祀, which was more common in SHU and SHI.

  • nabactsacrifice
  • nadNsacrificial; sacred because connected with ritual performances
  • vt[oN]engage in sacrificing to things
  • vt.csacrifice
  • vt(oN)sacrifice to the contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+NOBI 5: (Periods I-II) conduct a meat sacrifice to
  • vtoNobject=deitysacrifice to (specifically to the spirits of the Earth) with wine, grain, and meat[also: sacrifice (something)][CA]
  • vtoNobject=sacrificesacrifice
   xiáng OC: sɢlaŋ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 19 Attributions
  • nabactauspicious memorial sacrifice; auspiciousness sacrifice in which one seeks (but does not necessarily get) a favourable response for a project
  • viconduct auspicious memorial sacrifice (at yearly intervals, which could be on a large scale (dà xiáng 大祥) or on a small scale (xiǎo xiáng 小祥).
    OC:  MC:  16 Attributions

  • nabactthe placing of the spirit tablet of the deceased next to that of his ancestor
  • viactsacrifice associating a deceased to his ancestor
  • vt+prep+Nplace the spirit tablet of the deceased next to (that of his ancestor, or person of higher status, or indeed of any person with whom a relation is to be ritually asserted)
祭祀   jì sì OC: skeds sɢlɯʔ MC: tsiɛi zɨ 14 Attributions
  • NPab{N1&N2}actsacrificing of all kinds; the various required sacrifices
  • VPiactmake sacrifices
  • VPtoNconduct a sacrifice of N
  • VPtoNobject=spiritssacrifice to
  • VP[adN].adVwhen sacrificing
   yì OC: qrebs MC: ʔiɛi 9 Attributions

Yì 瘞 refers to placing something (typically jade, or domestic animals) in the ground as part of or as a form of sacrifice to a deceased person.

  • viactbury sacrificial gifts to the deceased in a sacrificial act; conduct a sacrificial burial of gifts to the deceased
  • vtoNbury ritually (offerings to the dead)
饗 / 享 / 小臣   xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ xiǎng OC: qhaŋʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ xiǎo chén OC: smewʔ ɡjiŋ MC: siɛu dʑin 8 Attributions

Xiǎng 饗/享 refers to making sacrificial offerings in the form of food to one's ancestors. Xiǎng 饗/享 refers to making sacrificial offerings in the form of food to one's ancestors. Xiǎng 饗/享 refers to making sacrificial offerings in the form of food to one's ancestors.

  • vtoNmake (large-scale) offerings of wine (to the gods in order to seek their blessings)
  • nabactsacrificial offering
  • vt+prep+Nmake a ritual sacrifical offering to, in the form of a feast
  • viactpresent offerings
  • vt(oN)present religious pious offering to (a contextually determinate ruler)
   cí OC: sɢlɯ MC: zɨ 6 Attributions
  • viactoffer sacrifice and prayer (typically in spring in order to obtain good harvest from the seed that is being sown)
  • vt+prep+Nsacrifice to N
  • vtoNsacrifice at, sacrifice (to all sorts of divinities)
  • nabaction of sacrificing
  • vt[ prep N]offer a sacrifice to someone (whose identity does not matter in the context)
   fēng OC: poŋ MC: pi̯oŋ 4 Attributions

Fēng 封 refers to an imperial sacrifice to the spirits of Heaven at mount Taishan, where an altar had to be established for the occasion.

  • viactconduct the feng sacrifice
   jiàn OC: tseens MC: tsen 4 Attributions
  • nabactsacrifice without wine and meat
  • vtoNmake a sacrifice of; sacrifice from
   chái OC: dzree MC: ɖʐɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • viactmake an offering by burning firewood; rear a burning pile of wood
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 3 Attributions
  • nnonreferentialsacrificial object; sacrificial offerings; local sacrificial offerings
   luò OC: ɡ-raaɡ MC: lɑk 2 Attributions
  • vtoNZUO: drip sacrificial blood on; present at an inauguration feast; consecrate
血食   xuè shí OC: qhʷiiɡ ɢljɯɡ MC: het ʑɨk 2 Attributions
  • vtoNpassivereceive blood sacrifice; be sacrificed to with bloody victims [cf. 肉食者]
   diàn OC: diiŋs MC: den 1 Attribution

Diàn 奠 refers specifically to making formal sacrifices to the deceased not too long after his death.

  • viactsacrifice to Heaven
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Wàng 望 refers to sacrifices to the spirits of mountains and streams. Wàng 望 refers to sacrifices to the spirits of mountains and streams.

  • nabactthe wàng sacrifice
   zǔ OC: skaaʔ MC: tsuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • viactsacrifice to the gods of the roads (GR: 《詩 Shi 》 1. Les aïeux mâles (p. opp. aux aïeules). Ds 先祖 xiān zǔ Les ancêtres défunts. Ds 烈祖 liè zǔ Les illustres ancêtres. 2. Ds 田祖 tián zǔ Le Père de l’agriculture : 神農 Shen nong. 3. Offrir un sacrifice au dieu des chemins (avant de se mettre en route).
   guàn OC: kloons MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • viactpour libation in sacrifice in an elaborate ceremony
  • nabactlibation ceremony
   shàn OC: djans MC: dʑiɛn 1 Attribution

Shàn 禪 refers specifically to the imperial sacrifice to the spirits of the Earth at the foot of mount Taishan,.

  • nabactshàn sacrifie
  • viactperform the shàn sacrifice
   liàn OC: ɡ-reens MC: len 1 Attribution
  • viactconduct mourning sacrifice during the period of mourning
   róng OC: luŋ MC: juŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNsacrifice performed one day after the main sacrifice
  • nOBI 3: one of the series of five rituals in Shāng times, sometimes offered in the evening and then called the róng xì 肜夕. When unspecified the sacrifice is offered in the daytime, and sometimes this daytime ritual is then specifically recorded as róng rì 肜日.
  • vt(oN)sacrifice the contextually determinate N
   mén OC: mɯɯn MC: muo̝n 1 Attribution
  • nabactgate sacrifice
   lèi OC: ruds MC: li 1 Attribution
  • vtoNsacrifice to; offer the lèi sacrifice to
   xì OC: qhɯds MC: hɨi 1 Attribution
  • nadNmeat-sacrificial
告朔   gào shuò OC: kuuɡs sqrooɡ MC: kɑu ʂɣɔk 1 Attribution

(sacrifice of) the announcement of the new month

  • NPAnnouncement of the New Month sacrifice
大祭   dà jì OC: daads skeds MC: dɑi tsiɛi 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}the Great Sacrifice
封禪   fēng shàn OC: poŋ djans MC: pi̯oŋ dʑiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPiactperform the fēng and shàn imperial sacrifices
有事   yǒu shì OC: ɢʷɯʔ dzrɯs MC: ɦɨu ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nmake formal sacrifices to
牲用   shēng yòng OC: sraaŋ k-loŋs MC: ʂɣaŋ ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactsacrifice
   sì OC: sɢlɯʔ MC: zɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactconduct the di4 sacrifice
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcommon in OBI: sacrifice
郊祀   jiāo sì MC: kaew ziX OC: kreew sɢlɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • viacthold a suburban sacrifice
  • vtoNhold a suburban sacrifice for someone
宗祀   zōng sì MC: tsowng ziX OC: tsuuŋ sɢlɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcarry out the ancestral sacrifice to someone
薦進   jiàn jìn MC: tsenH tsinH OC: tseens tsins 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNoffer up as ritual sacrifice
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtt+prep+N1.oN2OBI 5: make offering (to someone) (of something)
  • vttoN1.+N2OBI 5: make offering (to recipient N1) (of a disposable item N2)
  • vt+prep+Nsacrifice to N
  • vt+V[0]make a sacrifice/offering of something
  • vttoN1(.+prep+N2)sactifice N1 to N2
  • vtoNoffer up N
  • vt(oN)sacrifice
��    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

OBI: yo3u-cutting sacrifice

  • vttoN1.+N2OBI: perform yo3u-cutting sacrifice of a sacrificial item N1 to N2
  • viactsacrifice
  • vtoN1.+N2sacrifice
  • vtoNsacrifice to
   guì OC: kʷrads MC: kiɛi 0 Attributions
  • viactsacrifice; offer a sacrifice
   níng OC: neeŋ MC: neŋ 0 Attributions
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2OBI: make a pacifying sacrifice concerning N1 at N2
   liào OC: - MC: liɛu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNmake a burning sacrifice of N
  • vt+prep+Nmake a burnt sacrifice to N
   yí OC: li MC: ji 0 Attributions
  • vtoNconduct an yi4 sacrifice at the place N
  • vt(+N)sacrifice
   biàn OC: peens MC: pen 0 Attributions
  • nkind of sacrifice (SHU)
   fāng OC: paŋ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • nsacrifice to the spirits of the four quarters (SHI)
   guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • viactcarry out libation
   liào OC: ɡ-rews MC: liɛu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNOBI: sacrifice by burning
  • vt+prep+Nmake a burning offering to
  • vt(oN)make a burnt sacrifice to the contextually determinate deity N
   xiàn OC: hŋans MC: hi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNoffer up at sacrifice or in sacrifice
   jī OC: kɯl MC: kɨi 0 Attributions
  • viengage in sacrificial religion; carry out sacrifical practises LIE: 越人禨
臘 / 臘腊   là OC: raab MC: lɑp  OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

Là 臘 refers specifically to the winter sacrifice to Heaven and Earth. Là 臘 refers specifically to the winter sacrifice to Heaven and Earth.

       bīn OC: pin MC: pin 0 Attributions
    • vtoNsacrifice to
    • vt(oN)sacrifice to the contextually determinate N
       zào OC: sɡuuʔ MC: dzɑu 0 Attributions
    • viactconduct the zào sacrifice
    • vt+prep+Noffer the zào sacrifice to N
       lèi OC: ruuls MC: luo̝i 0 Attributions

    Lèi 酹 refers to the pouring of libations of wine on the ground.

    • vtoNHAN: pour libation on the ground in a simple ceremony
    事神   shì shén OC: dzrɯs ɢljin MC: ɖʐɨ ʑin 0 Attributions
    • NPabactservice through sacrifice to the deities/spirits
    享祀   xiǎng sì OC: qhaŋʔ sɢlɯʔ MC: hi̯ɐŋ zɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactsacrifices; offering of sacrifices
    劌歲   guì suì OC: kʷrads sqʷads MC: kiɛi siɛi 0 Attributions
    • ndeverbalOBI 3: that which has been cut (for sacrificing) 劌
    • vt+prep+NOBI 4: conduct the chopping sacrifice to (an ancestor)
    • vtoNpassiveOBI 2: be sacrificed to in the manner of guì 歲/劌 "carving up of sacrificial animals"
    喪祭   sāng jì OC: smaaŋ skeds MC: sɑŋ tsiɛi 0 Attributions
    • NPabactfuneral sacrifice
    大牢   dà láo OC: daads ruu MC: dɑi lɑu 0 Attributions
    • NPabactgreat tailao sacrifice
    歲卯   suì mǎo OC: sqʷads mbruuʔ MC: siɛi mɣɛu 0 Attributions
    • VPttoN1.+N2(sacrifice) by splitting open (sacrificial animals) (to deities)
    禋祀   yīn sì OC: qin sɢlɯʔ MC: ʔin zɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactsacrifices of all kinds
    立春   lì chūn OC: ɡ-rub thjun MC: lip tɕhʷin 0 Attributions
    • NPabactsacrifice on the first day of spring
       suì OC: sqʷads MC: siɛi 0 Attributions
    • nabactOBI: yearly sacrifice

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: