DEITY  

SUPERNATURAL CREATURE.
GODDESSDIVINE BEINGCELESTIAL BEINGDIVINITYIMMORTALAVATAR
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general designation for the spirits is guǐ shén 鬼神, and for the higher and lower spirits of Heaven and Earth it is shén qí 神祇.

2. Guǐ 鬼 is very often a spirit of the deceased (See GHOST), but the word can also refer to nature spirits of all kinds.

3. Shén 神 refers to the ethereal supernatural spirits of all kinds, primarily associated with heaven, but the word also refers to a righteous person who turns into such a spirit after death.

4. Míng shén 明神 refers to the luminous elevated higher spirits, and it is significant that there are not míng guǐ 明鬼.

5. Qí 祇 refers to the spirits of the earth.

6. Yāo 妖 are wicked spirits, and jiān 姦 can be used in the same sense. See DEVIL.

7. Xiān 仙 refers to ethereal divinised creatures of any kind, typically to those who have attained an eternal life on earth, and it is striking that the word gained currency first in Eastern Han times, and that the word is very common in the verbal meaning "become an immortal", whereas guǐ 鬼 is very rarely so used.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

SACRIFICE 18.

神,天神,天地萬物的創造者和主宰者;亦可泛指神靈,早於靈、祇、鬼的泛指。

靈,天神;有時泛指神靈,多見於上古楚國方言,漢代起普遍泛指神靈。

祇,地神;也可泛指神靈,其用較少見。

鬼,人死後的神靈,多指家族祖先神;漢代起已可泛指萬物(不包括天地)之精靈,不限於人神。

Modern Chinese Criteria

天神

神人

神物

神道

神明

神靈

菩薩

仙人

上真

上仙

大士

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 22.35

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 22.12

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 22.44

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 22.45

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 279

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 747

Gefluegeltes (menschliches) Wesen.

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 47

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 79

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.261

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.2245

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 2.57

DIEU ET LES DIEUX

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 10.670

SUPRANATURAL

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.836

GOTTHEIT

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

GOETTER

TOTENGEISTER

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 17

1. It is most striking that xia1n 仙 is so predominant in the meaning "become an immortal", whereas she2n 神 only occasionally has a comparable meaning.

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

DYING AND RISING GODS

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 168A

ABGOTT

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 81
  • n : 35
  • NP{N1&N2} : 28
  • nab : 19
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 18
  • vi : 18
  • ncc : 15
  • NPab : 5
  • nadN : 3
  • nadV : 3
  • npr : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • npost-Npr : 2
  • npost-N : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • n+pr : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論衡 : 45
  • 春秋左傳 : 37
  • 禮記 : 24
  • 史記 : 18
  • 賢愚經 : 12
  • 韓非子 : 11
  • 楚辭 : 11
  • 論語 : 9
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 9
  • 管子 : 8
  • 淮南子 : 8
  • 莊子 : 7
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 山海經 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 鶡冠子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 荀子 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 說苑 : 1
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

仙 / 仙   xiān OC: sen MC: siɛn xiān OC: sen MC: siɛn 44 Attributions

Xiān 仙 refers to ethereal divinised creatures of any kind, typically to those who have attained an eternal life on earth, and it is striking that the word gained currency first in Eastern Han times, and that the word is very common in the verbal meaning "become an immortal", whereas guǐ 鬼 is very rarely so used. Xiān 仙 refers to ethereal divinised creatures of any kind, typically to those who have attained an eternal life on earth, and it is striking that the word gained currency first in Eastern Han times, and that the word is very common in the verbal meaning "become an immortal", whereas guǐ 鬼 is very rarely so used.

  • nccimmortals [By the way: is this used to refer to a single definite immortal?]
  • nadNimmortal
  • vichangebecome an immortal 仙者 "one who has become an immortal"
  • nadVanalogylike an immortal
  • nabactthe art of immortality; the way of immortality
神明   shén míng OC: ɢljin mraŋ MC: ʑin mɣaŋ 43 Attributions
  • NPpersonifiedrealm of the spirits; the deities, the gods; sometimes explicitly: the gods of Heaven and Earth 天地之神明
  • NPabthe higher realm of the purified spiritual world (of the deities, also as represented in the mind of the enlightened person); spiritual magic
  • VPadNdivinely authorised, instituted, or legitimised
  • VPtoNputativeregard as invested with higher spiritual power
   shén OC: ɢljin MC: ʑin 35 Attributions

Shén 神refers to the ethereal supernatural spirits of all kinds, primarily associated with heaven, but the word also refers to a righteous person who turns into such a spirit after death.

  • n+prtitledeity named Npr
  • nthe spirits; the divine creatures; divinity, spirit (typically belonging to or stemming from Heaven)
  • nabmetaphysicalsupernatural spirits; supernatural entities; sometimes perhaps abstract: the supernatural
  • nadVanalogylike a spirit 神速
  • npost-Ndeity/deities of the N (including rivers, mountains and the like)
  • vichangebecome divine, become a deity
鬼神   guǐ shén OC: kulʔ ɢljin MC: kɨi ʑin 28 Attributions

The general designation for the spirits is guǐ shén 鬼神, and for the higher and lower spirits of Heaven and Earth it is shén qí 神祇.

  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialghost or spirit of any kind 狀似鬼神; 鬼神無形體
  • NP{N1&N2}pluralthe ghosts and spirits (always in the plural, occasionally generic)
仙人 / 仙人   xiān rén OC: sen njin MC: siɛn ȵin xiān rén OC: sen njin MC: siɛn ȵin 19 Attributions
  • NPimmortal
  • NPadNimmortal
   líng OC: reeŋ MC: leŋ 18 Attributions
  • nab.post-V{NUM}metaphysicalthe soul of a deceased person (especially insofar as it is endowed with a supernatural efficacy); spirit; deity
   guǐ OC: kulʔ MC: kɨi 8 Attributions

Guǐ 鬼 is very often a spirit of the deceased (See GHOST), but the word can also refer to nature spirits of all kinds.

  • npluralgenerally: the spirits and ghosts 鬼神
  • nadVanalogylike a ghost, like a spirit
  • viactact like a ghost
  • nspirit
天子   tiān zǐ OC: lʰiin sklɯʔ MC: then tsɨ 5 Attributions
  • NPBUDDH: deity
  • NPvocativedivine creatures!
夜叉   yè chā OC: k-laɡs skhraa MC: jɣɛ ʈʂhɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • NPbuddhistBUDDH: kind of demons, in the Buddhist tradition regarded as one of the eight kind of beings said to protect the Buddhist teaching; SANSKRIT yakṣa
仙者   xiān zhě OC: sen kljaʔ MC: siɛn tɕɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPimmortal
天神   tiān shén OC: lʰiin ɢljin MC: then ʑin 3 Attributions
  • NPheavenly deity/spirit
明神   míng shén OC: mraŋ ɢljin MC: mɣaŋ ʑin 3 Attributions

Míng shén 明神 refers to the luminous elevated higher spirits, and it is significant that there are not míng guǐ 明鬼.

  • NPpluralthe higher spirits
   wù OC: mɯd MC: mi̯ut 2 Attributions
  • nnonreferentialthe spirits, spirits
天女   tiān nǚ OC: lʰiin naʔ MC: then ɳi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • NPdivine lady
神祇   shén qí OC: ɢljin ɡe MC: ʑin giɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPdefinitethe spirits
   jūn OC: klun MC: ki̯un 2 Attributions
  • npost-NprMistress of N, Lord of N
   hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 2 Attributions
  • nprSpirit of the Cold
   qí OC: ɡe MC: giɛ 1 Attribution

Qí 祇 refers to the spirits of the earth.

  • nspirits of the Earth
   jīng OC: tseŋ MC: tsiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nspirit (Song Yu, 神女賦)
   hún OC: ɢuun MC: ɦuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • nheavenly soul
   mèi OC: mrɯds MC: mi 1 Attribution
  • nspirit
   pò OC: phraaɡ MC: phɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • nfemale soul (which returns to Earth after death)
人鬼   rén guǐ OC: njin kulʔ MC: ȵin kɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPhuman ghost
大神   dà shén OC: daads ɢljin MC: dɑi ʑin 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalgreat spirits
神主   shén zhǔ OC: ɢljin tjoʔ MC: ʑin tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysical"lord of the spirits"
神仙   shén xiān OC: ɢljin sen MC: ʑin siɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPimmortal; supernatural being
  • NPabchangethe art of becoming immortal (perhaps one might analyse this as NPab(adN)
螭魅   chī mèi OC: ph-rel mrɯds MC: ʈhiɛ mi 1 Attribution
  • NPmountain spirits
靈怪   líng guài OC: reeŋ kruuds MC: leŋ kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPdemons; elf; goblin
騰蛇   téng shé OC: lɯɯŋ ɢljal MC: dəŋ ʑɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • nflying snake
   tǔ OC: kh-laaʔ MC: thuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • ngod of the soil, spirits of the soil
   yāo OC: qrow MC: ʔiɛu 0 Attributions

Yāo 妖 are wicked spirits, and jiān 姦 can be used in the same sense. See DEVIL.

  • nadNportents; ominous
   jiān OC: kraan MC: kɣan 0 Attributions

Yāo 妖 are wicked spirits, and jiān 姦 can be used in the same sense. See DEVIL.

       yuè OC: ŋruuɡ MC: ŋɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • nprMountain deity (David N. Keightley transcribes this chracter with a goat's horns on the top.)
       hé OC: ɡlaal MC: ɦɑ 0 Attributions
    • nprYellow River Deity
       shè OC: ɡljaʔ MC: dʑɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • nthe god of the (altar of) the earth
       pì OC: beɡ MC: biɛk 0 Attributions
    • nspirit of any kind
       fēng OC: plum MC: puŋ 0 Attributions
    • npr(God of) Storms [Keightley: The Shang conceived of the wind, like so many other naturalphenomena, both beneficial and harmful, as under the command ofDi, the High God.
       xié OC: ɡree MC: ɦɣɛ 0 Attributions

    • nkind of demon
    仙士   xiān shì OC: sen dzrɯʔ MC: siɛn ɖʐɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPdeity; supernatural person
    儺神   nuó shén OC: mɢlaal ɢljin MC: nɑ ʑin 0 Attributions
    • nbenign spirit able to drive out high fevers
    喜神   xǐ shén OC: qhɯʔ ɢljin MC: hɨ ʑin 0 Attributions
    • NPauspicious deity
    有神   yǒu shén OC: ɢʷɯʔ ɢljin MC: ɦɨu ʑin 0 Attributions
    • NPabmetaphysicalarchaic, SHU: spirits
    社稷   shè jì OC: ɡljaʔ tsɯɡ MC: dʑɣɛ tsɨk 0 Attributions
    • NP[post-N]gods of the land and grain (of the lexically determinate subject, i.e. the main subject of the clause)

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: