ENCOURAGE  

ADVISE someone so as to TRY to PERSUADE that person to ACT in a way one BELIEVES to be PROFITABLE FOR that person.
HEARTENCHEERBUOY UPUPLIFTINSPIREMOTIVATESPUR ONSTIRSTIR UPFIRE UPSTIMULATEINVIGORATEVITALIZEREVITALIZEEMBOLDENFORTIFYRALLYINFORMAL BUCK UPPEP UPGIVE A SHOT IN THE ARM TOPERSUADECOAXURGEPRESSPUSHPRESSUREPRESSURIZEPRODGOADEGG ONPROMPTINFLUENCESWAYINFORMAL PUT IDEAS INTO ONE'S HEAD
Taxonoymy

INCITE

Antonymy

FORBID

See also

SEDUCE

Kind Of

ADVISE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant current word is quàn 勸 (ant. jǔ 沮 "try to stop") which refers to all kinds of encouragement, both from inferiors and from superiors.

2. Miǎn 勉 focusses on the effort needed in doing what one is encouraged to do.

3. Qū 驅 "drive on hard" refers to "encouragement" by threat of force from the part of superiors.

4. Lì 勵 refers to a superior encouraging others to strive hard for the ideals they already have.

5. Cù 趣 refers to encouraging others to make greater speed in doing what they are already doing or aiming to do.

6. Jí 急 refers to an urgent request to speed up what one is doing in a concrete way.

7. Xù 勗 is an elavated archaic word which was quite current in SHANGSHU and reappeared as an archaism in Han times.

Modern Chinese Criteria

勸告 refers to spoken formal advice and encouragement.

相勸 refers to an informal offer of encouragement and advice.

規勸 refers formally to encouragement along regular or conventional lines of morality.

奉勸 refers formally to insistent encouragement.

勸導 refers rather formally to encouragement as guidance.

勸化 refers to typically religious exhortation and moral encouragement, typically with a view to conversion.

勸戒 refers to religious encouragement and exhortation against transgressions of any kind.

勸助 refers to the offer of hopefully helpful encouragement.

勸誘 refers to a typically reprehensible form of encouragement in the form of inducement.

勸說 refers to encouragment by way of friendly persuasion.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ENCOURAGE/URGE

incitare refers to the urging an inactive person by merely bidding, speaking to, and calling upon him, to an action, often of a laudable kind.

hortari refers to urging an inactive person by merely bidding, speaking to, and calling upon him, to an action, the action always being presumed to be of the laudable kind.

instigare refers to the spurring on of a reluctant person by vehement exhortations, promises, threats, to engage in an adventurous undertaking.

irritare refers to inciting a generally quiet person, by rousing passions, ambitions, to engage in a violent and adventurous course of action.

ADMONISH Dum 1665

hortatio refers to an admonition that is addressed directly to the will and resolution of the person admonished, and the aim of hortatio is always an action.

monere refers to an admonition and warning regarding the future which is directed almost entirely to the consciousness of the person adminished, and to his judgment, and the aim of monitio is always a way of thinking about things, where this way of thinking may or may not result in action. Monitio may be among equals.

admonere refers to admonitions and warnings regarding the past.

obiurgare refers to a reproach or reprimand from a superior.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ADMONITIO

EXHORTATIO

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik cf 76

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 56

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.161.120

EXCITER.ANIMER.ENCOURAGER

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 56A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 72
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 9
  • VPtoN : 5
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 3
  • nab : 3
  • vt[oN] : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vtt[oN.] V[0] : 1
  • vtt .N V : 1
  • vi : 1
  • vtt[oN1]+prep+N2 : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vtoNab{S} : 1
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 34
  • 春秋左傳 : 21
  • 管子 : 15
  • 說苑 : 7
  • 墨子 : 3
  • 論語 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 莊子 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   quàn OC: khons MC: khi̯ɐn 44 Attributions

The dominant current word is quàn 勸 (ant. jǔ 沮 "try to stop") which refers to all kinds of encouragement, both from inferiors and from superiors.

  • nabactencouragement
  • vt[oN]give encouragment, be encouraging; be supportive [of the good]
  • DELETEencourge to, urge to
  • vtoN.+VtoSencourage somebody by saying
  • vtoNencourage a person N, or by extension an attitude N
  • vtoNobject=behaviourencourage (human behaviour or qualities)
  • vt(oN)encourage the contextually determinate N
  • vtoNpassivebe encouraged (to do something); feel encouraged; feel encouraged towards (meritorious effort) 愈勸
  • vtoNabto encourage the abstract qualities Nab
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]urge the contextually determinate N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotencourage somebody to do something
  • vtt[oN.] V[0]encourage people to V
   miǎn OC: mronʔ MC: miɛn 14 Attributions

Miǎn 勉 focusses on the effort needed in doing what one is encouraged to do.

  • vtoNencourage
  • vtoNpassivebe encouraged
  • vttoN.+V[0]encourage to V
勵 / 厲   lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi lì OC: b-rads MC: liɛi 6 Attributions

Lì 勵 refers to a superior encouraging others to strive hard for the ideals they already have. Lì 勵 refers to a superior encouraging others to strive hard for the ideals they already have.

  • vtoNurge on (towards higher ideals); [encourage; stimulate ][CA]
  • vtoNpassivebe encourage
勸勉   quàn miǎn OC: khons mronʔ MC: khi̯ɐn miɛn 6 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)encourage the determinate object to make an effort
  • VPtoNencourage in every way
  • VPtoNpassivebe encouraged; feel encouraged in every way
   qū OC: kho MC: khi̯o 5 Attributions

Qū 驅 "drive on hard" refers to "encouragement" by threat of force from the part of superiors.

  • vtoNdrive forward, cause horses to go fast; urge on
  • vtoNN=humandrive on
  • vtt .N Vencourage N to V
   yòu OC: luʔ MC: jɨu 4 Attributions
  • vtoNencourage and guide
  • vttoN.+V[0]persuade N to do the contextually determinate thing V
   dài OC: ɡ-lɯɯds MC: dəi 4 Attributions
  • vtoNcausative[CAUSE TO REACH>] push forward, cause to catch up, cause to get on; encourage (those lagging behind or those in some trouble)
   jìn OC: tsins MC: tsin 3 Attributions
  • vtoNurge forward
促 / 促趣   cù OC: tshoɡ MC: tshi̯ok  OC:  MC:  2 Attributions

Cù 趣 refers to encouraging others to make greater speed in doing what they are already doing or aiming to do. Cù 趣 refers to encouraging others to make greater speed in doing what they are already doing or aiming to do.

  • vtoNcausativeHF 10.10.53: cause to hurry up> urge to hurry up; spurn on
  • vttoN.+V[0]urge N to V
強 / 彊   qiǎng OC: ɡaŋʔ MC: gi̯ɐŋ qiǎng OC: ɡaŋʔ MC: gi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNreinforce the convictions of, encourage; insist on; force (a person to do something)
   jí OC: krɯb MC: kip 2 Attributions

Jí 急 refers to an urgent request to speed up what one is doing in a concrete way.

  • vt(oN)edge on, urge on some contextually determinate person
  • vtoNpsychurge (oneself) on intensely
   yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • vtt[oN1]+prep+N2suggest or propose things to N2
  • nabactsuggestion
   kāi OC: khɯɯl MC: khəi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNencourage; open up possibilities for
   gǔ OC: kaaʔ MC: kuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)encourage contextually determinate people
  • vtoNencourage to an attack or a difficult undertaking
  • vtoNfigurativeurge on, encourage to engage in activity
  • vttoN.+V[0]urge and command the N to V
   cù OC: tshoɡ MC: tshi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • vtoNreflexive.己urge (oneself) on
   xù OC: hmoɡ MC: hi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstimulate; urge
   sǒu OC: sqooʔ MC: su 1 Attribution
  • vtoNset (a dog) on (a person); instigate, incite
   xuān OC: sqon MC: siɛn 1 Attribution
  • vtoNab{S}encourage the action Nab
   guī OC: kʷe MC: kiɛ 1 Attribution
  • viadmonish; set up rules
兢勸   jīng quàn OC: kɯŋ khons MC: kɨŋ khi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPiactencourage each other
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]passivebe encouraged; be urged; be pressed (to drink, eat)
摧 / 催   cuī OC: sɡluul MC: dzuo̝i cuī OC: skhluul MC: tshuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]encourage N to V
  • vt(oN)urge the contextually determinate N on
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNencourage (TSO) ?????
   xù OC: hmoɡ MC: hi̯ok 0 Attributions

Xù 勗 is an elavated archaic word which was quite current in SHANGSHU and reappeared as an archaism in Han times.

  • vtoNencourage
勖勉   xù miǎn OC: hmoɡ mronʔ MC: hi̯ok miɛn 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNencourage in every way
迫促   pò cù OC: praaɡ tshoɡ MC: pɣɛk tshi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNurge (oneself) on

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: