STUDY  

INVESTIGATE THINGS OR IMITATE ANOTHER so as to STRIVE FOR SKILLFULNESS, KNOWING AND UNDERSTANDING.
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant word is xué 學 (ant. jiào 教 "train teach")which refers primarily to studying or training under another person, and secondarily to the learning by heart texts. Very often, the word retains a tinge of immitation.

2. Shī 師 and cóng 從 refer to deciding to study under someone and treating him as one's teacher.

3. Kǎo 考 refers to an investigation of a subject in a "scientific" spirit.

4. Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection.

5. Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text.

6. Xí 習 refers to rehearsal of what one has learnt, through repetition of text and/or through enactment in practice.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

EDUCATION 15.

學,學習的通稱。

習,反復練習、鑽研。

效,模仿性學習。

師,拜老師學習。

講,研習。

EDUCATION 16.

研,研究的通稱。

究,重在精深地研究。

治,重在全面地研究。

攻,重在用大力專心研究。

Modern Chinese Criteria

研究

鑽研

研討

切磋

切磋琢磨

探究

探索

探討

根究

推究

深究

追究

鉤深致遠

探賾索隱

用功

用心

篤學

好學

苦讀

苦學

勤學

囊螢

映雪

啃書

口不絕吟

手不釋卷

十年窗下

十年寒窗

學而不厭

勤學苦練

學如不及

好學不倦

韋編三絕

遜志時敏

懸梁刺股

引錐刺股

鑿壁偷光

囊螢照書

雞窗夜讀

下帷攻讀

目不窺園

三年不窺園

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.242

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 510©

DISCERE quod qvis nescit, scire laborare. Sive est rem aliqvam ignotam per aliqvam notam assequi.

Occurrunt ergo in discendo 1. Res aliqva ignota. 2. Cognoscendi eam aviditas. 3. Medium seu notum aliqvod, per qvod illuc promovemur.

Est ititur velut qvidam Motus, quo Mobile a termino dat illo nixum ad terminum alium inde distantem se promovet. NB Praenotum illud dicitur Principium cognosendi.

Ax. Non ignotum non discitur....Discere facilius qvam dediscere. Qvicqvid discitur, sit Unum (seu breve, seu continuum), Verum (vere sensum implens) Bonum (jucundum seu utile).

[Aut prodesse volunt aut delectare poetae, aut simul et jucunda et idonea dicere vitae. Horace, Ad Pisones]

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 13

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

MATHESIS

STUDIUM

LEIBNIZ 1704 Table de definitions, pp. 437- 62

Semper cognita incognitis miscenda et temperanda sunt,ut labor et molestia minuantur. Ita optime discimus linguas per parallelismum cum linguis nobis notis.

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 911ff

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 228

cultus animi refers to spiritual culture.

doctrina refers to learning as the result of studying with someone and of receiving instruction within a well-defined narrow field.

eruditio refers to leaning as the result of formal instruction or education in a broad sense.

scientia refers to knowledge or intellectual competence as a whole, theoretical as well as practical understanding.

notitia is passively the fact of being known and actively the knowledge of or awareness of something.

cognitio is inchoative and refers to cognition as the beginning of understanding.

disciplina refers to the practical facility which results from studying a certaion well-defined area of instruction.

UEDING 1992ff Historisches Woerterbuch der Rhetorik 9.221

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.50.36

ETUDIER.APPRENDRE; APPRENDRE.S'INSTRUIRE

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 48
  • nab : 41
  • vt[oN] : 36
  • VPi : 20
  • vt+prep+N : 16
  • NPab : 16
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 7
  • vt+V[0] : 7
  • vt(oN) : 5
  • n : 4
  • vadN : 4
  • vi : 3
  • NPm : 3
  • nab.post-N : 2
  • NP{vadN} : 2
  • vt(+V[0]) : 1
  • VPtoN : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論語 : 41
  • 韓非子 : 31
  • 荀子 : 27
  • 春秋左傳 : 20
  • 論衡 : 16
  • 呂氏春秋 : 15
  • 孟子 : 10
  • 法言 : 10
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 公孫龍子 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 尚書 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 列子 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 管子 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 戰國策 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 史記 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   xué OC: ɡruuɡ MC: ɦɣɔk 144 Attributions

The dominant word is xué 學 (ant. jiào 教 "train teach")which refers primarily to studying or training under another person, and secondarily to the learning by heart texts. Very often, the word retains a tinge of immitation.

  • nabactthe attempt to learn about things (typically from a teacher) study; the pursuit of intellectual/moral self-development; learning
  • vadNlearned, dedicated to the pursuit of learning 博學之士
  • vibe a person of education, be a person who has engaged in proper study; be a person who has studied properly
  • vt[oN]actdevote oneself to study; be devoted to study; engage in intellectual work; work to improve oneself morally/intellectually
  • vt(+V[0])conativetry to learn to perform a contextually determinate action
  • vt(oN)conativedevote oneself to learning N; devote oneself to the practice of N
  • vt(oN)perfectivestudy successfully the contextually determinate skill N
  • vt+prep+NN=topicengage in study regarding, aim to learn
  • vt+prep+NN=humanstudy with  學於孔子
  • vt+V[0]conativetry to learn to VERB
  • vtoNN=humantry to imitate (somebody); emulate (somebody); study with (somebody)
  • vtoNobject=knowledgestudy (the rules - and sometimes the facts- about something)
  • vtoNobject=skillaim to learn (a skill); learn to read (a text), recite and understand according to received interpretation (a text); devote oneself to, apply oneself to (cultural studies etc); learn from a teacher about (a subject)
  • vtoNobject=textstudy (scil. how to read correctly) (a text)
  • vtoNpassiveto be taught, to receive instruction; to receive proper education
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2study (some skill N1) with (a master N2), study ( a subject N1) under (a master N2) 學於孔子
  • vt[oN]N=humanstudy with someone
  • vt(oN)study with; become a student of a contextually determinate person
  • nab.post-Nthe study of the subject N
  • nab.post-Nthe study of the studying person N
學問   xué wèn OC: ɡruuɡ mɯns MC: ɦɣɔk mi̯un 27 Attributions
  • NPabactstudy; range of studying activity
  • NPmamount of learning
  • VPiactengage in study
  • VPt+prep+Npursue one's studies under N
好學   hào xué OC: qhuus ɡruuɡ MC: hɑu ɦɣɔk 12 Attributions

delight in study

  • NPabfeaturelove for intellectual/moral self-cultivation/study
  • VPigradedeager to study 孰為好學
   shī OC: sril MC: ʂi 8 Attributions

Shī 師 and cóng 從 refer to deciding to study under someone and treating him as one's teacher.

  • vt+prep+Ntreat as one's teacher> learn from
  • vtoNtreat as a teacher, take as a guiding authority; imitate as teacher
  • vtoNfigurativelearn from (history etc)
  • vtoNN=nonhulearn from something
   xí OC: sɢlɯb MC: zip 8 Attributions
  • vt[oN]devote oneself to the truth
  • vtoNpractise so as to become familiar with and so as to be competent with regard to something
   shì OC: dzrɯʔ MC: ɖʐɨ 4 Attributions
  • nsubject=humanscholar, man of learning, man of letters
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 3 Attributions

Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text.

  • vt(oN)study a contextually determinate text N
  • vtoNspecialise in (a text)
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNstudy and live up to
博士   bó shì OC: paaɡ dzrɯʔ MC: pɑk ɖʐɨ 2 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}subject=humanerudite; court academic (SJ) See ZUFFEREY 1998 and ZHANG HANDONG 1984
   zhí OC: tjib MC: tɕip 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstick to the study of
   yán OC: ŋɡeen MC: ŋen 1 Attribution

Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection.

  • vtoNstudy in all detail
   jiū OC: kus MC: kɨu 1 Attribution

Jiū 究 and yán 研 refers to an in-depth study of a subject, typically involving a fair amount of reflection.

  • viactengage in studies
  • vtoNSHI: reflect thoroughly on; achieve a complete grasp of
    OC:  MC:  1 Attribution
  • vtoNfollow the ways of; dedicate oneself to the pursuit of, dedicate oneself to the study of; emulate by way of study
學習   xué xí OC: ɡruuɡ sɢlɯb MC: ɦɣɔk zip 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNstudy and familiarise oneself with the practice of
私學   sī xué OC: sil ɡruuɡ MC: si ɦɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactprivate study, private intellectual pursuits
  • VPiactengage in private intellectual pursuits
   liàn MC: lenH OC: ɡ-reens 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstudy in a repetitive way
   xiū OC: sqlɯw MC: sɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcultivate through study
閒間嫻 / 間 / 嫻    OC:  MC:  jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn xián OC: ɢreen MC: ɦɣɛn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNXUN study assiduously (e.g. horticulture) 間樹藝 "study arboriculture"
   cóng OC: dzoŋ MC: dzi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNfollow as a teacher
   gōng OC: kuuŋ MC: kuo̝ŋ 0 Attributions

Zhì 治 and gōng 攻 refer to the specialised study, typically of a certain text.

       gé OC: kraaɡ MC: kɣɛk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNinvestigate
       niǔ OC: m-luʔ MC: ɳɨu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNchangeget used to
       kǎo OC: khuuʔ MC: khɑu 0 Attributions

    Kǎo 考 refers to an investigation of a subject in a "scientific" spirit.

    • vtoNdetermine through diligent investigation (the truth of something)
    學通   xué tōng OC: ɡruuɡ kh-looŋ MC: ɦɣɔk thuŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNstudy successfully
    守學   shǒu xué OC: qhjuʔ ɡruuɡ MC: ɕɨu ɦɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • VPiactstudy hard
    從學   cóng xué OC: dzoŋ ɡruuɡ MC: dzi̯oŋ ɦɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNstudy with, study under
    夏安居   xià ān jū OC: ɡraas qaan ka MC: ɦɣɛ ʔɑn ki̯ɤ 0 Attributions
    • VPi夏安居:佛教名詞。在古印度雨季的三個月(約5—8月)裏,禁止僧尼外出,說外出易傷草木小蟲,應在寺内坐禪修學,接受供養。這段時期稱作“安居期”,南亞稱爲“雨安居”,中國稱爲“夏安居”,或簡稱“夏坐”、“坐夏”。開始階段叫做“結夏”,結束階段叫做“安居竟”、“解夏” [Annotation by Sun Xixin]
       fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNdevote oneself to the study of
       gōng OC: kooŋ MC: kuŋ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNwork on, study
       shòu OC: djuʔ MC: dʑɨu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNreceive instruction on 受尚書 "receive instruction on the Documents"
    • vttoN1.+N2receive instruction on N1 from N2 受經於仲尼 "receive instruction on the classics from Confucius"
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNstudy in a repetitive way

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: