UNDERSTAND  明白

KNOW the BASIC PRINCIPLES of something COMPLEX.
COMPREHENDGRASPTAKE INSEEAPPREHENDFOLLOWMAKE SENSE OFFATHOMUNRAVELDECIPHERINTERPRETINFORMAL FIGURE OUTWORK OUTMAKE HEAD(S) OR TAIL(S) OFGET ONE'S HEAD AROUNDGET THE DRIFT OFCATCH ON TOGETBRIT. INFORMAL TWIG
Taxonoymy

RECOGNISE

See also

WISE

Kind Of

KNOW

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard current and word for understanding something and knowing how to do something is zhī 知 (ant. mèi 昧 "not have the foggiest idea").

2. Míng 明 (ant. měng 蒙 "have very confused notions about") refers to incisive clarity of insight.

3. Tōng 通 (ant. hūn 昏 "be confused about") refers to comprehensive and thorough familiarity with a subject.

4. Yù 喻 / 諭 (ant. àn 闇 "be in the dark about") typically refers to clarity achieved on the basis of an effort of articulation.

5. Chá 察 and shěn 審 (ant. mí 迷 "be all lost when it comes to") refer to incisive clarity of understanding coupled with great awareness of the details of a matter.

6. Jīng 精 (mào 眊 / 耄 "be completely stupid with respect to") refers to a subtle and thorough understanding of something.

7. Shí 識 refers to familiarity with something concrete, but the word also refers to simple awareness, especially when negated.

8. Biàn 辨 / 辯 (ant. huò 惑 "be al confused about") refers to discriminating and highly articulate specialised, often professional knowledge about something.

9. Jué 覺 and the rarer wù 悟 are inchoative and refer to the coming to understand something.

10. Wēn 溫 refers to the resulting close familiarity after long acquaintance with a subject.

11. Wén 聞 (ant. wèi zhī wén 未之聞 "have never heard/learnt about any such thing") is sometimes used as a resultative verb meaning "come to understand something because one has been informed of it". But this usage is limited to the idiom wén dào 聞道 "hear about the Way".

12. Xī 悉 and jìn 盡 refer to presumed completeness in knowledge.

Modern Chinese Criteria

了解

理解

理會

懂得

明白

了了

領略

領會

領悟

覺悟

覺醒

清楚

了然

明了

明亮

知情

知底

辨色 (lit) refers specifically to the ability to read a person's facial expression correctly.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 722

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 17.16

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 485

COGNITIO est rei prius ignotae mente comprehensio. Reqv. 1. Cognoscibile aliqvid, hoc est res latens. 2. Cognoscens aliquid. 3. Manifestans id est Cognoscibile cognoscenti admovens.

1. Uni nullum cognoscibile, ibi nulla cognitio.

2. Ubi nullum cognoscens, ibi nulla cognitio, via non Ens nihil agnoscit.

3. Ubi nullum manifestans, ibi nulla cognitio.

Medium illud manifestans est vel Sensus, vel Ratio, vel Testimonium, Relatio. Ex primo exsurgit experientia, a secundo Intelligentia, a terio fides.

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 41

SCIENS, SCIOLUS

592. Cod. Vat. Inter QUE et VE hoc interest, quod QUE conjunctio est, VE disjunctio. [AREV.]

]

592. Inter Ve et que. Ve distinguit, que conjungit.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

UNDERSTAND

intelligere refers to a rational discentment by means of reflection and combination.

sentire refers to a natural discernment by emotional and aesthetic sensibilities or perceptions, or indeed of the mind as a whole.

cognoscere tends to refer to an historical discernment by means of the senses and of traditional information.

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 79

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.441

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 623

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1780

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.593

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.918

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 111

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1296

知,識,記,誌

1. WL claims that zhi1 知 is 一般的知道. In fact, whereas zhi1 知 is sometimes used in this colourless meaning, most of the time the word denotes a proper understanding of something.

2. WL claims that shi2 識 refers to a 比較深的認識. In fact, shi2 識 refers to the ability to recognise a person or a thing, and the word never refers to any deeper acquaintance or knowledge. Shi2 識 refers to an awareness, a general recognition, and in a number of cases to familiarity through acquaintance. The contrast with zhi1 知 "proper understanding" is very clear indeed.

3. WL claims that as a noun, shi2 識 means 知識、見解 in which meaning it is clearly distinct from zhi4 智 meaning "wisdom". It is a moot point when exactly which zhi1 知 must be read zhi4, but the nominal usages of the word in which it does mean "understanding, level of understanding" are abundantly documented in SSC.

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 421

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 273

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 262

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 394

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 1.153

ANEIGNUNG

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.191.150

ENTENDRE.COMPRENDRE.CONCEVOIR

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 314
  • NPab : 63
  • vt+prep+N : 40
  • nab : 40
  • vt(oN) : 27
  • vi : 24
  • VPi : 24
  • vtoS : 23
  • vtoNPab{S} : 21
  • VPtoN : 13
  • vt[oN] : 13
  • VPt(oN) : 9
  • NPab.c : 7
  • vadN : 5
  • nab[post-N] : 4
  • VPt[oN] : 4
  • vt+S : 3
  • vi.red : 2
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • vtoN1{PIVOT}.+VtoN2 : 2
  • nab(post-N) : 1
  • vtoNab{S} : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • VPpostadV : 1
  • {vtt...} : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vt+prep+Nab{ACT} : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • NP[adN] : 1
  • vi-P : 1
  • VPtoS : 1
  • vt(oN).postadV : 1
  • vt(oNab) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 101
  • 韓非子 : 84
  • 六祖壇經 : 68
  • 論語 : 44
  • 臨濟錄 : 31
  • 說苑 : 28
  • 荀子 : 26
  • 莊子 : 22
  • 百喻經 : 19
  • 春秋左傳 : 18
  • 賢愚經 : 16
  • 禮記 : 14
  • 管子 : 14
  • 論衡 : 14
  • 戰國策 : 13
  • 法句經 : 13
  • 呂氏春秋 : 12
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 史記 : 11
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 10
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 8
  • 文子 : 7
  • 朱子語類 : 6
  • 太平經 : 6
  • 法言 : 6
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 老子 : 5
  • 法集要頌經 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 黃帝內經 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 列子 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 公孫龍子 : 1

Words

   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 224 Attributions

The standard current and word for understanding something and knowing how to do something is zhī 知 (ant. mèi 昧 "not have the foggiest idea")

  • vtoNinchoativeget to understand N properly
  • nabactread zhì: display of knowledge
  • nabmetaphysicalread zhì: understanding (interpreted as an agent)
  • nabpsychread zhì: consciousness, awareness, understanding; level of understanding
  • nabpositiveread zhì: understanding; proper knowledge
  • viactdisplay knowledge; have the proper understanding of things
  • vichangeascertain the facts properly; come to understand the facts properly
  • vipsychunderstand things properly; understand something indeterminate properly
  • vt(oN)understand the contextually determinate object properly
  • vt(oN)inchoativehave come to understand the contextually determinate thing 
  • vt+prep+Nhave proper understanding of
  • vtoNunderstand properly; understand and respect properly; be sure of the workings (of something);
  • vtoNpassiveget properly known, get found out; become well-known; get properly understood
  • vtoNpsychunderstand (oneself); know where one is;
  • vtoNreflexive.己understand (oneself) properly, understand one's own affairs properly
  • vtoNPab{S}know that S, understand that S
  • vtoNPab{S}inchoativecome to understand that S
  • vtoNPab{S}S=complementunderstand that S
  • vtoSunderstand that S
  • vt[oN]understand what is going on; have any idea of what is going on (often negated)
  • nab(post-N)psychologicalread zhī: one's understanding
  • nab[post-N]psychologicalone's understanding
   jiàn OC: keens MC: ken 32 Attributions
  • nabunderstanding; intellectual perspective; coming to understand
  • vt(oN)understand the contextually determinate matter
  • vt[oN]have understanding; understand things[CA] mod.CH
  • vt+prep+Nunderstand, realise
  • vtoNfigurative: realise, be able to understand what is not immediately visible; see through, recognise the true nature of
  • vtoNPab{S}understand that S
  • vtoSunderstand that S
   tōng OC: kh-looŋ MC: thuŋ 31 Attributions

Tōng 通 (ant. hūn 昏 "be confused about") refers to comprehensive and thorough familiarity with a subject

  • nab.post-V{NUM}kinds of thorough understanding
  • nabpertinent understanding> powerful understanding
  • vadNknowledgeable, of broad learning; educated
  • viobject=diffuseto understand things thoroughly; to have penetrated deeply into a matter
  • vt+prep+Nunderstand properly, have a sharp understanding of
  • vt+prep+Npsychhave a proper understanding of (oneself/one's own N)
  • vtoNhave thorough knowledge of, see to the bottom of, have a full understanding of
  • vtoNchangeget generally known
  • vtoNcausativeto make N understand, to enlighten N
  • vt[oN]changecome to understand things thoroughly
   míng OC: mraŋ MC: mɣaŋ 27 Attributions

Míng 明 (ant. měng 蒙 "have very confused notions about") refers to incisive clarity of insight.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}kinds of enlightenment
  • vadNBUDDH: enlightened
  • vt+prep+Nunderstand properly; develop a proper understanding of
  • vt+prep+Nab{ACT}be so intelligent that ??????????????????
  • vt+prep+Sunderstand clearly that S
  • vtoNunderstand fully, have a clear understanding ofBUDDH: reach enlightenment concerning
  • vtoNcausativeenlighten; make someone understand
  • vtoNcausativeenlighten
  • vtoNpassivebe properly understood
  • vtoNab{S}understand
  • vtoSstativebe clear about, understand clearly that S
  • vistativehave perceptive understanding
  • vt(oN)have a perfectly clear understanding of contextually determinate things
  • vt[oN]have a perfectly clear understanding of things
  • nabclear understanding
   dá OC: daad MC: dɑt 24 Attributions
  • viactmake oneself understood
  • vistativehave an accomplished understanding of things
  • vt+prep+Nhave a pertinent (practical) understanding of
  • vt+Sunderstand that S
  • vtoNperfectiveunderstand properly, understand fully the functions of
  • vt(oN)fail to quite get the meaning of the contextually determinate N
   wù OC: ŋaas MC: ŋuo̝ 21 Attributions
  • vtoNinchoativeget a clear vision of, come to understand; understand the significance of; oappreciate properly; become enlightened to
  • vtoSBUDDH: be enlightened to the fact that, realize that
   jiě OC: kreeʔ MC: kɣɛ 17 Attributions
  • nabpsychunderstanding
  • vt(oN)understand the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]have understanding understand things
  • vtoNbe able to unravel, gain clarity on, understand
  • vtoNpassivebe understood 難解
  • vtoScausativecause to understand > explain that
知見   zhī jiàn OC: te keens MC: ʈiɛ ken 16 Attributions
  • NPabpsychunderstanding, insight, wisdom
  • VPt(oN)see clearly the contextually determinate things
   huì OC: ɡloobs MC: ɦɑi 13 Attributions
  • nabmentalunderstanding; calculations
  • vt+prep+N(deeply) understand, grasp
  • vtoNgrasp, understand
  • vt(oN)understand; comprehend (with omitted object)
   tǐ OC: rʰiiʔ MC: thei 13 Attributions
  • vtoNabsorb; understand so as to embody (the Way; what is basic etc)
  • vtoNactbe an embodiment of
  • vtoNcausativecause one to fully understand the structure of N
   chá OC: skhreed MC: ʈʂhɣɛt 12 Attributions

Chá 察 and shěn 審 (ant. mí 迷 "be all lost when it comes to") refer to incisive clarity of understanding coupled with great awareness of the details of a matter.

  • viactinvestigate and understand things
  • vt+prep+Nstativehave a reasoned understanding of
  • vtoNpassivebe clearly understood
  • vtoNstativehave a clear understanding of
  • vtoSunderstand that, have a clear understanding that
  • vt(oN)inchoativecome to understand N properly
  • vi.redactbe investigative and, on that account, well-informed
   shí OC: qhljɯɡ MC: ɕɨk 11 Attributions

Shí 識 refers to familiarity with something concrete, but the word also refers to simple awareness, especially when negated.

  • vtoNpassivebe understood
  • vt[oN]gain understanding of things
  • vtoNhave got to know thoroughly > realize, understand
  • vtoSunderstand that
   zhèng OC: tjɯŋs MC: tɕɨŋ 11 Attributions
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: reasoned understanding> enlightenment, realization (often used as syn. for 菩提 bodhi) skr. sākṣāt-karaṇa/sākṣāt-kriyā, pali sacchi-kiriyā (lit. 'the act of putting before the eyes')
  • vadNbuddhistBUDDH: enlightened
  • vt+prep+Ngain a reasoned understanding of
  • vtoNbuddhistBUDDH: understand the evidence for > understand on a proper intellectual basis; be enlightened about
菩提   pú tí OC: bɯ ɡ-lee MC: buo̝ dei 11 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: wisdom; enlightenment skr. bodhi
   jué OC: kruuɡ MC: kɣɔk 10 Attributions

Jué 覺 and the rarer wù 悟 are inchoative and refer to the coming to understand something

  • nabpsychawakening; enlightenment
  • vadNBUDDH: awakened, enlightened
  • vadNpassiveBUDDH: of being enlightened/awakened
  • vt(oNab)be awake to the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]become enlightened; awake to the truth
  • vtoNBUDDH: awaken from (illusion)
  • vtoNreflexive.自understand oneself; understand what one is doing; be properly aware of what one is doing
  • vtoSunderstand that; be enlightened to the fact that; realize that wake up to the recognition of the fact that
   biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn 10 Attributions

Biàn 辨/辯 (ant. huò 惑 "be al confused about") refers to discriminating and highly articulate specialised, often professional knowledge about something

  • viactbe quick-witted; understand and be able to articulate clearly
  • vt+prep+Nstativeunderstand properly; develop a proper understanding of
  • vtoNunderstand distinctly; sort things out properly
見解   jiàn jiè OC: keens krees MC: ken kɣɛ 10 Attributions
  • NPabpsychunderstanding, insight
  • VPiunderstand, have insight
神通   shén tōng OC: ɢljin kh-looŋ MC: ʑin thuŋ 9 Attributions
  • NPab.cpsychBUDDH: this originally refers to the supernatural powers of a Buddha; spritual powers; sometimes referring to the five sagely powers (五神通) or the six supernatural powers of a holy man (六神通 skr. abijñā
  • VPadNof supernatural powers
  • VPiactBUDDH: to display supernatural powers
   shěn OC: qhjɯmʔ MC: ɕim 8 Attributions

Chá 察 and shěn 審 (ant. mí 迷 "be all lost when it comes to") refer to incisive clarity of understanding coupled with great awareness of the details of a matter.

  • vt(oN)understand the contextually determinate things properly
  • vtoNhave a detailed and discriminating understanding of
  • vtoNpassivebe properly understood
  • vtoSunderstand quite whether S is true
   qì OC: khees MC: khei 7 Attributions
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: contract to enligthenment > enlightenment; understanding (thereby becoming the member of a lineage)
  • vt+prep+NbuddhistBUDDH: contract to > enlighten to
  • vtoNbuddhistBUDDH: contract to > enlighten to (occasionally: get enlightened and become member of the lineage of); wake up to
   xiǎo OC: qheewʔ MC: heu 6 Attributions
  • nabpsychproper understanding
  • vi-Pclearly
  • vtoNrare, lunheng: be clear about, be unconfused about; ytl, xiangci: have a grasp of (part of a problem)
   rèn OC: njins MC: ȵin 6 Attributions
  • {vtt...}reckon N1 as N2; regard N1 as N2
  • vtoNmanage to distinguish and get clear
  • vtoN1{PIVOT}.+VtoN2to recognize N1 as N2; to reckon that N1 is N2
  • vtoSmanage to distinguish and get clear that; reckon that; assume that
喻 / 諭   yù OC: los MC: ji̯o yù OC: los MC: ji̯o 5 Attributions

Yù 喻/諭 (ant. àn 闇 "be in the dark about") typically refers to clarity achieved on the basis of an effort of articulation Yù 喻/諭 (ant. àn 闇 "be in the dark about") typically refers to clarity achieved on the basis of an effort of articulation

  • vt+prep+Nderive one's proper understand of things from (something)
  • vt(oN)inchoativecome to understand the contextually determinate matter (typically after an explanation has been made)
  • vtoNpassivebe understood
   rě OC: njaʔ MC: ȵɣɛ 5 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: wisdom; skr. praj%nā
覺悟   jué wù OC: kruuɡ ŋaas MC: kɣɔk ŋuo̝ 5 Attributions
  • VPibecome intellectually awakened
  • VPtoNresultativeget to understand
  • vt[oN]understand things
   liǎo OC: reewʔ MC: leu 4 Attributions
  • vtoNhave become aware of > understand, comprehend
  • vtoNstativeunderstand SSXY: 心了其故 "understand the reason in one's mind"
  • vtoSunderstand that
成道   chéng dào OC: djeŋ ɡ-luuʔ MC: dʑiɛŋ dɑu 4 Attributions
  • VPiactBUDDH: complete the Way > be/become enlightened
智識   zhì shí OC: tes qhljɯɡ MC: ʈiɛ ɕɨk 4 Attributions
  • NPabdispositionintellectual capacities, cognitive abilities
正覺   zhèng jué OC: tjeŋs kruuɡ MC: tɕiɛŋ kɣɔk 4 Attributions
  • NP[adN]the person of correct understanding> the awakened
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: perfect enlightenment (compare bodhi 菩提); skr. (samyak-)saṃbodhi (syn. to the phonetic transliteration 三藐三菩提)
深 / 深   shèn OC: qhljums MC: ɕim shēn OC: qhljum MC: ɕim 3 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nunderstand deeply, have a deep mastery of
  • vtoNunderstand deeply, have a deep mastery of
   lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNunderstand (in a principled way)
  • vtoNpassivebe systematically understood
   xí OC: sɢlɯb MC: zip 3 Attributions
  • nnonreferentialexperienced person
  • vtoNbe thoroughly familiar with
了知   liǎo zhī OC: reewʔ te MC: leu ʈiɛ 3 Attributions
  • VPiunderstand what is happening
  • VPt(oN)understand the contextually determinate thing properly
  • VPtoSclearly understand that
分別   fēn bié OC: pɯn pred MC: pi̯un piɛt 3 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)buddhistBUDDH: understand, comprehend (with contextually determinate object)
  • VPtoNbuddhistBUDDH: understand, comprehend; skr. jānati no negative connotations such as in Zen texts (see DISTINGUISH); e.g. LOTUS(B): 95c9 分別空慧 wisdom of understanding emptiness (śunyatā-)gatiṃgata... (KARASHIMA 1998: 138)
心開   xīn kāi OC: slɯm khɯɯl MC: sim khəi 3 Attributions
  • VPichangecome to understand things 心開意解
見性   jiàn xìng OC: keens seŋs MC: ken siɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • VPieventunderstand one's essence
   quán OC: sɡon MC: dziɛn 2 Attributions
  • vtoNhave a complete grasp of
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe completely understood/proven
  • vtoNcausativecause one to fully understand N> give a full account of N, fully explain N
   chè OC: thed MC: ʈhiɛt 2 Attributions
  • vadVwith supreme understanding
  • vt(oN).postadVresultative complement: V a contextuall determinate N to the degree of understanding it
  • vtoNunderstand fully
   lǎn OC: ɡ-raamʔ MC: lɑm 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)gain a comprehensive intellectual survey and understanding of the determinate thing
  • vtoNunderstand comprehensively;
   kāi OC: khɯɯl MC: khəi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNopen oneself to an understanding of
  • vt[oN]be open to an understanding of things.
六通   liù tōng OC: ɡ-ruɡ kh-looŋ MC: luk thuŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: six mental powers; six supernatural powers; also: 神通 and 六神通
明曉   míng xiǎo OC: mraŋ qheewʔ MC: mɣaŋ heu 2 Attributions
  • VPihave a clear understanding of things
理會   lǐ huì OC: ɡ-rɯʔ ɡloobs MC: lɨ ɦɑi 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNunderstand
知故   zhī gù OC: te kaas MC: ʈiɛ kuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychknowledge and understanding of reasons
知解   zhī jiě OC: te kreeʔ MC: ʈiɛ kɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychunderstanding, knowledge, insight, interpretation
  • VPtoNunderstand; grasp
開悟   kāi wù OC: khɯɯl ŋaas MC: khəi ŋuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPiget opened to the truth
開解   kāi jiě OC: khɯɯl kreeʔ MC: khəi kɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPiinchoativebecome enlightened
  • VPtoNcausativecause to become enlightened
頓悟   dùn wù OC: tuuns ŋaas MC: tuo̝n ŋuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: sudden enlightenment; direct insight into one's own nature (one of the key terms of Chán Buddhism)
  • VPt[oN]sudden enlightenment
   dé MC: tok  OC: tɯɯɡ  2 Attributions
  • vtoNmanage to understand
   zhì MC: tsyiH OC: kljɯs 2 Attributions
  • vtoN= shí 識, understand
  • nab= shí 識: understanding
   xī OC: sid MC: sit 1 Attribution

Xī 悉 and jìn 盡 refer to presumed completeness in knowledge.

  • vtoNunderstand completely
   xīng OC: seeŋ MC: seŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redprocessreduplicated: to become awakened; to understand clearly in Buddhist texts starting from the Tang the phrase 常惺惺 became current, referring to a state of permanent awareness and clear discernment
   zhì OC: tes MC: ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychwise understanding
   wēn OC: quun MC: ʔuo̝n 1 Attribution

Wēn 溫 refers to the resulting close familiarity after long acquaintance with a subject.

  • vtoNbe thoroughly familiar with
   zhào OC: kljews MC: tɕiɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNkeep orientated about, be well-informed about; get to see, spot
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2understand N1 in the light of N2
   jīng OC: tseŋ MC: tsiɛŋ 1 Attribution

Jīng 精 (mào 眊/耄"be completely stupid with respect to") refers to a subtle and thorough understanding of something.

  • vt+prep+Nhave an excellent subtle understanding of N
  • vtoNstativehave an exquisite and subtle superior understanding of
  • vtoNreflexive.自understand (oneself)
   xiòng OC: qhʷeŋs MC: hiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • viconativebe inquisitive
   ān OC: qɯɯm MC: ʔəm 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbe well informed about, be familiar with, know about
   yù OC: las MC: ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNknow beforehand
信解   xìn jiě OC: sins kreeʔ MC: sin kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)trust in and understand the message N
光明   guāng míng OC: kʷaaŋ mraŋ MC: kɑŋ mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychenlightenment
先陀   xiān tuó OC: sɯɯn laal MC: sen dɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPiBUDDH: understand, be enlightened
善知   shàn zhī OC: ɡjenʔ te MC: dʑiɛn ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNunderstand properly
多智   duō zhì OC: k-laal tes MC: tɑ ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe of broad understanding of things
得了   dé liǎo OC: tɯɯɡ reewʔ MC: tək leu 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVwith proper understanding???
悟解   wù jiě OC: ŋaas kreeʔ MC: ŋuo̝ kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]understand things spiritually
意解   yì jiě OC: qɯɡs kreeʔ MC: ʔɨ kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPichangeunderstand things
惺悟   xīng wù OC: seeŋ ŋaas MC: seŋ ŋuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychunderstanding
把握   bǎ wò OC: praaʔ qrooɡ MC: pɣɛ ʔɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativehave a grasp of> show solid practical understanding of
明白   míng bái OC: mraŋ braaɡ MC: mɣaŋ bɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPabstativestate of intellectual understanding
明通   míng tōng OC: mraŋ kh-looŋ MC: mɣaŋ thuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychunderstanding
  • VPt[oN]to understand things thoroughly
明達   míng dá OC: mraŋ daad MC: mɣaŋ dɑt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNunderstand lucidly
曉解   xiǎo jiě OC: qheewʔ kreeʔ MC: heu kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)understand a contextually determinate thing
無知   wú zhī OC: ma te MC: mi̯o ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: No-knowledge > true understanding, true wisdom (since true understanding does not involve any dualistic and discriminating thinking processes, and distances itself from any subjectes views, this kind of 'not-knowing' is syn. to true understanding; the reasoning is analogous to the assumption that the 'true mark is No-mark' (實相無相 > 真智無智)
直了   zhí liǎo OC: dɯɡ reewʔ MC: ɖɨk leu 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]gain an immediate understanding of things
瞿然   jù rán OC: kʷas njen MC: ki̯o ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVwith the amazement of a new insight
知命   zhī mìng OC: te mɢreŋs MC: ʈiɛ mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPiunderstand one's fate
知委   zhī wěi OC: te qrolʔ MC: ʈiɛ ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNunderstand, know
聞知   wén zhī OC: mɯn te MC: mi̯un ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)learn so as to understand properly
見地   jiàn dì OC: keens lils MC: ken di 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychspiritual horison
遍知   biàn zhī OC: peens te MC: pen ʈiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychBUDDH: all-pervading wisdom (short for zhèngbiànzhī 正遍知)
領覽   lǐng lǎn OC: ɡ-reŋʔ ɡ-raamʔ MC: liɛŋ lɑm 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)realise, understand (a contextually determinate N)
體會   tǐ huì OC: rʰiiʔ ɡloobs MC: thei ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)incorporate and understand (a contextually determinate N) > have a genuine understanding, understand, comprehend
三菩提   sān pú tí OC: saam bɯ ɡ-lee MC: sɑm buo̝ dei 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the complete enlightenment of a Buddha; SANSKRIT sambyaksambodhi
等正覺   děng zhèng jué OC: k-lɯɯŋʔ tjeŋs kruuɡ MC: təŋ tɕiɛŋ kɣɔk 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: Perfect Enlightenment (of a Buddha; this is an alternative term for 正覺, skr. samyak-saṃbodhi (other variants include 正解, 等覺, 正等正覺, 正等覺, 正盡覺)
無上菩提   wú shàng pú tí OC: ma ɡljaŋs bɯ ɡ-lee MC: mi̯o dʑi̯ɐŋ buo̝ dei 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: Supreme Enlightenment, Ultimate Enlightenment (of a Buddha)
獲及   huò jí MC: hweak gip OC: ɢʷreeɡ ɡrɯb 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)resultativemanage to understand the contextually determinate N
   jí MC: gik OC: ɡɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNunderstand completely
達明   dá míng MC: dat mjaeng OC: daad mraŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoN(try to) reach clear understanding
   yǒu MC: hjuwX OC: ɢʷɯʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNunderstand and know how to practice 有道
   pǔ MC: phuX OC: phaaʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNhave a broad understanding of; have investigated on a broad scale; be broadly familiar with
   jiū 1 Attribution
  • vtoNperfectiveunderstand fully
   dǔ MC: tuX OC: k-laaʔ 1 Attribution
  • vtoSrealise that S
知之   zhī zhī MC: trje tsyi OC: te kljɯ 1 Attribution
  • VPiunderstand what is going on; know what is going on; be aware of what is going on
   xián OC: ɢreen MC: ɦɣɛn 0 Attributions
  • virare: elegant: accomplished, competent
憭 / 瞭   liǎo OC: ɡ-reewʔ MC: leu liǎo OC: ɡ-reewʔ MC: leu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbe clear-sighted, see clearly 宋 王安石 《游土山示蔡天啟秘校》詩:" 蔡侯 雄俊士,心憭形亦諜。"
  • vt(oN)understand the contextually determinate thing 三國 吳 韋昭 《〈國語解〉敘》:"侍中 賈君 敷而衍之,其所發明,大義略舉,為已憭矣。"
  • vt[oN]be prone to understand things well (Shuowen: 慧也)
   chè OC: dad MC: ɖiɛt 0 Attributions
  • vtoNbe clear about
   jìn OC: dzinʔ MC: dzin 0 Attributions

Xī 悉 and jìn 盡 refer to presumed completeness in knowledge.

  • vtoNhave an exhaustive grasp of
   rěn OC: nɡljɯmʔ MC: ȵim 0 Attributions
  • vtoNstativepost-Han: be familiar with
   qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNunderstand completely
  • vtoNpassivebe understood completely
   wén OC: mɯn MC: mi̯un 0 Attributions

Wén 聞 (ant. wèi zhī wén 未之聞 "have never heard/learnt about any such thing") is sometimes used as a resultative verb meaning "come to understand something because one has been informed of it". But this usage is limited to the idiom wén dào 聞道 "hear about the Way".

       guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
    • nabbuddhistBUDDH: insight (in the process of meditation); skr. vipaśyanā, pali vipassanā
    • vt(oN)inchoativegain an understanding of a contextually determinate N
    • vtoNinchoativecome to understand, gain an understanding of
    寤知   wù zhī OC: ŋaas te MC: ŋuo̝ ʈiɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPiresultativecome to understand things
    得道   dé dào OC: tɯɯɡ ɡ-luuʔ MC: tək dɑu 0 Attributions
    • VPiactunderstand the true way; obtain the truth
    燎寤   liǎo wù OC: ɡ-rewʔ ŋaas MC: liɛu ŋuo̝ 0 Attributions
    • VPiresultativecome to understand the situation properly
    現觀   xiàn guān OC: ɡeens koon MC: ɦen kʷɑn 0 Attributions
    • NPabpsychBUDDH: intuition, enlightenment (sometimes used as syn. to bodhi 菩提); SANSKRIT abhisamaya
    知己   zhī jǐ OC: te kɯʔ MC: ʈiɛ kɨ 0 Attributions
    • VPihave self-understanding; understand oneself
    知道   zhī dào OC: te ɡ-luuʔ MC: ʈiɛ dɑu 0 Attributions
    • VPihave things right, have the right technique, have the relevant technique
    覺了   jué liǎo OC: kruuɡ reewʔ MC: kɣɔk leu 0 Attributions
    • VPibuddhistBUDDH: have understood and become awakened > be awakened, have understanding, be enlightened
    解知   jiě zhī OC: kreeʔ te MC: kɣɛ ʈiɛ 0 Attributions
    • VPtoNresultativeunderstand
    認得   rèn dé OC: njins tɯɯɡ MC: ȵin tək 0 Attributions
    • VPt(oN)understand
    現等覺   xiàn děng jué OC: ɡeens k-lɯɯŋʔ kruuɡ MC: ɦen təŋ kɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • NPabpsychBUDDH: complete enlightenment (syn. to bodhi 菩提); SANSKRIT abhisaṃbodhi
    三藐三菩提   sān miǎo sān pú tí tí OC: saam mewʔ saam bɯ ɡ-lee MC: sɑm miɛu sɑm buo̝ dei 0 Attributions
    • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: ulimtate enlightenment (of a Buddha); skr. samyak-saṃbodhi (see also 正覺)
       jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 0 Attributions
    • vtoNreach up to intellectually, understand (a difficult subject); be well-informed on
       fēn OC: pɯn MC: pi̯un 0 Attributions
    • vtoNunderstand distinctly
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNunderstand completely
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPtoN(try to) reach clear understanding
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNunderstand and know how to practice 有道
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • vtoNhave a broad understanding of; have investigated on a broad scale; be broadly familiar with

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: