EXPLAIN  說明

DISCUSS so as to CAUSE something to BECOME MORE CLEAR.
DESCRIBEGIVE AN EXPLANATION OFMAKE CLEARMAKE INTELLIGIBLESPELL OUTPUT INTO WORDSELUCIDATEEXPOUNDEXPLICATECLARIFYTHROW/SHED LIGHT ONGLOSSINTERPRETACCOUNT FORGIVE AN EXPLANATION FORGIVE A REASON FORJUSTIFYGIVE A JUSTIFICATION FORGIVE AN EXCUSE FORVINDICATELEGITIMIZE
Hypernym

DISCUSSSPEAK SYSTEMATICALLY on something, BASING oneself on INVESTIGATION AND REFLECTION. -> SPEAKACT so as to USE WORDS FOR SHOWING MEANING.*Speech by speaker X, directed towards audience Y, in order to communicate message Z. -> ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • COMPARE EXPLAIN HOW TWO OR MORE THINGS MUTUALLY RESEMBLE:are-similar OR are MUTUALLY DIFFERENT.
    • GLOSS EXPLAIN the MEANING of what is WRITTEN OR SAID.
      • PROVE EXPLAIN CLEARLY WHY a SENTENCE is TRUE.
        • REFUTE PROVE that something is NOT TRUE.
        • SUMMARISE EXPLAIN COMPLETELY BUT SHORTLY, OMITTING NOT-IMPORTANT DETAILS.
          • SOLVE EXPLAIN a PROBLEM.
            • DESCRIBE EXPLAIN the SHAPE OR NATURE of something.
              • ANALYSE EXPLAIN something by SYSTEMATICALLY DISTINGUISHING its BASIC PARTS AND their FUNCTIONS.
                • CRITIQUE POLITICAL ANALYSIS of the PRESENT SITUATION PREPARING BASIC POLITICAL CHANGE of SOCIETY.
                • TRANSLATE EXPLAIN USING A DIFFERENT LANGUAGE.
                  • JUSTIFY EXPLAIN WHY something is CORRECT OR GOOD.
                    • DEFINE EXPLAIN OR FIX the MEANING of something.
                      • ANALOGY EXPLANATION USING DETAILED COMPARISON.
                        • INTERPRET EXPLAIN ONE'S UNDERSTANDING OF SOMETHING.
                          Old Chinese Criteria

                          1. The current general word for a discursive "analytical" explanation of something that is not sufficiently clear in itself is shuō 說.

                          2. Yán 言 refers to the explicit articulation of something, and the emphasis often is on the initiative taken to undertake this explanation.

                          3. Chén 陳 refers to the laying out of something clearly so as to make it accessible to an overview and a clear understanding of the contents of what is laid out, and the social context is typically that of an inferior laying something out for superiors.

                          4. Míng 明 is to throw intellectual light on something by any means, including illustration as well as historical explanation or definition.

                          5. Yù 喻 / 諭 refers to making clear to others what is very clear to oneself, and the means is often comparsion or illustration, yù 諭 tending to be used for making something clear through words in later texts, and yù 喻 for explanation by comparison or metaphor.

                          6. Jiě 解 refers primarily to the unravelling of something that would appear convoluted and non-transparent without the effort of intellectual unravelling.

                          7. Shì 釋 is late and refers to explanation with special reference to individual difficult points.

                          8. Shù 述 refers to laying out for others what oneself or others have done or said in the past.

                          9. Xù 敘 refers to laying out something in an orderly manner, often in conversation with equals and in a confidential context, and the word became current in Han times.

                          黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

                          HUANG JINGUI 2006

                          EDUCATION 8.

                          訓,重在隨文釋義。

                          詁,以當代通語釋古語或方言。

                          解,重在對內容的分析、闡明。

                          釋,用於對疑惑不明之處的詮釋。

                          析,重於辨析事理。

                          Modern Chinese Criteria

                          說明 is a current word for explanation which focusses on the transparency that is aimed at.

                          解釋 is a current word for explanation which focusses on the unravelling achieved.

                          說破 refers to a manifestly explicit explanation of something that does not need this sort of explicitness.

                          破說 (rare) focusses on giving away the hidden secrets of something through explanation.

                          解說 refers in a slightly more literary way to unravelling and expounding.

                          分解 focusses on the making of relevant distinctions in the unravelling.

                          詮釋 (lit, arch) refers to scholarly explanation.

                          訓詁 refers to traditional philological explanation.

                          詁訓 (rare) refers to traditional philological explanation.

                          闡釋 is a Buddist word for providing doctrinal explanations.

                          釋疑 focusses on the exposition of doubtful points.

                          唇舌 refers to reasoning, explanation or argumentation as typically wasted effort.

                          講解

                          辯解

                          辯護

                          rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                          • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 17.38

                          • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

                            EXPLAIN

                            disserere refers to an act of explaining something in a didactic and coherent form.

                            disputare refers to an act of explaining something in a polemical and systematically methodic style.

                          • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p.

                          • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 2.690

                            ERKLAEREN

                          • 古辭辨 Gu ci bian ( WANG FENGYANG 1993) p. 756

                          • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1290

                            諭,喻

                          • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1425

                            敘,述,陳,說

                          • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 1507

                            解,釋

                          • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 232

                          • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 64

                            辯護,辯解

                          • The Encyclopedia of Philosophy ( BORCHERT 2005) p.

                          • 跟我學同義詞 ( CAI SHAOWEI 2010) p. 81

                          • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.130:86

                            ECLAIRCIR.EXPLIQUER.DEVELOPER

                          • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.224.183

                            declarer.decouvrir.manifester.reveler.deceler

                          Attributions by syntactic funtion

                          • vtoN : 73
                          • VPi : 20
                          • vt(oN) : 12
                          • nab : 12
                          • vt[oN] : 6
                          • VPtoN : 6
                          • VPtoS1.postS2 : 6
                          • vttoNPab. prep N : 4
                          • vadV : 4
                          • VPt(oN) : 3
                          • vtoS : 3
                          • vtoNPab{S} : 3
                          • vtt[oN1.]+N2 : 2
                          • NPab : 2
                          • vttoN1+.vtoN2 : 2
                          • vtoNab : 1
                          • vttoN1(. prep N2) : 1
                          • vadN : 1
                          • VPt[oN] : 1
                          • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 1
                          • vt+V[0] : 1

                          Attributions by text

                          • 賢愚經 : 24
                          • 祖堂集 : 23
                          • 說苑 : 12
                          • 妙法蓮華經 : 12
                          • 臨濟錄 : 9
                          • 孟子 : 8
                          • 莊子 : 8
                          • 阮籍集四卷 : 8
                          • 六祖壇經 : 8
                          • 楚辭 : 6
                          • 呂氏春秋 : 6
                          • 論衡 : 5
                          • 春秋穀梁傳 : 5
                          • 禮記 : 4
                          • 荀子 : 4
                          • 百喻經 : 4
                          • 戰國策 : 2
                          • 韓詩外傳 : 2
                          • 法句經 : 2
                          • 公孫龍子 : 1
                          • 韓非子 : 1
                          • 墨子 : 1
                          • 新語 : 1
                          • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
                          • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
                          • 淮南子 : 1
                          • 史記 : 1
                          • 法言 : 1
                          • 長短經 : 1
                          • 管子 : 1
                          • 周易 : 1

                          Words

                             shuō OC: lʰod MC: ɕiɛt 49 Attributions

                          The current general word for a discursive "analytical" explanation of something that is not sufficiently clear in itself is shuō 說.

                          • nabactdetailed explanation; satisfactory explanation; doctrine, thesis; discourse
                          • vadNgiven to making explanations
                          • vadVby way of explanation
                          • vt(oN)expound the contextually determinate matter N
                          • vt[oN]offer explanations (by way of teaching); make oneself clearBUDDH: engage in preaching (= 說法 )
                          • vt+prep+Sexplain how S
                          • vtoNexpound; make explanations, expatiate about things; explain in detail; give a satisfactory explanation ofBUDDH specifically: preach
                          • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
                          • vtoNpassivebe explained, be expanded on
                          • vtoNPab{S}explain that S
                          • vtoSstate that; expound that
                          說法   shuō fǎ OC: lʰod pab MC: ɕiɛt pi̯ɐp 17 Attributions
                          • NPabactthe preaching of the dharma
                          • VPiactpreach the dharma
                             yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 15 Attributions

                          Yán 言 refers to the explicit articulation of something, and the emphasis often is on the initiative taken to undertake this explanation.

                          • nabactexplanation; account; theory
                          • vt(oN)explain, explicate, express the contextually determinate N
                          • vtoNexpress in words; put into words; explain (something) in fairly formal discourse or discussion, pronounce on formally; discuss (a matter); make explicit
                          • vtoNpassiveto be explained in words
                          • vttoN1(. prep N2)explain the subject N1 to the contextually determinate N2
                             míng OC: mraŋ MC: mɣaŋ 11 Attributions

                          Míng 明 is to throw intellectual light on something by any means, including illustration as well as historical explanation or definition.

                          • vt(oN)explain the contextually determinate point
                          • vtoNcausativeCAUSE TO BE CLEAR> explain, elucidate on
                          • vtoNpsychexplain (onself), make (oneself) clear, make one's position clear
                          • vtoNPab{S}causative(cause to be clear>) make clear, cause something to become clearly understood
                          • vtoSexplain that S
                          • vtoNabexplain the abstract matter of Nab
                          • vttoNPab. prep Nexplain the NPab to the audience N
                             chén OC: ɡrliŋ MC: ɖin 11 Attributions

                          Chén 陳 refers to the laying out of something clearly so as to make it accessible to an overview and a clear understanding of the contents of what is laid out, and the social context is typically that of an inferior laying something out for superiors.

                          • vtoNlay out in words; set forth, put forward; bring out into the open
                          • vtoNprepositionto explain (something) 以; to lay out clearly (something)
                          • vtoNpassivebe laid out clearly, be made explicit; be publicly pronounced (of words)
                          • vadNpassiveexplained
                          喻 / 諭   yù OC: los MC: ji̯o yù OC: los MC: ji̯o 9 Attributions

                          Yù 喻/諭 refers to making clear to others what is very clear to oneself, and the means is often comparsion or illustration, yù 諭 tending to be used for making something clear through words in later texts, and yù 喻 for explanation by comparison or metaphor. Yù 喻/諭 refers to making clear to others what is very clear to oneself, and the means is often comparsion or illustration, yù 諭 tending to be used for making something clear through words in later texts, and yù 喻 for explanation by comparison or metaphor.

                          • vtoNindicate, give (someone) to understand, make fully clear
                          • vt(oN)make one's point about the contextually determinate thing
                          • vtoNPab{S}express that S
                          • nabdiscursive explanation
                          • vtoNconativetry to explain something (often using examples, metaphors etc.)
                          • vtt[oN1.]+N2explain the relevant contextually determinate things N1 to N2
                             jiě OC: kreeʔ MC: kɣɛ 5 Attributions

                          Jiě 解 refers primarily to the unravelling of something that would appear convoluted and non-transparent without the effort of intellectual unravelling.

                          • vt+V[0]unravel and explain
                          • vtoNcause to understand > unravel and explain
                          代云   dài yún OC: lɯɯɡs ɢun MC: dəi ɦi̯un 5 Attributions
                          • VPtoS1.postS2historiographyBUDDH: Chán historiographic term: comment in S1 upon something defined in S2 (introducing a layer of commentary by a another master into the text)
                             dài OC: lɯɯɡs MC: dəi 3 Attributions
                          • vadVBUDDH: (say) instead of > as a commentary (this seems to be a technical term in Chán historiography, marking passages where commentaries of other masters are inserted into the discussion)
                             shēn OC: lʰin MC: ɕin 3 Attributions
                          • vtoNexpound (at length or repeatedly), lay out in detail
                          • vtoNpsychexplain (oneself)
                          • vttoN1+.vtoN2instruct (an audience N1) in (a subject N2)
                             shù OC: ɢljud MC: ʑʷit 3 Attributions

                          Shù 述 refers to laying out for others what oneself or others have done or said in the past.

                          • vtoNreport carefully (what oneself or others have said or done)
                             fū OC: phla MC: phi̯o 2 Attributions
                          • vtoNpsychlay out the facts concerning (onself), plead (one's own) case
                          • vttoN1.+prep+N2psychexplain (oneself) to N2, plead (one's own case) with N2
                             jìn OC: dzinʔ MC: dzin 2 Attributions
                          • vt(oN)explain exhaustively or completely (with contextually determinate object)
                          • vtoNfigurativearticulate exhaustively or completely
                             mù OC: muɡ MC: muk 2 Attributions
                          • vtoNgive details of, explain in detail; itemise properly
                          敷演   fū yǎn OC: phla lenʔ MC: phi̯o jiɛn 2 Attributions
                          • VPiactmake elaborate explanations about things
                          • VPtoNexplain in detail
                          解說   jiě shuō OC: kreeʔ lʰod MC: kɣɛ ɕiɛt 2 Attributions
                          • VPt(oN)omexplain and expound > explain, elucidate (with contextually determinate N)
                          言說   yán shuō OC: ŋan lʰod MC: ŋi̯ɐn ɕiɛt 2 Attributions
                          • NPabactexplanation, theory, doctrine, doctrinal teaching
                             chá OC: skhreed MC: ʈʂhɣɛt 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be understood properly
                          抒 / 舒 / 杼   shū OC: ɢljaʔ MC: ʑi̯ɤ shū OC: lʰa MC: ɕi̯ɤ shù OC: ɢljaʔ MC: ʑi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNdredge out and explain; give full expression to.
                             xiào OC: ɡreews MC: ɦɣɛu 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNdemonstrate something about (something) 以人效天
                             lǐ OC: ɡ-rɯʔ MC: lɨ 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNsort out intellectually, reduce to its principles, explain in a principled manner
                          • vtt(oN1.)+N2explain the contextually determinate N1 to N2
                             bái OC: braaɡ MC: bɣɛk 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNexplain something in detail; report in detail; make something clear
                          • vtt(oN1.)+N2make something contextually determinate clear to (someone)
                             quān OC: skhon MC: tshiɛn 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNexplain, make explicit
                             biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNpsychexplain (one's own) case
                             shì OC: lʰaɡ MC: ɕiɛk 1 Attribution

                          Shì 釋 is late and refers to explanation with special reference to individual difficult points.

                          • vtoNrare, Du Yu on ZUO: make clear; sort out in a mediating manner
                          • vtoNpsychexplain (oneself), explain (one's own actions)
                          代曰   dài yuē OC: lɯɯɡs ɢʷad MC: dəi ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoS1.postS2historiographyBUDDH: Chán historiographic term: comment in S1 upon something defined in S2 (introducing a layer of commentary by a another master into the text)
                          具說   jù shuō OC: ɡos lʰod MC: gi̯o ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoNexplain comprehensively
                          宣說   xuān shuō OC: sqon lʰod MC: siɛn ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                          • VPt(oN)explain openly the contextually determinate matter N
                          广演   yǎn yǎn OC: lenʔ MC: ŋiɛm jiɛn 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoNexpound in detail
                          明白   míng bái OC: mraŋ braaɡ MC: mɣaŋ bɣɛk 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoNstate clearly> explain clearly
                          解諫   jiě jiàn OC: kreeʔ kraans MC: kɣɛ kɣan 1 Attribution
                          • vttoN1.+N2explain N1 to N2 so as to advise N2
                          說了   shuō liǎo OC: lʰod reewʔ MC: ɕiɛt leu 1 Attribution
                          • VPt[oN]perfectivehave finished explaining things
                          講法   jiǎng fǎ OC: krooŋʔ pab MC: kɣɔŋ pi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
                          • VPiactexpound the way of the Buddha
                          講說   jiǎng shuō OC: krooŋʔ lʰod MC: kɣɔŋ ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoNexpound
                          辨說   biàn shuō OC: brenʔ lʰod MC: biɛn ɕiɛt 1 Attribution
                          • VPiactengage in discriminating explanatory discourse
                          辯明   biàn míng OC: brenʔ mraŋ MC: biɛn mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
                          • VPtoNresultativeexplain something so as to make it clear
                             cí OC: zɯ MC: zɨ 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNpassivebe explained (Zheng Xuan!)
                             guǎng MC: kwangX OC: kʷaaŋʔ 1 Attribution
                          • vtoNbroaden one's understanding of> elaborate on
                             xù OC: ljaʔ MC: zi̯ɤ 0 Attributions

                          Xù 敘 refers to laying out something in an orderly manner, often in conversation with equals and in a confidential context, and the word became current in Han times.

                          • vtoNGY: give an orderly account of (for information); lay out in proper sequence
                             jué OC: kʷeed MC: ket 0 Attributions
                          • vtoNsolve (a difficulty), find a solution to (political revolt) [But wher are the examples?]
                             chǎn OC: thjanʔ MC: tɕhiɛn 0 Attributions
                          • vtoNpost-Han, WENXINDIAOLONG: expound and make accessible to a wider public
                          申說   shēn shuō OC: lʰin lʰod MC: ɕin ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
                          • VPtoNreflexive.自explain oneself; explain one's involvement in something
                          辯說   biàn shuō OC: brenʔ lʰod MC: biɛn ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
                          • NPabactdisquisitive explanations
                          • VPiactcome up with reasoned explanations, make eloquent arguments

                          Existing SW for

                          Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: