DISCUSS  討論

SPEAK SYSTEMATICALLY on something, BASING oneself on INVESTIGATION AND REFLECTION.
TALK OVERTALK ABOUTTALK THROUGHCONVERSE ABOUTDEBATECONFER ABOUTDELIBERATE ABOUTCHEW OVERCONSIDERCONSIDER THE PROS AND CONS OFTHRASH OUTINFORMAL KICK AROUNDHASH OUTBAT AROUND
Taxonoymy

EXPLAINPOLITICS

See also

DIALOGUEFIGHT

Kind Of

SPEAK

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most current words for discussion are yì 議 "public (often formal) discussion", and lùn 論 "discursive discourse; written summary discussion with a conclusion".

2. Biàn 辯 refers to a rational subtle discussion and investigation.

3. Zhēng 爭 refers to an eristic discussion or an altercation, and the word emphasises the intellectual conflict involved. See STRUGGLE.

4. Jiǎng 講 refers to discussing something as an important subject and in a systematic manner.

5. Tǎo 討 is to engage in a deep and thorough discussion and investigation of something.

6. Píng 評 is a rare word that refers to discussion. (NB: this word enjoyed a renaissance and become more common in post-Buddhist times.)

7.Tán 談 refers (often pejoratively) to an informal, perhaps even inconsequential, dialogue or or discourse on something. See DIALOGUE.

Modern Chinese Criteria

商量 is the most current general word for the discussion of differing views on a matter.

討論 is the current modern word for discussion.

議論 refers to public debate, typically of matters of political relevance.

座談 refers to formal public debate on a certain subject, on a certain public occasion.

審議 refers to detailed often public discussion leading to a definite conclusion.

商討 focusses on the different opinions involved in discussion, typically on major matters of policy.

探討 focusses on investigation as background to discussion.

研討 refers to discussion based on study.

議事 (lit, obs) focusses on the matters discussed as serious.

會商 (lit) refers to a formal discussion with a view to reaching a decision.

協商

談判

洽談

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 511

DISPUTARE est de qvaestione ambigua in utramqve partem decertare, donec utro veritas praeponderet, pateat. Constat 1. ex qvaestione dubia.2. Argumentis in utramqve partem facientibus. 3. erumqve accurata collatione, a duobus earundem rerum peritis instituta. Ergo videndum 1. an sit vere dubium, et 2. quid proprie, et 3. inter qvos....

Disputationis leges. 1. Quastio formetur. 2.Termini omnes definiantur. 3. Demum status controversiae recte formetur. 4 Demum affirmatnti incumbat probatio. 5 Neganti responsatio. 7.Affirmanti liqvidatio. 7. usquve dum non restet de quo ambigatur....

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 211

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

DISPUTATIO

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 61

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.262

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1281

談,論

1. WL takes the difference between ta2n 談 and lu4n 論 to be one of formality versus informality of discussion. In fact, lu4n 論 is not primarily dialogical in nature at all, and the word only refers to dialogue by a relatively rare extension. Ta2n 談, on the other hand, is by no means limited to dialogue, and the distinctive feature of the word is its predominant pejorative nuance "chatter".

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 1284

議,論

1. WL rightly points out that yi4 議 aims at some decision, whereas lu4n 論aims at a judgment. One may add that the main difference here is that yi4 議 refers to a formal discussion in council, whereas lu4n 論 refers to a disquisition quite generally.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 318

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 384

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 80

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 47
  • vt[oN] : 32
  • nab : 30
  • vi : 4
  • vtoN1.postvt(oN2) : 3
  • VPi : 3
  • vt prep N : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vt+V[0] : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 38
  • 論語 : 18
  • 祖堂集 : 9
  • 臨濟錄 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 荀子 : 5
  • 管子 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 守法守令等十三篇 : 2
  • 說苑 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 1
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 長短經 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   yì OC: ŋrals MC: ŋiɛ 40 Attributions

The current words for discussion are yì 議 "public discussion", and lùn 論 "discursive discourse; written summary discussion with a conclusion".

  • nabactpublic argument; argumentative point of view; public dissent
  • nabactdiscussion of public affairs
  • vt[oN]engage in public discussion, engage in disputation; express public dissent; make a remark; express one's opinion
  • vt+V[0]discuss to, deliberate to
  • vtoNdiscuss or bring up in a formal gathering; declare openly; argue that; argue for; put forward for discussion with
  • vtoNmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • vtoNpassivebe entered into serious public discussion or disputation with
  • vt[oN]discuss public affairs
  • vt prep Ndiscuss public affairs in relation to N
   yán OC: ŋan MC: ŋi̯ɐn 28 Attributions
  • nabactdiscussion, discourse; public discussion, public speech
  • nabpluralpublic statements
  • vt[oN]engage in serious discussion (with someone), discuss things (with someone)
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe a partner in an exchange of views (rather than informal conversation)
  • vtoN1.postvt(oN2)passivediscuss (a subject matter) with (someone)
  • vtoN1.postvt(oN2)engage in serious conversation or discussion
  • vtoNdiscuss the subject N (not: chat or converse about N)
  • vt(oN)speak of the contextually determinate N
   lùn OC: ɡ-ruuns MC: luo̝n 28 Attributions

The current words for discussion are yì 議 "public discussion", and lùn 論 "discursive discourse; written summary discussion with a conclusion".

  • nabactdiscussions; theories; views
  • vt[oN]be involved in discussion
  • vtoNsort out and discuss, often in writing; argue; account for, give an account of; demonstrate
  • vtoNpassivebe expounded, laid out and discussed
  • nabderiveddiscourse; argument
   biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn 16 Attributions

Biàn 辯 refers to a rational subtle discussion and investigation

  • nabactdisputation; cavilling argumentation
  • vadNfull of sophistry, inanely argumentative
  • viactengage in an intellectual dispute, make subtle distinctions; engage in rhetoric
  • vtoNdiscuss with 勿與辯
  • vt2[oN]discuss things with somebody
  • vt+prep+Ndiscuss a topic N in a discriminating way
  • vt(oN)discuss the contextually determinate N
   zhēng OC: skreeŋ MC: ʈʂɣɛŋ 6 Attributions

Zhēng 爭 refers to an eristic discussion or an altercation, and the word emphasises the intellectual conflict involved. See STRUGGLE.

  • vt[oN]engage in discussion
  • vtoNenter a debate about, enter a competitive argument about; be in dispute about; take issue with; quarrel about
  • vttoN1.+N2discuss N1 before a person N2
   jiǎng OC: krooŋʔ MC: kɣɔŋ 3 Attributions

4444Jiǎng 講 refers to discussing something as an important subject and in a systematic manner. 4444Jiǎng 講 refers to discussing something as an important subject and in a systematic manner.

  • vt[oN]engage in discussionsBUDDH: preach
  • vtoNdiscuss and study (something) as an important matter; take seriously; lecture onBUDDH: preach on
論議   lùn yì OC: ɡ-ruuns ŋrals MC: luo̝n ŋiɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPabactpublic discussions
  • VPt[oN]discuss things publicly
  • VPtoNdiscuss publicly
   tǎo OC: thuuʔ MC: thɑu 1 Attribution

Tǎo 討 is to engage in a deep and thorough discussion and investigation of something.

  • vtoNLY: enter into a deep discussion of, mostly orally
   zhèng OC: skreeŋs MC: ʈʂɣɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabactengaging in competitive debates
爭論   zhēng lùn OC: skreeŋ ɡ-ruuns MC: ʈʂɣɛŋ luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPiactenage in formal debate
討論   tǎo lùn OC: thuuʔ ɡ-ruuns MC: thɑu luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcomment on, give one's appraisal of
談論   tán lùn OC: ɡ-laam ɡ-ruuns MC: dɑm luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • NPabactdiscourse
  • VPiactdiscuss matters
講論   jiǎng lùn OC: krooŋʔ ɡ-ruuns MC: kɣɔŋ luo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPiactengage in discussions, discuss
   biàn MC: bjenX OC: brenʔ 1 Attribution
  • nabactdisquisition
   pǐn OC: phrɯmʔ MC: phim 0 Attributions
  • vtoNstativeappreciate
   shāng OC: qhjaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vimathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
   píng OC: breŋ MC: bɣaŋ 0 Attributions

Píng 評 is a rare word that refers to discussion. (NB: this word enjoyed a renaissance and become more common in post-Buddhist times.)

  • vtoNshangjunshu: assess and discuss orally or in writing
平畫   píng huò OC: breŋ ɢʷreeɡ MC: bɣaŋ ɦɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • VPiactdiscuss strategy
評詳   píng xiáng OC: breŋ sɢlaŋ MC: bɣaŋ zi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)discuss and advise in detail on a contextually determinate matter
論及   lùn jí OC: ɡ-ruuns ɡrɯb MC: luo̝n gip 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativetouch upon in one's discussions; come to discuss; come to talk about
論說   lún shuō OC: ɡ-run lʰod MC: lʷin ɕiɛt 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNdiscuss; argue about

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: