CONFORM  依照

ACT so as to NOT to OFFEND against RULES OR a MODEL.
FOLLOW CONVENTIONBE CONVENTIONALFIT INADAPTADJUSTFOLLOW THE CROWDCOMPLYACQUIESCETOE THE LINEFOLLOW THE RULESSUBMITYIELD
Old Chinese Criteria

1. Perhaps the most general and the most current word describing conformity to a norm is shùn 順 (ant. nì 逆 "go against").

2. Yóu 由 refers to conformity construed as a matter of taking something as one's starting point or point of orientation.

3. Dào 道 refers to conformity construed as a matter of taking one's model to define the way of doing things for one.

4. Yǐ 以 refers to conformity construed as a matter of availing oneself of something as an instrument or guideline.

5. Yīn 因 refers to conformity construed as a matter of adapting to pre-existing models or rules.

6. Yuán 緣 refers to conformity construed as a matter of following something attentively in all details as a guideline.

7. Shǒu 守 refers to conformity construed as a matter of guarding a precedent or a tradition.

8. Zhōu 周 and hé 合 (all ant. fǎn 反 "go against the model") refer to complete all-round conformity construed as overall identification with a model.

9. Chèn 稱 refers to conformity construed as a matter of balancing one's actions against a standard.

10. Yìng 應 and

shì 適 refer to conformity construed as a matter of responding adequately to given facts.

12. Cóng 從 and suí 隨 refer to conformity construed as a matter of following a lead.

12. Tīng 聽 refers specifically to a superior acting in conformity with his inferior's suggestions.

Modern Chinese Criteria

依照 focusses on objects like regulations, rules, and laws.

按照 is the standard way of saying "according to".

根據 focusses on the use of the object as evidence in a possibly problematic argument.

比照

遵照

遵循

相合

照 "according to" is colloquial and limited to certain context like 照習慣, where 按照習慣 seems redundant.

依 "according to" is limited to certain contexts like 依你說.

按 "according to" is fairly limited to certain idiomatic contexts like 按理, 按說, but also the freeer 按條件.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 264

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.49

ANPASSUNG

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 306

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 508

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 14

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.15:14

RESSEMBLANCE.CONFORMITE

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 298

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 509

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 324
  • vtoN.adV : 45
  • vt+prep+N : 24
  • vt(oN) : 21
  • vtoNab : 17
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 9
  • vi : 7
  • VPtoN : 7
  • NPab : 4
  • nab : 4
  • vt(oN.)adV : 2
  • vttoN1.postvtoN2{OBJ} : 2
  • padV : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • PPadS1.postS2 : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • vadV : 1
  • vtoN.postadV : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • vi.red : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • VPt[0]oN : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • vtoN.adS : 1
  • vttoN1(.+N2) : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • vi2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 113
  • 春秋左傳 : 45
  • 荀子 : 42
  • 論語 : 33
  • 說苑 : 26
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 15
  • 戰國策 : 15
  • 禮記 : 14
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 莊子 : 11
  • 論衡 : 11
  • 百喻經 : 11
  • 臨濟錄 : 11
  • 管子 : 10
  • 孟子 : 9
  • 呂氏春秋 : 8
  • 孝經 : 7
  • 史記 : 6
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 6
  • 六祖壇經 : 6
  • 法句經 : 6
  • 淮南子 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 文子 : 5
  • 尚書 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 3
  • 黃帝內經 : 3
  • 楚辭 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 笑林一卷 : 2
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
  • 忠經 : 2
  • 老子乙本卷前古佚書 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 周易 : 1

Words

   cóng OC: dzoŋ MC: dzi̯oŋ 53 Attributions

Cóng 從 and suí 隨 refer to conformity construed as a matter of following a lead.

  • vt(oN.)adVconforming to the contextually determinate N
  • vt(oN)conform to them; decide to follow (something contextually determinate)
  • vtoNfigurativedecide to follow (advice or suggestions); follow intentions; obey (laws etc); act in accordance with (a tradition etc); LY: follow (a dynasty) and take one's values from; follow (a path[which is not an ordinary act of following behind])
  • vtoNfigurativebe followed
  • vtoNprocessfollow suit; suffer the same fate
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2cause N to follow N
  • vtoNbecome a follower of
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 34 Attributions

Yǐ 以 refers to conformity construed as a matter of availing oneself of something as an instrument or guideline.

  • vt[0]oN.postadVe.g. 使民以時 "employ the people according to the seasons" in accordance with, according to
  • vt[0]oN.postadVreflexive.己e.g. 取人以己 "select people by one's own standard": in accordance with (oneself)
  • vtoN.adVe.g. 以道事君 "serve the ruler according to the Way": according to, in the way of (emperor Yáo etc); according to (the right season)
  • vtoN.adVreflexive.己e.g. 以己知人 "understand others on the basis of oneself": in accordance with/on the basis of (oneself)
  • DELETEin accordance with N
  • vtoNe.g. 必以信 "be sure to conform to good faith": use/conform to as a standard of behaviour
  • vtoNderivedconforming to N/in the opinion of N
   shùn OC: ɢjuns MC: ʑʷin 34 Attributions

Perhaps the most general and the most current word describing conformity to a norm is shùn 順 (ant. nì 逆 "go against").

  • nabconformity, agreement
  • vtoN.adVfollowing along N to V
  • vtoNaccord with, act in accordance with (something stable and preexisting); adapt properly to; conform to the ways of
  • vtoNpassivebe accorded with, be conformed to
  • vt+prep+Nconform to
  • vadVaccordingly, in the same spirit
   tīng OC: theeŋ MC: theŋ 32 Attributions

Tīng 聽 refers specifically to a superior acting in conformity with his inferior's suggestions. See OBEY

  • nabactacting in accordance with a plan
  • viactfollow advice
  • vt(oN)heed or conform to a contextually determinate object
  • vt+prep+Nact according to advice from N
  • vtoN.adVto V according to N's instructions
  • vtoNconcur with; be agreeable to; heed, follow the advice of; Danish: ta til efterretning; lend an ear to
  • vtoNpassivehave one's advice acted upon
   yóu OC: liw MC: jɨu 23 Attributions

Yóu 由 refers to conformity construed as a matter of taking something as one's starting point or point of orientation.

  • vt(oN)conform to the contextually determinate pattern N
  • vtoN.adVreflexive.己following (oneself)> following one's own instincts to V
  • vtoNtake as one's starting point, start out from; follow as a path or course of action
  • vtoNreflexive.自take as one's point of departure, follow
  • vtoNpassivebe followed
   yòng OC: k-loŋs MC: ji̯oŋ 22 Attributions
  • vtoNfollow the advice of; obey (laws) 蚩尤作亂,不用帝命。
  • vtoNpassiveget followed (of advice) (parallel to tīng 聽 "get listened to")
  • vtoNpsychconform to (oneself)> be wilful, be opinionated
  • vtoNpsychconform to (oneself)> be wilful, be opinionated
    OC:  MC:  22 Attributions

Cóng 從 and suí 隨 refer to conformity construed as a matter of following a lead.

  • vt+prep+Nconform to
  • vtoN.adVfigurativein accordance with
  • vtoNfigurativefollow in an abstract manner> conform to, adapt to, go along with
   yī OC: qɯl MC: ʔɨi 21 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nconform to (rules)
  • vtoN.adVin conformity with
  • vtoNfollow (a pattern, a model); act in accordance with
  • vt(oN.)adVin accordance with the contextually determinate N> accordingly
   hé OC: ɡloob MC: ɦəp 19 Attributions

Zhōu 周 and hé 合 (all ant. fǎn 反 "go against the model") refer to complete all-round conformity construed as overall identification with a model.

  • vt[oN]be suitable, conform to what is needed
  • vt+prep+Nstativecome to conform to, conform to; be in accordance with; be in conformity with
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with
  • vtoNconform to, be in congruence with
  • vtoNconativetry to conform to
  • vtoNstativehappen to be in conformance with, happen to be in congruence with; be suitable for
  • vt(oN)conform to the contextually determinate N
   xún OC: sɢlun MC: zʷin 18 Attributions
  • vi.redbe very consistent
  • vtoNact in accordance with; be in accordance with; obey (the law)
  • vtoN.adVV in accordance with N
   yīn OC: qin MC: ʔin 17 Attributions

Yīn 因 refers to conformity construed as a matter of adapting to pre-existing models or rules.

  • vt(oN)conform to or keep on the right side of the contextually determinate N; adapt to circumstances
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with
  • vtoNadapt to, go along with; conform to the wishes of
  • vttoN1(.+N2)make N1 conform to the contextually determinate N2
  • vtoNpassivebe conformed to
   shǒu OC: qhjuʔ MC: ɕɨu 17 Attributions

Shǒu 守 refers to conformity construed as a matter of guarding a precedent or a tradition.

  • vtoNabkeep in conformity with (Nature, the Way); observe carefully (duties etc); devote oneself carefully to the demands of
   rú OC: nja MC: ȵi̯ɤ 16 Attributions
  • vt[0]oN.postadVV in accordance with N, as in the case of N
  • vtoN.adSaccording to
  • vtoN.adVV according to N
  • vtoNconform to, act in conformity with, act in accordance with; do as in the case of, act as in the case of; act accordingly
   zhòng OC: krluŋs MC: ʈuŋ 11 Attributions
  • vtoNcorrespond exactly to, be exactly appropriate for; be in conformity with
   yìng OC: qɯŋs MC: ʔɨŋ 10 Attributions

Yìng 應 refers to conformity construed as a matter of responding adequately to given events or changes.

  • viactcorrespond, resonate
  • vtoNcorrespond to, resonate with; respond positively to; (> to inluence)
  • vt(oN)resonate, respond positively
  • vtoNstativebe in conformity with
   yú OC: qa MC: ʔi̯ɤ 8 Attributions
  • vt[0]oN.postadVon the basis of
  • vt[0]oN.postadVreflexive.己on the basis of oneself
  • vtoNconform to [See also the entries for this word under RELY ON and THINK.
   shì OC: qljeɡ MC: ɕiɛk 8 Attributions

Shì 適 refers to conformity construed as a matter of responding adequately to given facts or a given situation.

  • viactadapt to circumstances
  • vtoNadapt to, accommodate to, cause oneself to fit into; SHI 94: comply with, live up to (hopes, wishes); fit in with; please
  • vtoNcausativecause to conform to standards, cause to be appropriate MOVE TO APPROPRIATE
  • vtoNstativemiddle voice: be adapted to
  • vttoN1.+N2reflexive.自adapt (oneself) to, orientate (oneself) towards
   rù OC: njub MC: ȵip 8 Attributions
  • vtoNenter the realm of so as to conform to;
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 7 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with, basing oneself on
  • vtoNbase oneself on
  • vtoN.postadVbasing oneself on, conforming to
   chí OC: ɡrlɯ MC: ɖɨ 6 Attributions
  • vtoNadhere to, conform to
相應   xiāng yìng OC: sqaŋ qɯŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ ʔɨŋ 6 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: accordance, appropriate response; skr. anvita, yukti, sambandha, samprayoga
  • NPabpsychcorrespondence; conformity
  • VPtoNor VPi ?? be in accordance with, be in harmony with
偶 / 耦   ǒu OC: ŋooʔ MC: ŋu ǒu OC: ŋooʔ MC: ŋu 5 Attributions
  • vifit the circumstances; happen to fit the circumstances
  • vtoNconform to, adapt to
   àn OC: qaans MC: ʔɑn 5 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with, following, along with
  • vtoNtake as a formal standard
   dào OC: ɡ-luuʔ MC: dɑu 5 Attributions

Dào 道 refers to conformity construed as a matter of taking one's model to define the way of doing things for one.

  • vtoNputativeREGARD AS THE WAY TO GO> follow the path of
   jū OC: ka MC: ki̯ɤ 4 Attributions
  • vt(oN)comport oneself in accordance with (a contextually determinate object); practise some virtue; aspire to achievement of a certain virtue
  • vtoNprepositionbehave according to (a position) 居於, comport oneself in accordance with, practise the virtue of
   yuàn OC: k-lons MC: jiɛn 4 Attributions

Yuán 緣 refers to conformity construed as a matter of following something attentively in all details as a guideline.

  • nabactcompliance
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with, on the basis of
  • vtoNkeep carefully in constant accordance with, comply with attentively; be concerned with, aim for
   ruò OC: njaɡ MC: ȵi̯ɐk 4 Attributions
  • vtoNconform with, do like, act like
  • vtoNpsychconform to (one's own) wishes
   zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 3 Attributions

Zhōu 周 and hé 合 (all ant. fǎn 反 "go against the model") refer to complete all-round conformity construed as overall identification with a model.

  • vt+prep+Ncomply consistently with, conform throughout to 周乎
  • vi2fit together
   tóng MC: duwng OC: looŋ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNconform to in action
  • vttoN1.postvtoN2{OBJ}conform to N2 with respect to N1
   yì OC: k-laɡ MC: jiɛk 2 Attributions
  • padVaccordingly
作 / 作 / 作   zuò OC: tsaaɡs MC: tsuo̝ zuò OC: tsaals MC: tsɑ zuò OC: tsaaɡ MC: tsɑk 2 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVbased on N
便   biàn OC: bens MC: biɛn 2 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nconform to N
  • vtoNpassivebe adapted to, be conveniently accommodated
   zé OC: skɯɯɡ MC: tsək 2 Attributions

Zé 則 refers to the following of a certain abstract principle or model person to which due attention is paid. See CONFORM

  • vtoNconform to, model oneself on
   jiù OC: dzuɡs MC: dzɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoN.adVbasing oneself on, being in accordance with GUAN
  • vtoNbase oneself on, conform to SHI
   xiào OC: ɡreews MC: ɦɣɛu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNact in accordance with
  • vtoNstativebe appropriate for
   qū OC: khoɡ MC: khi̯ok 2 Attributions
  • viactbe compliant
  • vtoNconform to informally
   yóu OC: k-lu MC: jɨu 2 Attributions
  • vtoNactconform to
   dāng OC: taaŋ MC: tɑŋ 2 Attributions
  • vt(oN)be in precise accordance with something contextually determinate
  • vtoN.adVbeing in an exact fit with, being in precise accordance with
  • vtoNconform to, correspond to, be in accordance with
   jīng OC: keeŋ MC: keŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfollow as one's guideline
   xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativefollow the policies of
  • vt(oN)act/move in accordance with the contextually determinate N
   qīn OC: tshiŋ MC: tshin 2 Attributions
  • vtoNkeep in close accordance with (the law)
   suì OC: sɢluds MC: zi 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfollow and act in accordance with, comply with
  • vt(oN)go along with the wishes of
  • vt+prep+Nadapt to
   shù 2 Attributions
  • vtoNto abide by N (very probably originally putative "to consider N the right way" and/or cognate if not identical with 述)
   bìng OC: beeŋʔ MC: beŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNgo along, conform (with someone) 與客並
   kě OC: khlaalʔ MC: khɑ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbe in conformity with, conform to; be suitable to
   qiǎo OC: khruuʔ MC: khɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform craftily to, use all one's skill in conforming to
   fǎng OC: paŋʔ MC: pi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Nabandon oneself to conformity with
   quán OC: ɡron MC: giɛn 1 Attribution
  • nabactadjustment, adaptability, adaptative application of a rule according to circumstance
  • vadVadapting properly to circumstances
   guī OC: klul MC: kɨi 1 Attribution
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2causativecause (someone N1) to converge on (an object N2) 歸之於, cause to be orientated towards 歸之於功
  • vt+prep+Nconform as one should to, conform properly to
   bì OC: bis MC: bi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNstativebe appropriate for
   chéng OC: deŋ MC: ɖiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe inaccordance with certain standards
   yǔ OC: k-laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adVin conformity with (like 以)
   xiàng OC: sɢlaŋʔ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adVin accordance with
   fù OC: phoɡs MC: phi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform to (ritual)?? 赴禮
   jiàn OC: dzenʔ MC: dziɛn 1 Attribution
  • vichangecome to pass; be realised, come true (of dreams etc)
   guǐ OC: kʷruʔ MC: ki 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfollow the standard set by (the law) 軌於, keep in accordance with
   zhú OC: rlɯwɡ MC: ɖuk 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.adVto V conforming to N
   yù OC: ŋos MC: ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform to (the law)
   hé OC: ɡaab MC: ɦɑp 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Nstativefit with
將從   jiāng cóng OC: skaŋ dzoŋ MC: tsi̯ɐŋ dzi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfollow the tradition of
應適   yìng shì OC: qɯŋs qljeɡ MC: ʔɨŋ ɕiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNadapt to
曲順   qū shùn OC: khoɡ ɢjuns MC: khi̯ok ʑʷin 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNadapt oneself to so as to conform with
有如   yǒu rú OC: ɢʷɯʔ nja MC: ɦɨu ȵi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[0]oNoptativemay things be as N decides
緣合   yuán hé OC: k-lon ɡloob MC: jiɛn ɦəp 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)omconform through the (right) preconditions > conform to a contextually determinate N
逆從   nì cóng OC: ŋɡlaɡ dzoŋ MC: ŋɣɛk dzi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNwelcome and follow> accommodate gladly
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform to, adjust to
   hé MC: hwa OC: ɡool 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform, align oneself with
   qí MC: dzej OC: dziil 1 Attribution
  • vtoNconform to
   xū  MC: sju  OC: so  1 Attribution
  • vtoNmutualconform to each other
依而   yī ér MC: 'j+j nyi OC: qɯl njɯ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVaccordingly
因循   yīn xún MC: 'jin zwin OC: qin sɢlun 1 Attribution
  • NPabactadapting to conditions, compliance with surroundings
拘守   jū shǒu  MC: kju syuwX  OC: ko qhjuʔ  1 Attribution
  • VPiobserve carefully one's duties
亦猶   yì yóu MC: yek yuw OC: k-laɡ k-lu 1 Attribution
  • PPadS1.postS2fact in S1 is just as that in S2
   yǔ OC: laʔ MC: ji̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNaccept as a standard; defer to
   xùn OC:  MC: suo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vtoNconform reverently to
   xī OC: qhrub MC: hip 0 Attributions
  • vtoNconform to
   chóu OC: ɡju MC: dʑɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNconform to (the law) ???
允符   yǔn fú OC: k-lunʔ bo MC: jʷin bi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNtally with, conform to, match with (Tang)
即合所問   jí hé suǒ wèn OC: tsɯɡ ɡloob sqraʔ mɯns MC: tsɨk ɦəp ʂi̯ɤ mi̯un 0 Attributions
  • VPimathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNconform to
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNmutualconform to each other
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPadVaccordingly

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: