BASIC NATURE  性質性/情

BASIC FEATURE, OR FEATURE EXISTING IN something FROM BIRTH.
ESSENCEINHERENT/BASIC/ESSENTIAL QUALITIESINHERENT/BASIC/ESSENTIAL FEATURESCHARACTERCOMPLEXION
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current and quite dominant word for the stable inherent and prototypically innate features of something is xìng 性 (ant. wéi 為 "what belongs to human action", and wěi 偽 "artificial").

2. Qíng 情 (ant. wěi 偽 "artificical acquired character") refers to the basic nature of a thing as forming a pattern of reaction to other things.

3. Xīn 心 refers specifically to psychological aspects of animate nature.

4. Tiān 天 refers specifically to the non-man-made aspect of the nature of things.

5. Zī 資 refers to human nature as an endowment and an asset given to man by nature.

6. Wéi rén 為人 and wéi wù 為物 the possibly conditioned and hardly alterable basic constitutive nature of thing.

7. Rén qíng 人情 refers to the natural sensibilities of humans.

Modern Chinese Criteria

性質

習性

生性

特性

屬性

性能

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

NATURE

natura refers to a disposition insofar as this constitutes the immovable ground of human individuality, and is not susceptible to change, and the special reference tends to be to the sensibilities of the heart.

ingenium focusses that part of natura which concerns particularly the faculties of the mind.

indoles refers to human disposition in so far as it constitutes only the beginning of an individuality which can devekop from it, and is susceptible to improvement.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 22

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 42

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.48

ANGEBOREN

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.53

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 271

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.899

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.753

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 6.421

ZHANG DAINIAN 2002 Key Concepts in Chinese Philosophy 367

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

HUMAN NATURE

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 63

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NPab[.post-N] : 30
  • nab.post-N : 29
  • NPab : 27
  • nab : 23
  • nab(.post-N) : 9
  • nab[.post-N] : 8
  • NPab{vt+N} : 6
  • nadV : 5
  • NPab{N1adN2} : 4
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • NPab[post-N].adV : 2
  • NP : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • NPab.adN : 1
  • NPadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 六祖壇經 : 40
  • 祖堂集 : 19
  • 韓非子 : 18
  • 荀子 : 16
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 臨濟錄 : 5
  • 論衡 : 4
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 類說 : 3
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 春秋左傳 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 文子 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 論語 : 2
  • 禮記 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 管子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 忠經 : 1

Words

   xìng OC: seŋs MC: siɛŋ 48 Attributions

The current and quite dominant word for the stable inherent and prototypically innate features of something is xìng 性 (ant. wéi 為 "what belongs to human action", and wěi 偽"artificial").

  • nab.post-Nmetaphysicalthe basic nature (of N) (many of the examples in nab - meta need to be moved here)
  • nab.post-V{NUM}natures
  • nab(.post-N)one's own nature
  • nab[.post-N]one's own nature; the nature of a thing
  • nab.post-Nnatural inborn endowment, inborn nature, basic nature; natural condition, natural tendency; natural disposition, character; natural endowmentsBUDDH: in the Zen Buddhist context, xìng usually refers to one's 'Buddha-nature' (see fóxìng 佛性 ) (the inborn, naturally perfect and nature of each sentient being, overclouded (but not changed!) by the deluded activities of the mind)
  • nadVby inborn nature
   qíng OC: dzeŋ MC: dziɛŋ 23 Attributions

Qíng 情 (ant. wěi 偽 "artificical acquired character") refers to the basic nature of a thing as forming a pattern of reaction to other things.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}metaphysicalessential tendency, natural basic inclination 人有六情
  • nabmetaphysicalgenuine nature, essential nature, essence; esential tendencies
  • nadNessential
自性   zì xìng OC: sblids seŋs MC: dzi siɛŋ 20 Attributions
  • NPab.adNcharacterised by self-nature
  • NPab[.post-N]one's own basic self-nature
  • NPab[post-N].adVin your own nature
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: self-nature; intrinsic nature; essential nature (i.e. something which exits independently from other constituents of existense, therefore "self-nature" is denied in Buddhist philosophy) SANSKRIT: tathatā; dharmatā; svabhāva; prakṛti See DDB: http://www.buddhism-dict.net/cgi-bin/xpr-ddb.pl?81.xml+id('b81ea-6027')
  • NPadVby virtue of basic nature
本性   běn xìng OC: pɯɯnʔ seŋs MC: puo̝n siɛŋ 14 Attributions
  • NPab[.post-N]metaphysicalone's basic original nature; their own basic nature5
  • NPaboriginal nature, basic nature BUDDH: in the Buddhist context often used syn. to 佛性 Buddha-nature, 真心 True Mind, etc.
  • NPadNof the original nature
佛性   fó xìng OC: bɯd seŋs MC: bi̯ut siɛŋ 13 Attributions
  • NPab[.post-N]BUDDH: one's Buddha-nature (the seeds of Buddhahood every sentient being is endowed with); one of the most important terms in East Asian Buddhism
人情   rén qíng OC: njin dzeŋ MC: ȵin dziɛŋ 4 Attributions

Rén qíng 人情 refers to the natural sensibilities of humans.

  • NPab{N1adN2}nonreferentialhuman nature; human affective proclivities; human sensibilities
法性   fǎ xìng OC: pab seŋs MC: pi̯ɐp siɛŋ 4 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: Dharma-nature (the true nature of all dharmas; syn. to zhēnxìng 真性 True Nature and zhēn fǎxìng 真法性 True Dharma-nature; often also used syn. to zhēnrú 真如 'Thusness' and zhēnlì 真理 'True Prinicple'; the common basic feature (相) of all dharmas; also indentified with Emptiness (空) which is the common feature of the dharmas (DAZHIDULUN 大智度論 32) SANSKRIT dharmatā; PALI dhammatā
情性   qíng xìng OC: dzeŋ seŋs MC: dziɛŋ siɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalreal nature, basic nature
為物   wéi wù OC: ɢʷal mɯd MC: ɦiɛ mi̯ut 3 Attributions

Wéi rén 為人 and wéi wù 為物 the possibly conditioned and hardly alterable basic constitutive nature of thing.

  • NPab{vt+N}metaphysicalintrinsic essential nature 《文選·陸機〈文賦〉》:"其為物也多姿,其為體也屢遷。"
為道   wéi dào OC: ɢʷal ɡ-luuʔ MC: ɦiɛ dɑu 3 Attributions
  • NPab{vt+N}metaphysicalessential dynamic nature (of a thing), natural tendency
覺性   jué xìng OC: kruuɡ seŋs MC: kɣɔk siɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: awakened nature > this is a rare syn. for fóxìng 佛性 Buddha-nature capacity for enlightenment
材性   cái xìng MC: dzoj sjengH OC: sɡɯɯ seŋs 3 Attributions
  • nab[.post-N]one's basic nature
   xīn OC: slɯm MC: sim 2 Attributions

Xīn 心 refers specifically to psychological aspects of animate nature.

  • nabpsychmental make-up; natural way of thinking (note 天人之心)
   cáng OC: sɡaaŋ MC: dzɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychtemperament, real inclinations???
心性   xīn xìng OC: slɯm seŋs MC: sim siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabdispositionpsychological disposition
業性   yè xìng OC: ŋab seŋs MC: ŋi̯ɐp siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: self-nature of deeds/karma (i.e. sentient beings engage in activities of the body, speech, and the mind, creating karma through a chain of cause and effect, which ulitmately binds them to the cycle of life and death)
真性   zhēn xìng OC: tjin seŋs MC: tɕin siɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychtrue nature BUDDH: in the Buddhist context usually identical with the Buddha-nature
性命之情   xìng mìng zhī qíng OC: seŋs mɢreŋs kljɯ dzeŋ MC: siɛŋ mɣaŋ tɕɨ dziɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabmetaphysicalthe essence of one's natural endowment and fate
才性   cái xìng MC: dzoj sjengH OC: sɡɯɯ seŋs 1 Attribution
  • NPnatural abilities
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabfeaturecharacter assigned by fate 天命
   zī OC: sti MC: tsi 0 Attributions

Zī 資 refers to human nature as an endowment and an asset given to man by nature.

  • nabfeaturebasic nature, basic endowment; disposition, character
稟性   bǐng xìng OC: prɯmʔ seŋs MC: pim siɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturethe nature one has received naturally
稟氣   bǐng qì OC: prɯmʔ khɯds MC: pim khɨi 0 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalreceived vital energies defining one's personality
如來藏   rú lái zàng OC: nja m-rɯɯ sɡaaŋs MC: ȵi̯ɤ ləi dzɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalBUDDH: storehouse/embryo/matrix of the Tathāgata; SANSKRIT tathāgatagarbha (tathāgatagarhba theories are of paramount importance for the development of East Asian Buddhism; in the context of Chinese Buddhism the term often refers to the existence of an 'embryonic Buddha' in each sentient being which anticipates its enlightenment, the term is closeley related to the concepts of 'pure nature' and 'Buddha-nature' (佛性)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: