APPEARANCE  外貌

CLEAR:visible BUT SUBJECTIVELY PERCEIVED FEATURES.
Old Chinese Criteria

[[CURRENT/RARE]]

[DELIBERATE/INVOLUNTARY]

[DYNAMIC/STATIC]

[OUTLINE/SURFACE]

[SIGNIFICANT/SUPERFICIAL]

1. Mào 貌 (ant. xīn 心 "real inner feelings") emphasises the merely external as less than indicative of what is inside, and this is the most general word.

[GENERAL], [STATIC], [SUPERFICIAL]

2. Sè 色 (ant. xīn 心 "real inner feelings") is external appearance, particular facial expression, expressive of or productive of feeling. Thus hǎo sè 好色 is the kind of appearance which, being attractive, causes men to feel attracted. Hào sè 好色 "love beautiful women" involves a different meaning of the word: "female beauty; sex".

[SIGNIFICANT+], [VOLUNTARY!]

3. Zhuàng 狀 "external shape" and xíng 形 "physical form" (ant. zhì 質 "real inner substance") emphasise three-dimensional appearance as such. See SHAPE

[INVOLUNTARY], [STATIC], [SUPERFICIAL]

4. Zī 姿 is rare and emphasises the dynamic gestural aspect of one's external appearance.

[DYNAMIC], [DELIBERATE]; [[RARE]]

5. Tài 態 views external appearance as a typically deliberate manifestation of an attitude or stance.

[DELIBERATE], [DYNAMIC], [SIGNIFICANT]

6. Róng 容 refers to the contours of a person, expecially the contours of his or her face. See FACE.

[DYNAMIC], [OUTLINE]

7. Wài 外 (ant. nèi 內 "inner reality") refers colourlessly and neutrally to outer apperance as opposed to inner reality.

[OUTLINE], [STATIC]

8. Xiàng 相 refers to the outward appearance of something as profoundly indicative of inward qualities (as in physiognomy).

[INVOLUNTARY], [SIGNIFICANT], [STATIC]

Modern Chinese Criteria

外貌

容貌

相貌

面貌

品貌

面相

長相

形相

面容

姿容

容顏

眉眼

眉目

面目

模樣

樣子

形容

儀容

臉子

眉宇 (lit)

芝宇 (lit)

眉睫

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH/

Old Chinese Contrasts

The KEY IDEA underlying the concept of APPEARANCE is the thought that things can fail to be objectively what they seem to be subjectively.

89

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 15.54

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 106

APPARENCE

Useful brief analysis.

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 373

ERSCHEINUNG

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 464

APPARENTIA

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 167

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 69

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache I.452

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.411

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.724

ERSCHEINUNG

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 7.462

PHAENOMEN

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy 1.229

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 5.365

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.176.136.

EXTERIEUR.DEHORS.APPARENCE

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 113
  • NPab : 18
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 13
  • NP : 4
  • VPi : 4
  • n : 4
  • NPab.adN : 2
  • nadS : 1
  • NPab(.post-N) : 1
  • NPab.adV : 1
  • NPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 祖堂集 : 23
  • 莊子 : 19
  • 韓非子 : 16
  • 荀子 : 11
  • 春秋左傳 : 11
  • 臨濟錄 : 11
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 六祖壇經 : 9
  • 論衡 : 7
  • 論語 : 6
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 說苑 : 4
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 史記 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   róng OC: k-loŋ MC: ji̯oŋ 44 Attributions

Róng 容 refers to the contours of a person, expecially the contours of his or her face. See FACE. [DYNAMIC], [OUTLINE]

  • nabfigurativecharactersiticts, description of one's appearance
  • nabactcharacteristic appearance; physiognomy (also of things generally) bodily comportment, physical expression; especially as expressive of inner mood or personality
  • nabactproper dignified appearance, appropriate form, ritually correct form
   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 27 Attributions

Xiàng 相 refers to the outward appearance of something as profoundly indicative of inward qualities (as in physiognomy). [INVOLUNTARY], [SIGNIFICANT], [STATIC]

  • n{PRED}have the physiognomy of
  • nabfeatureexternal image, appearance 善相"appearance of excellence"
  • nabbuddhistBUDDH: characteristic; mark; distinguishing feature; sometimes trans. skr. lakṣana
   zhuàng OC: sɡraŋs MC: ɖʐi̯ɐŋ 14 Attributions

Zhuàng 狀 "external shape" and xíng 形 "physical form" (ant. zhì 質 "real inner substance") emphasise three-dimensional appearance as such. See SHAPE INVOLUNTARY, STATC, SUPERFICIAL

  • nabfeatureexternal appearance, form
  • nadSapparently
容貌   róng mào OC: k-loŋ mreews MC: ji̯oŋ mɣɛu 14 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}featurecomportment and appearance
  • NPab(.post-N)featurethe contextually determinate N's appearance
   mào OC: mreews MC: mɣɛu 12 Attributions

Mào 貌 (ant. xīn 心 "real inner feelings") emphasises the merely external as less than indicative of what is inside, and this is the most general word. [GENERAL], [STATIC], [SUPERFICIAL]

  • nabstativecharacteristic external appearance; characteristic outer aspects
   sè OC: sqrɯɡ MC: ʂɨk 10 Attributions

Sè 色 (ant. xīn 心 "real inner feelings") is external appearance, particular facial expression, expressive of or productive of feeling. Thus hǎo sè 好色 is the kind of appearance which, being attractive, causes men to feel attracted. Hào sè 好色 "love beautiful women" involves a different meaning of the word: "female beauty; sex". [SIGNIFICANT+], [VOLUNTARY!]

  • nabfeatureexpressive appearance, air
無相   wú xiàng OC: ma sqaŋs MC: mi̯o si̯ɐŋ 10 Attributions
  • NPab.adNbuddhistBUDDH: formless, without mark; without distinguishing features
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: No-mark, No-characteristic, Formlessness (the true feature of all dharmas; see shíxiàng 實相); skr. animitta
  • VPibuddhistBUDDH: be without distinguishing feature, be formless, be No-mark (see also shíxiàng 實相)
法相   fǎ xiàng OC: pab sqaŋs MC: pi̯ɐp si̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • NPabfeatureBUDDH: features of dharmas; mere appearances
   xiàng OC: sɢlaŋʔ MC: zi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • nshape, image (physical representation of something)
   tài OC: nʰɯɯs MC: thəi 3 Attributions

Tài 態 views external appearance as a typically deliberate manifestation of an attitude or stance. [DELIBERATE], [DYNAMIC], [SIGNIFICANT]

  • nabfeatureappearance, manifestation
形色   xíng sè OC: ɡeeŋ sqrɯɡ MC: ɦeŋ ʂɨk 3 Attributions
  • NPphysical appearance
三十二相   sān shí èr xiàng OC: saam ɡjub njis sqaŋs MC: sɑm dʑip ȵi si̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPabBUDDH: the thirty-two major physical characterstics of a Buddha; skr. dvātriṃśadvaralakṣaṇa
  • NPadNbuddhistBUDDH: equipped with the thirty-two major physical characterstics of a Buddha
姿   zī OC: sti MC: tsi 2 Attributions

Zī 姿 is rare and emphasises the dynamic gestural aspect of one's external appearance. [DYNAMIC], [VOLUNTARY]; [RARE]

  • nabfeaturelooks, appearance; posture; manner
四相   sì xiàng OC: plids sqaŋs MC: si si̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabmetaphysicalBUDDH: the four marks or features of all existing phenomena: 生 birth/arising 住 conintuation/abiding 異 change 滅 extinction/cessation See DDB: http://www.buddhism-dict.net/cgi-bin/xpr-ddb.pl?56.xml+id('b56db-76f8')
   wài OC: ŋoods MC: ŋɑi 1 Attribution

Wài 外 (ant. nèi 內 "inner reality") refers colourlessly and neutrally to outer apperance as opposed to inner reality. [OUTLINE], [STATIC]

  • nabfeatureouter appearance
   yàng OC: k-laŋs MC: ji̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

yàng

  • nabfeatureTANG, Dù Fǔ: appearance, shape
形狀   xíng zhuàng OC: ɡeeŋ sɡraŋs MC: ɦeŋ ɖʐi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabappearance
相形   xiāng xíng OC: sqaŋ ɡeeŋ MC: si̯ɐŋ ɦeŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfigurativemark; characterstic; feature
相狀   xiàng zhuàng OC: sqaŋs sɡraŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ ɖʐi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPfeatureappearance, external image (Northern Wei ?)
梵音相   fàn yīn xiàng OC: bloms qrɯm sqaŋs MC: bi̯ɐm ʔim si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabBUDDH: one of the thirty-two physical characteristics (see 三十二相) of a Buddha: the sound of the voice of the Buddha, being described as pure and resembling the sound of heavenly drums; whoever hears it feels joy and gains profit; SANSKRIT brahma-svara; PALI brahmassara
外貌   wài mào MC: ngwajH -- OC: ŋoods mreews 1 Attribution
  • NPab.adVin appearance
儀狀   yí zhuàng MC: ngje -- OC: ŋral sɡraŋs 1 Attribution
  • NPabappearance
   shēng OC: qjeŋ MC: ɕiɛŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalpublic appearace
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • nabmetaphysicalwhat may be observed: appearance MO
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • nabfeatureZHUANG: external appearance

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: