GARMENT  衣服

CLOTH ARTEFACT WORN by HUMANS to COVER PARTS their BODIES AND TO CAUSE THEMSELVES FOR BEING COMFORTABLE.
CLOTHESITEM OF CLOTHINGARTICLE OF CLOTHINGINFORMAL GETUP(GARMENTS) CLOTHESCLOTHINGDRESSGARBOUTFITCOSTUMEATTIREINFORMAL GEARTOGSDUDSTHREADSFORMAL APPAREL
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for garments of any kind is yī 衣, and the word refers specifically to the upper garments like jackets rather than the lower garments like skirts. [HUANG 1995: 711 - 712]

2. Fú 服 refers to robes or formal dress. See COURT DRESS. The word refers to the specialized dress worn for various opportunities; mainly then to the formal court and ritual dress. The term refers not only to the cloth itself, but also to the various adornments belonging to it: [HUANG 1995: 713 - 714, 716 - 717]

3. Cháng 裳 refers to the part of the garment worn from the waist downwards. See SKIRT

4. Shén yí 深衣 refers to the cloth made in one piece, and not divided into the jacket and the skirt. This kind of cloth became popular in Warring States times, and was particularly common in the Han period. [HUANG 1995: 744 - 745, SUN 1991: 241; ill.: ZGYI 1996: tab. 49; SUN 1991: 60-1 - 60-5]

5. Paó 袍 is a kind of shén yí 深衣 which is long and consists of three layers of textile. From the Western Zhou till the Han, the term ussually referred to the undercloth, in Han times it began to be worn outside. [HUANG 1995: 745; SUN 1991: 243; ill.: SUN 60-6; ZGYI 1996: tab. 52; HAYASHI 1976: pp. 3, tab.1-3]

6. Chān tóu 襜褕 refers to the broad kind of shén yí 深衣, which came to use in Western Han times. Originally, it was a kind of unformal dress; since the Eastern Han, it could be used also on formal occassions. [SUN 1991: 243; ill.: SUN 1991: 60-7, 60-8]

7. Qiú 裘 refers to the fur garments which is mentioned already in SHIJING. It was worn in the winter. Fur garments for the upper class were usually made of fox or tiger skin, for the lower of dog or sheep skin. [HUANG 1995: 743]

8. Shù 裋 refers to the simple dress worn by humble people; it can be of various length and bredth. [HUANG 1995: 746 - 750; for the ordinary dress see ill.: SHEN 1992: tab. 70??]

9. Hè 褐 refers to the humble cloth worn by ordinary people, which is usually made of hemp, but also of animal hairs. The term partly overlaps with shù 裋, but refers more to the material then to the shape. [HUANG 1995: 748 - 750]

10. Rú 襦 refers to the short cloth reaching above the kneels; it can also refer to the child cloth. [ZGYI 1996: 220; ill.: SUN 1991: 59-3, 4; HAYASHI 1976: pp. 5, tab. 1-16; SHEN 1992: tab. 70]

11. Gǔn 袞, according to Han sources, refers to the ceremonial dress of the ruler embroidered with dragon design. [ZGYI 1996: 131]. In the Western Zhou and Chunqiu period, the term refers to the embroidered ritual dress. [XIANG 1997: 213 - 214; JWCYZD 1992: 804]

Modern Chinese Criteria

衣服

衣物

衣著

衣裳

衣衫

華服

服裝

服飾

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

LIJI 13; Couvreur 1.693f; Sūn X•dàn 8.44f; tr. Legge 2.10

士不衣織, 8. An (ordinary) officer did not wear anything woven of silk that had first been dyed.

無君者不貳采。 One who had left the service of his ruler wore no two articles of different colours.

衣正色, If the upper garment were one of the correct colours,

裳間色。 the lower garment was of the (corresponding) intermediate one.

tr. Legge 2.11

非列采不入公門, 9. One did not enter the ruler's gate without the proper colours in his dress;

振絺綌不入公門, nor in a single robe of grass-cloth, fine or coarse;

表裘不入公門, nor with his fur robe either displayed outside,

襲裘不入公門。 or entirely covered.

tr. Legge 2.11

纊為繭, 10. A garment wadded with new floss was called kien;

縕為袍, with old, ph‰o.

襌為絅, One unlined was called kiung;

帛為褶。 one lined, but not wadded, tie

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 6.12

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

GARMENT

vestis is the most general word for any clothes.

vestimentum is any single item of clothing.

amictus refers to the whole of the over-clothing.

amiculum refers to a single item of over-clothing, such as a cloak.

cultus refers to any item of clothing, girdle, hat, ornaments etc..

habitus refers to the general mode of dressing, carriage of the body etc.

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 220

Kleidung

FRANKE 1974 China Handbuch 630

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 711

KIESCHNICK 2003 The Impact of Buddhim on Chinese Material Culture 86-115

A description of the history of monastic uniforms.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

VESTIS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 31

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 4.1852

SANBAITI 1987 中國文化史三百題 247-256

STAIGER 2003 Das grosse China-Lexikon 372

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 152

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 156

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 188ff

POIRIER 1991 Histoire des moeurs 1.961

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.399.360

VETEMENT.HABILLEMENT.HABIT

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge 269

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

DRESS

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 39
  • NP : 27
  • NP{N1&N2} : 23
  • VPi : 12
  • NPm : 9
  • vi : 5
  • NP{N1=N2} : 4
  • n(post-N) : 3
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 3
  • NPm : 2
  • nm : 2
  • nadV : 2
  • nm[adN] : 2
  • VPadV : 1
  • NP{N1adN2} : 1
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadN : 1
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 21
  • 春秋左傳 : 15
  • 論語 : 14
  • 說苑 : 8
  • 韓非子 : 8
  • 管子 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 6
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 史記 : 5
  • 臨濟錄 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 3
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 法言 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 列子 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 類說 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 忠經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

衣服   yī fú OC: qɯl bɯɡ MC: ʔɨi buk 31 Attributions
  • NP{N1&N2}nonreferentialclothes; garment
  • NPgarment, clothes
  • NPab{N1&N2}actway of dressing
   yī OC: qɯl MC: ʔɨi 24 Attributions

The current general word for garments of any kind is yī 衣, and the word refers specifically to the upper garments like jackets rather than the lower garments like skirts. [HUANG 1995: 711 - 712]

  • n(primarily visible, outer) clothes (worn on the upper part of the body)
  • n(post-N)the garment of the contextually determiate N
  • n(post-N)one's garments
   fú OC: bɯɡ MC: buk 10 Attributions

Fú 服 refers to robes or formal dress. See COURT DRESS. The word refers to the specialized dress worn for various opportunities; mainly then to the formal court and ritual dress. The term refers not only to the cloth itself, but also to the various adornments belonging to it: [HUANG 1995: 713 - 714, 716 - 717]

  • n(often formal) robes
  • nabactproper use of formal garments
  • viactdress ceremoniously in robes, be ceremoniously dressed
   cuī OC: tshrol MC: ʈʂhiɛ 10 Attributions

zīcuī: sackclock mourning garment with hemmed sleeves

  • NPagentread zī zuī: someone wearing sackcloth mourning garment with hemmed sleeves
  • NPnonreferentialread zī zuī: sackclock mourning garment with hemmed sleeves
  • VPiactread zī zuī: respectfully wear mourning garments with hemmed sleeves LY 9.10
衣裳   yī cháng OC: qɯl djaŋ MC: ʔɨi dʑi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • NPmclothes; robes (as gifts); upper and lower garments; garments of all kinds
   hè OC: ɡaad MC: ɦɑt 5 Attributions

Hè 褐refers to a rough garment made of kudzo vine in early times, but later also of hemp. Hè 褐 refers to the humble cloth worn by ordinary people, which is usually made of hemp, but also of animal hairs. The term partly overlaps with shù 裋, but refers more to the material then to the shape. [HUANG 1995: 748 - 750]

  • ncoarse cloth made of animal hair or hemp and clothes made of such coarse cloth
衣冠   yī guān OC: qɯl koon MC: ʔɨi kʷɑn 5 Attributions
  • NPgarment including clothes, hat, shoes
朝服   cháo fú OC: daw bɯɡ MC: ɖiɛu buk 4 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}court dress
  • VPadVdressed up court style
  • VPiactdress up court style
衣衾   yī qīn OC: qɯl khrɯm MC: ʔɨi khim 4 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}nonreferentialburial garments, funeral garments
法衣   fǎ yī OC: pab qɯl MC: pi̯ɐp ʔɨi 3 Attributions
  • NPBuddhist garment
  • VPiactwear the Buddhist garment
   máo OC: moow MC: mɑu 2 Attributions

The general word for the fur of animals is máo 毛.

  • nm[adN]fur garments 冬日衣皮毛
   bèi OC: bralʔ MC: biɛ 2 Attributions
  • nclothing, cape
   fú OC: pɯd MC: pi̯ut 2 Attributions
  • nembroidered patterned garments
法服   fǎ fú OC: pab bɯɡ MC: pi̯ɐp buk 2 Attributions
  • NPBudhist garb
直裰   zhí duō OC: dɯɡ k-lood MC: ɖɨk tʷɑt 2 Attributions
  • NPone-layered simple robe
褐衣   hè yī OC: ɡaad qɯl MC: ɦɑt ʔɨi 2 Attributions
  • NPcoarse garment of hemp cloth
冠衣   guān yī MC: kwan 'j+j OC: koon qɯl 2 Attributions
  • NPmnonreferentialgarments generally (excluding footwear)
   fù OC: phɯɡs MC: phɨu 1 Attribution
  • nadV(wearing) as head-dress
   pí OC: bral MC: biɛ 1 Attribution
  • ngarments made of skin or hide> skin garments
   yī OC: qrɯl MC: ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • nadV(wearing) as an embroidered robe??
   sī OC: sil MC: si 1 Attribution
  • nmKarlgren: private clothes
   chèng OC: thjɯŋs MC: tɕhɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • npost-V{NUM}.postadNclassifier for garments: set
   gǔn OC: kluunʔ MC: kuo̝n 1 Attribution

Gǔn 袞, according to Han sources, refers to the ceremonial dress of the ruler embroidered with dragon design. [ZGYI 1996: 131]. In the Western Zhou and Chunqiu period, the term refers to the embroidered ritual dress. [XIANG 1997: 213 - 214; JWCYZD 1992: 804]

  • nduke's robe
   cháng OC: djaŋ MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution

Cháng 裳 refers to the part of the garment worn from the waist downwards. See SKIRT

  • vipregnantwear proper lower garments
   duō OC: k-lood MC: tʷɑt 1 Attribution
  • n(simple) robe
   lǐng OC: ɡ-reŋʔ MC: liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • ncpost-V{NUM}.post-Nclassifieritem of funeral garment
冕服   miǎn fú OC: mronʔ bɯɡ MC: miɛn buk 1 Attribution
  • NPmofficial garb
孝衣   xiào yī OC: qhruus qɯl MC: hɣɛu ʔɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPmmourning garments
文采   wén cǎi OC: mɯn tshɯɯʔ MC: mi̯un tshəi 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialpatterned coloured clothes, elaborate fine coloured garments
稅服   shuì fú OC: lʰods bɯɡ MC: ɕiɛi buk 1 Attribution
  • NPthin mourning garment
  • VPiactwear mourning garment
端委   duān wěi OC: toon qrolʔ MC: tʷɑn ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPceremonial garment made of one large cloth
  • VPiactwear ceremonial dress; wear official garb
苫蓋   shān gài OC: qhljem kaabs MC: ɕiɛm kɑi 1 Attribution
  • NPgrass garment
草衣   cǎo yī OC: tshuuʔ qɯl MC: tshɑu ʔɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPhemp garment
袞職   gǔn zhí OC: kluunʔ kljɯɡ MC: kuo̝n tɕɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPembroidered robe
輕暖   qīng nuǎn OC: kheŋ noonʔ MC: khiɛŋ nʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1&N2}subject=nonreflight and warm dresses
黻冕   fú miǎn OC: pɯd mronʔ MC: pi̯ut miɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialritual garments including notoriously a kind of skirt covering the knees as well as a ritual hat
沙衣   shà yī MC: sraeH 'j+j OC: sraals qɯl 1 Attribution
  • nm
素縞   sù gǎo MC: suH kawX OC: saas koowʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPmpluralfine plain silk garments
   bù OC: paas MC: puo̝ 0 Attributions
  • nmgarments, robes
絅 / 褧   jiǒng OC: khʷeeŋʔ MC: kheŋ jiǒng OC: khʷeeŋʔ MC: kheŋ 0 Attributions
  • nSHI: coarse hemp overcoat
   biǎo OC: prawʔ MC: piɛu 0 Attributions
  • nZHUANG: outer clothes
   zhěn OC: kljɯnʔ MC: tɕin 0 Attributions
  • nunlined clothes
   páo OC: buu MC: bɑu 0 Attributions

Paó 袍 is a kind of shén yí 深衣 which is long and consists of three layers of textile. From the Western Zhou till the Han, the term ussually referred to the undercloth, in Han times it began to be worn outside. [HUANG 1995: 745; SUN 1991: 243; ill.: SUN 60-6; ZGYI 1996: tab. 52; HAYASHI 1976: pp. 3, tab.1-3]

       qiú OC: ɡu MC: gɨu 0 Attributions

    Qiú 裘 refers to the fur garments which is mentioned already in SHIJING. It was worn in the winter. Fur garments for the upper class were usually made of fox or tiger skin, for the lower of dog or sheep skin. [HUANG 1995: 743]

         shù OC: djoʔ MC: dʑi̯o 0 Attributions

      Shù 裋 refers to the simple dress worn by humble people; it can be of various length and bredth. [HUANG 1995: 746 - 750; for the ordinary dress see ill.: SHEN 1992: tab. 70??]

           dié OC: leeb MC: dep 0 Attributions
        • nunlined garment
           hè OC: ɡaad MC: ɦɑt 0 Attributions
             huī OC: qhul MC: hɨi 0 Attributions
          • nqueen's ritual garment
             xiè OC: sŋed MC: siɛt 0 Attributions
          • nLY: generally: informal clothes
             dān OC: taan MC: tɑn 0 Attributions
          • nunlined garment
             rú OC: njo MC: ȵi̯o 0 Attributions

          Rú 襦 refers to the short cloth reaching above the kneels; it can also refer to the child cloth. [ZGYI 1996: 220; ill.: SUN 1991: 59-3, 4; HAYASHI 1976: pp. 5, tab. 1-16; SHEN 1992: tab. 70]

               bú OC: poowɡ MC: puok 0 Attributions
            • nrare, LSCQ: overcoat
               xí OC: zɯb MC: zip 0 Attributions
            • nfairly thin overcoat
                OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

            jiǒng

            • nunlined garment (YILI)
            深衣   shēn yī OC: qhljum qɯl MC: ɕim ʔɨi 0 Attributions

            Shēn yí 深衣 refers to the cloth made in one piece, and not divided into the jacket and the skirt. This kind of cloth became popular in Warring States times, and was particularly common in the Han period. [HUANG 1995: 744 - 745, SUN 1991: 241; ill.: ZGYI 1996: tab. 49; SUN 1991: 60-1 - 60-5]

            • NP{vadN}LIJI: dress not divided into jacket and lower garment, hence the name
            狐貉   hú mò OC: ɡʷaa mɢraaɡ MC: ɦuo̝ mɣɛk 0 Attributions

            fox or racoon dog fur

            • NPm[adN][garments made of] fox and racoon dog [fur]
            絺綌   chī xì OC: khrlil khaɡ MC: ʈhi khɣɛk 0 Attributions
            • NPcoarse (typically hemp) garments; light linen??
            衣裘   yī qiú OC: qɯl ɡu MC: ʔɨi gɨu 0 Attributions
            • NPnonreferentialclothing
            襜褕   chān yú OC: khljam lo MC: tɕhiɛm ji̯o 0 Attributions

            Chān yú 襜褕 refers to the broad kind of shén yí 深衣, which came to use in Western Han times. Originally, it was a kind of unformal dress; since the Eastern Han, it could be used also on formal occassions. [SUN 1991: 243; ill.: SUN 1991: 60-7, 60-8]

                  MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
              • NPmnonreferentialgarments generally (excluding footwear)

              Existing SW for

              Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: