OFFEND  觸犯

REFUSE TO OBEY OR CONFORM.
DISOBEYBREAK THE LAWCOMMIT A CRIMEDO WRONGSINGO ASTRAYTRANSGRESSARCHAIC TRESPASS
Antonym

OBEYCONFORM to COMMANDS.CONFORMACT so as to NOT to OFFEND against RULES OR a MODEL.

Hypernym

REFUSEDECIDE NOT TO ACT:do as one has been REQUESTED to ACT OR IS EXPECTED TO ACT. -> DECIDECHOOSE among PRESENT OR FUTURE MOVEMENTS FOR SELF:oneself OR among ANSWERS to QUESTIONS. -> CHOOSETAKE:opt-for one THING WHILE BELIEVING that one is ABLE to TAKE OTHER THINGS. See also DECIDE. -> TAKEOBTAIN a THING OFTEN by REMOVING it from its PLACE OR OWNER so as to HAVE it ONESELF. -> OBTAINBEGIN to HAVE. -> BEGINENDURINGLY STOP NOT to ACT OR to BE RESEMBLING:as in the PAST. -> STOPACT so as NOT to CONTINUE NOW:present ACTION. -> ACTMOVE OR NOT MOVE CONFORMING to one's SELF:own DECIDE:decision. -> MOVECHANGE PLACE OR SITUATION. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • TREASON OFFEND AGAINST ONE'S SELF>OWN STATE AND SERVE ANOTHER STATE.
    • NAUGHTY OFFENDING HABITUALLY AND PROVOCATIVELY.
      Old Chinese Criteria

      1. The current most general word for offending against what one is obliged to act in accordance with or going against a current is probably nì 逆 (ant. shùn 順 "follow and obey"), which refers to any action which goes against something.

      2. Fàn 犯 (ant. cǒng 從 "follow obediently") refers as a derogatory term to a deliberate and active breaking of a rule.

      3. Gān 干 and gān 奸 are rare words referring specifically to culpable breach of the law.

      4. Wéi 違 (ant. xún 循 "follow") and the rarer lí 離 as well as fēi 非 are neutral terms referring to a failure to comply with something.

      5. Fú 拂 refers to something grating against sensibilities or creating a conflict.

      6. Fáng 妨 adds to the failure of compliance the nuance of interference with what one fails to comply with.

      7. Kuī 虧 adds to the failure of compliance the nuance of inflicting harm or damage on what one fails to comply with.

      8. Shāng 傷, hài 害, and bài 敗 add to the failure of compliance the element of ruining what one has failed to comply with exactly by this failure of compliance; but hài 害 has developed a special related meaning of offending logically against something, i.e. being incompatible with it.

      Modern Chinese Criteria

      違犯

      觸犯

      犯忌

      得罪

      開罪

      冒犯

      觸犯

      沖犯

      干犯

      沖撞

      頂撞

      觸迕

      唐突

      捋虎須

      嬰鱗

      嬰逆鱗

      批逆鱗

      太歲頭上動土

      老虎頭上拍蒼蠅

      摸老虎屁股

      rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

      • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 178

      • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

        INOBEDIENTIA

        INSOLENTIA

      • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.222:150

        CONTRAVENTION.DESOBEISSANCE

      • A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms ( T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004) p. NO.195

      • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 57A

      Attributions by syntactic funtion

      • vtoN : 70
      • VPt+prep+N : 19
      • VPtoN : 9
      • vt[oN] : 7
      • vt+prep+N : 7
      • VPt(oN) : 5
      • VPi : 4
      • NPab : 4
      • vt(oN) : 4
      • VPadN : 4
      • vtoN : 3
      • vtoNab : 1
      • VP[adN] : 1
      • nab(post-N) : 1
      • nab : 1
      • vadN : 1
      • vi : 1

      Attributions by text

      • 說苑 : 21
      • 百喻經 : 15
      • 戰國策 : 11
      • 祖堂集 : 11
      • 荀子 : 6
      • 史記 : 6
      • 孟子 : 6
      • 禮記 : 5
      • 管子 : 4
      • 莊子 : 4
      • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
      • 韓詩外傳 : 4
      • 呂氏春秋 : 4
      • 賢愚經 : 4
      • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
      • 六祖壇經 : 3
      • 法句經 : 3
      • 尚書 : 3
      • 臨濟錄 : 3
      • 公孫龍子 : 2
      • 晏子春秋 : 2
      • 鶡冠子 : 2
      • 法集要頌經 : 2
      • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
      • 論衡 : 2
      • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
      • 白孔六帖 : 1
      • 太平廣記 : 1
      • 漢書 : 1
      • 淮南子 : 1
      • 法言 : 1
      • 楚辭 : 1
      • 忠經 : 1
      • 劉義慶世說新語 : 1

      Words

      得罪   dé zuì OC: tɯɯɡ sbuulʔ MC: tək dzuo̝i 21 Attributions
      • VPt(oN)run afoul of; commit an offence against a contextually determinate N
      • VPt+prep+Nrun afoul of, fall foul of, commit a crime against
      • VPt(+prep+N)fall foul of the contextually deteminate N
         fàn OC: bomʔ MC: bi̯ɐm 19 Attributions

      Fàn 犯 (ant. cǒng 從 "follow obediently") refers as a derogatory term to a deliberate and active breaking of a rule.

      • vt(oN)N=humango against the wishes of a person; dare to go against a person (with omitted object)
      • vt(oN)N=nonhuoffend against (something contextually determinate, nonhuman)
      • vt[oN]commit an offense
      • vt+prep+Noffend against
      • vtoNN=humango against the wishes of a person; dare to go against a person
      • vtoNN=nonhuoffend against, fail to obey; infringe, violate (laws etc) 民不敢犯法
      • vtoNpassivebe offended against; be sabotaged
      • vtoNN=animalgo against the wishes of an animal; dare to go against an animal
      • vtoNobject rule/law: offend against
         wéi OC: ɢul MC: ɦɨi 10 Attributions

      Wéi 違 (ant. xún 循 "follow") and the rarer lí 離 as well as fēi 非 are neutral terms referring to a failure to comply with something.

      • vt(oN)offend the contextually determinate person; fail to do as is required by the contextually determinate person
      • vt[oN]be disobedient; show disobedience;
      • vt+prep+Ncontravene; offend against
      • vtoNcontravene, flout; be disobedient to; ZUO Xi 23: offend against (Heaven, one's husband etc.); go against (the agricultural seasons); disobey (an order) very occasionally used nominally: error
      • nabactdisobedience
      • vt(oN)N=proprietyoffend against the rules of proper behaviour
      • vadNinclined towards disobedience
         nì OC: ŋɡlaɡ MC: ŋɣɛk 8 Attributions

      The current most general word for offending against what one is obliged to act in accordance with or going against a current is probably nì 逆 (ant. shùn 順 "follow and obey"), which refers to any action which goes against something.

      • nsubjectwhat is unnatural, what goes against the grain; obstinacy, recalcitrance
      • nabactact of offending the law, act of lawlessness
      • vadNoffending; opstreporous; perverse; inverse; inverted;
      • vt(oN)offend against, fail to comply with, fail to supply
      • vt[oN]be in opposition, take a controversial stance; go against the grain
      • vt+prep+Noffend against; go against
      • vtoNoppose, go against; disobey (orders)
      • vtoNpassivebe offended, be infringed
      • v[adN]N=nonhuwhat offends against current social standards
      辜負   gū fù OC: kaa bɯʔ MC: kuo̝ bɨu 8 Attributions
      • NPabactdisgrace, offense
      • VPt+prep+Noffend, disgrace; blame
      • VPtoNoffend, disgrace; be ungrateful against; do not show respect for
         bèi OC: pɯɯɡs MC: puo̝i 7 Attributions
      • vtoNrevolt against, turn one's back on; go against; fail to conform to
         bèi OC: bɯɯʔ MC: bəi 4 Attributions
      • vadVHANSHU: in clashing, conflicting directions
      • vtoNgo against (persons or arguments); go back on (an agreement) 倍約
      • vtoNoffend against (the law etc)
         bèi OC: bɯɯds MC: buo̝i 4 Attributions
      • vt+prep+Ngo against; be offensive to; grate against
      • vtoNact contrary to
         pò OC: phaals MC: phʷɑ 4 Attributions
      • vt+prep+Noffend against
      • vtoNBUDDH: offend against (precepts etc.)
         yú OC: lo MC: ji̯o 4 Attributions
      • viactcommit transgressions
      • vtoNgo against (one's ruler etc); go beyond (one's duties)
         fēi OC: pɯl MC: pɨi 4 Attributions

      Wéi 違 (ant. xún 循 "follow") and the rarer lí 離 as well as fēi 非 are neutral terms referring to a failure to comply with something.

      • vt+prep+Nbe at variance with
      • vtoNoffend against (the law); disobey (one's parents)
         guāi OC: kʷreed MC: kɣɛi 3 Attributions
      • viactbe at odds, offend > be mistaken EXAMPLES?
      • vt+prep+Ngo against
      • vtoNgo against
         qīn OC: skhim MC: tshim 3 Attributions
      • vtoNinfringe on
      • vt[oN]continuativeinfringe on others
      • vtoNmiddle voicebe infringed upon, be offended against
      • vt prep Nfigurativespecific: infringe semantically/artistically/aesthetically on the independence of
         gān OC: kaan MC: kɑn 3 Attributions

      Gān 干 and gān 奸 are rare words referring specifically to culpable breach of the law.

      • vtoNviolate; go against the wishes of; interfere with
      • vtoNfigurativeinterfere with, oppose; concern
      破戒   pò jiè OC: phaals krɯɯɡs MC: phʷɑ kɣɛi 3 Attributions
      • NPabactBUDDH: the breaking of religious precepts
      • VPadNBUDDH: who has broken religious precepts
      • VPiactBUDDH: break religious precepts
      違犯   wéi fàn OC: ɢul bomʔ MC: ɦɨi bi̯ɐm 3 Attributions
      • VPt(oN)offend against the contextually determinate N
      • VPtoNoffend against
      • vtoNbe offended against (in all sorts of ways)
         shī 3 Attributions
      • vtoNoffend against (rules of behaviour); fail to conform with
         jiàn OC: skɯɯms MC: tsem 2 Attributions
      • vtoNoffend against
      • viactcommit transgressions
      • v[adN]N=humoffenders
      • nabactinfringement of the obligatory rules
         wǔ OC: ŋaas MC: ŋuo̝ 2 Attributions
      • vibe at odds with each other, be in conflict with one another
      • vt(oN)disobey the contextually determinate person
      • vt+prep+N(abstract, often almost metaphysical) grate against, be opposed to
         lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 2 Attributions

      Wéi 違 (ant. xún 循 "follow") and the rarer lí 離 as well as fēi 非 are neutral terms referring to a failure to comply with something.

      • vtoNcome to commit (a crime); deviate from and thus offend against (virtue, one's ruler etc)
      十惡   shí è OC: ɡjub qaaɡ MC: dʑip ʔɑk 2 Attributions
      • NPabactBUDDH: the ten evil deeds (compare shíshàn 十善)
         kàng OC: khaaŋs MC: khɑŋ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNoffend against, go against (e.g. ritual etc)
         gān OC: kaan MC: kɑn 1 Attribution

      Gān 干 and gān 奸 are rare words referring specifically to culpable breach of the law.

      • vadNwickedly aggressive; treacherous; offending against one's sworn alliances
      • vtoNwickedly offend against (orders; a ruler)
      • viactengage in offensive action against each other
         bài OC: braads MC: bɣɛi 1 Attribution

      Shāng 傷, hài 害, and bài 敗 add to the failure of compliance the element of ruining what one has failed to comply with exactly by this failure of compliance; but hài 害 has developed a special related meaning of offending logically against something, i.e. being incompatible with it.

      • vtoNtransferred: offend against, fly in the face of (teachings etc)
         kuī OC: khʷral MC: khiɛ 1 Attribution

      Kuī 虧 adds to the failure of compliance the nuance of inflicting harm or damage on what one fails to comply with.

      • nabactoffence, improper behaviour or conduct
      • vtoNfail to act according to (the law etc)
         fù OC: phuɡ MC: phuk 1 Attribution
      • vtoNcontravene; offend against
         fù OC: bɯʔ MC: bɨu 1 Attribution
      • vtoNbe unjust to, offend
         líng OC: b-rɯŋ MC: lɨŋ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNoffend and insult
      • vtoNabinfringe upon
      不信   bù xìn OC: pɯʔ sins MC: pi̯ut sin 1 Attribution
      • VP[adN]N=actinfringement of promises, failure of good faith, faithlessness
      悖逆   bèi nì OC: bɯɯds ŋɡlaɡ MC: buo̝i ŋɣɛk 1 Attribution
      • VPadNinclined to offend others; given to obstreporousness
      • VPiactcause offense, be offensive
      • VPtoNoffend against, go against
      抵罪   dǐ zuì OC: tiilʔ sbuulʔ MC: tei dzuo̝i 1 Attribution
      • VPiactfall foul of someone
      • VPt+prep+Nfall foul of; have a conflict with (a superior)
      • NPabactoffence
      捨離   shě lí OC: lʰaʔ b-rel MC: ɕɣɛ liɛ 1 Attribution
      • VPt(oN)deviate from the contextually determinate rule N
      • VPtoNdeviate from (rules etc)
      毀破   huǐ pò OC: qhʷralʔ phaals MC: hiɛ phʷɑ 1 Attribution
      • VPtoNresultativeoffend against radically.
      獲罪   huò zuì OC: ɢʷreeɡ sbuulʔ MC: ɦɣɛk dzuo̝i 1 Attribution

      reap guilt (with respect to someone)> offend (against someone)

      • VPtoNoffend seriously, fall foul of
      • VPt+prep+Noffend
      • VPimiddle voicefall into disgrace
      違背   wéi bèi OC: ɢul pɯɯɡs MC: ɦɨi puo̝i 1 Attribution
      • VPtoNoffend against (the Way)
         huì MC: xjweX OC: qhʷrals 1 Attribution
      • vtoNread huǐ: openly offend against (obligations undertaken etc.)
         dǐ MC: tejX OC: tiilʔ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNoffend against (the law etc)
         dùn MC: dwonX OC: duunʔ 1 Attribution
      • vtoNfigurativedeviate from (a standard or general rule)
         xié MC: zjae OC: sɢlja 1 Attribution
      • nab(post-N)actdeviation from the contextually determinate N
         qiān MC: khjen OC: khran 1 Attribution
      • vtoNderivedoffend against (the demands of virtue etc)
         bié 1 Attribution
      • vtoNdistance oneself from
      不順   bù shùn  MC: pjut zywinH  OC: pɯʔ ɢjuns  1 Attribution
      • VPibe disobedient
      不弟   bù dì MC: pjut dejX OC: pɯʔ liilʔ 1 Attribution
      • VPi= bu4ti4 不悌, be disrespectful to elders
         shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

      Shāng 傷, hài 害, and bài 敗 add to the failure of compliance the element of ruining what one has failed to comply with exactly by this failure of compliance; but hài 害 has developed a special related meaning of offending logically against something, i.e. being incompatible with it.

      • vtoNact against, offend against
      • vtoNpassivebe offended against
         fǎn OC: panʔ MC: pi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
      • vtoNfail to act up to (a promise etc); fail to obey
         fāng OC: phaŋ MC: phi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

      Fāng 妨 adds to the failure of compliance the nuance of interference with what one fails to comply with.

      • vtoNstativeoffend against; stand in the way of
         hài OC: ɡaads MC: ɦɑi 0 Attributions

      Shāng 傷, hài 害, and bài 敗 add to the failure of compliance the element of ruining what one has failed to comply with exactly by this failure of compliance; but hài 害 has developed a special related meaning of offending logically against something, i.e. being incompatible with it.

      • vtoNoccasionally used in an abstract moral or even logical sense fail to observe (rules etc); act at the expense of; be logically inconsistent with
         fèi OC: pods MC: pi̯ɐi 0 Attributions
      • vtoNrefuse to obey, disregard (orders)
         fú OC: phɯd MC: phi̯ut 0 Attributions

      Fú 拂 refers to something grating against sensibilities or creating a conflict.

      • vt+prep+Noffend against; grate against
      • vtoNget into conflict with; go against the grain of, be offensive to (the ear etc); occasionally: be in inner conflict
         sù OC: sqlaaɡs MC: suo̝ 0 Attributions
      • vtoNgo up against the current of; go upstream
         chù OC: thjoɡ MC: tɕhi̯ok 0 Attributions
      • vtoNoffend
         jiān OC: kreen MC: kɣɛn 0 Attributions
      • vtoNdisobey, fail to comply
      不服   bù fú OC: pɯʔ bɯɡ MC: pi̯ut buk 0 Attributions
      • NPabactinsubordinacy
      不睦   bù mù OC: pɯʔ mluɡ MC: pi̯ut muk 0 Attributions
      • NP[adN]N=stateuncooperative (states)
      不經   bù jīng OC: pɯʔ keeŋ MC: pi̯ut keŋ 0 Attributions
      • VP[adN]N=humthose who offend against the general rules of proper conduct
      五逆   wǔ nì OC: ŋaaʔ ŋɡlaɡ MC: ŋuo̝ ŋɣɛk 0 Attributions
      • NPabactBUDDH: the five major offences; the five cardinal sins (see also wǔ wújiān 五無間); skr. pa%ncānantariyaṇi
      求罪   qiú zuì OC: ɡu sbuulʔ MC: gɨu dzuo̝i 0 Attributions
      • VPt+prep+Noffend
      犯干   fàn gān OC: bomʔ kaan MC: bi̯ɐm kɑn 0 Attributions
      • VPtoNintensitivecommit all sorts of offences against
      逃命   táo mìng OC: ɡ-laaw mɢreŋs MC: dɑu mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
      • VPidisobey orders
      違命   wéi mìng OC: ɢul mɢreŋs MC: ɦɨi mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
      • VPiactcontravene orders
      五無間   wǔ wú jiān OC: ŋaaʔ ma kreen MC: ŋuo̝ mi̯o kɣɛn 0 Attributions
      • NPabactBUDDH: the five major offences; the five cardinal sins (which entail an endless existence in hell; defined as killing the father, killing the mother, killing of a sage (arhat), destroying the harmony of the sangha, shedding the blood of a Buddha; 無間 refers to the fact that these acts entail uninterrupted suffering in hell; In the LANKA and especially texts of the early Chán Schools, the cardinal sins are reinterpreted in terms of mental activities; see also wǔnì 五逆)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • vtoNopenly offend against (obligations undertaken etc.)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • vtoNfigurativedeviate from (a standard or general rule)
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nabactdeviation
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • nab(post-N)actdeviation from the contextually determinate N
          MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
      • vtoNderivedoffend against (the demands of virtue etc)

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: