DISTINGUISH  分別

SPEAK OR THINK so as to UNDERSTAND OR to CAUSE OTHERS to UNDERSTAND that DIFFERENT THINGS are DIFFERENT.
DIFFERENTIATETELL APARTDISCRIMINATE BETWEENTELL THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
See also

DIVIDEDIFFERENT

Kind Of

SPEAK

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word is biàn 辨, sometimes also written 辯.

2. The deliberate establishment of distinctions is bié 別 or pàn 判.

3. Jué 決 is the concrete process by which one decides whether an established distinction obtains or does not obtain in a concrete case.

4. Xī 析 is to make a set of relevant distinctions on a given subject.

5. Yì 異 can be used putatively for "consider to be different" in theorising discourse.

6. Fèn 分 refers to the results of the deliberate establishment of distinctions, and to the making of such distinctions.

Modern Chinese Criteria

分別 is a current modern word for distinguishing.

區別 is another current modern word for distinguishing between things.

辨別 refers to establishing distinctions.

區分 refers to differentiating carefully what one distinguishes.

辨明 focusses on the clarity of the distinction.

明辨 focusses of clarity in differentiation.

分辨 (lit) refers in a slightly elevated way to the making of distinctions.

識別 focusses on the intellectual function of making distinction.

判別 focusses on the judgment necessary to make distinctions.

甄別 refers to the establishment of practically relevant distinctions, and screening.

鑒別 focusses on the critical perception in making distinctions.

鑒識 focusses on the intellectual or cognitive function in the making of distinctions.

辨認 refers to the recognition of distinctions presupposed to be present.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 513©

DIVIDERE aliqvid in sua contenta resolvere. Continet autem aliqvid alia vel in se, ut totum partes; vel sub se, ut genus species; vel penes se, ut duo qvaepiam in eodem subjecto coexistentia, exampli gratia albedo et dulcedo in saccharo....

Long useful discussion in the old Greek tradition of dihairesis.

...

1. Mente, dictur Dignoscere, dicernere

2. Verbis, dicitur Distingvere

3. re ipsa - separare disparare, dispescere, disgregare

...

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 153

DISTINCTIO, SUBDISTINCTIO

145. Inter Distinctionem et subdistinctionem. Distinctio finem sensus facit, subdistinctio suspendit [ Al., mentem susp.].

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DISTINGUISH

discernere refers to the exercise of the ability to make subtle distinctions.

distinguere refers to the exercise of the ability to recognise marks and signs by which to keep things apart.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 114

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 81B

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.310

UNTERSCHIED

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 102

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 61

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 78

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.17:16

DISTINCTION.DIVERSITE.SEPARATION

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.253.209

DISTINGUER.SEPARER

HONG CHENGYU 2009 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 426

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 104
  • nab : 48
  • VPtoN : 6
  • VPt[oN] : 6
  • vt(oN) : 5
  • vttoN1. prep N2 : 4
  • nab.tt : 4
  • VPadN : 2
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2 : 2
  • vadV : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • nab : 1
  • NPab : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • vi : 1
  • vttoN1.+N2 : 1
  • VPtt+.S1+S2 : 1

Attributions by text

  • 禮記 : 38
  • 管子 : 23
  • 韓非子 : 21
  • 荀子 : 11
  • 呂氏春秋 : 11
  • 韓詩外傳 : 9
  • 淮南子 : 8
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 7
  • 莊子 : 7
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 春秋左傳 : 6
  • 臨濟錄 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 史記 : 5
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 公孫龍子 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1
  • 春秋繁露 : 1

Words

   bié OC: pred MC: piɛt 113 Attributions

The deliberate establishment of distinctions is bié 別 or pàn 判.

  • nabactproper distinction made, segregationm also in practice as between men and women (contrast DIFFERENT)
  • vt(oN)make the relevant distinction between contextually determinate things
  • vt[oN]make distinctions
  • vt+prep+Nestablish a distinction with, establish a difference from
  • vtoN.+Vmark N out as distinct by V-ing
  • vtoNattitudinaldiscern; differentiate between; to treat as separate, to hold apart, make the distinction between
  • vtoNexplicitmark out as N
  • vtoNpassiveto be distinguished; be held apart intellectually
  • vtt(oN1.)+N2distinguish (something) from something else
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2distinguish a contextually determinate thing N1 from something else N2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2establish a distinction between something N1 and something else N2
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2causativedistinguish (oneself) from something else
  • vttoN1.+N2distinguish between N1 and N2
  • vadVfrom the point of view of distinguishing them; from the point of view of difference
  • vadNof the kind that makes distinctions> quibbling
  • nabactneutral: distinction made between things
辨 / 辯   biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn biàn OC: brenʔ MC: biɛn 21 Attributions

The current general word is biàn 辨, sometimes also written 辯. The current general word is biàn 辨, sometimes also written 辯.

  • vtoNdistinguish properly; be able to draw a distinction between; sort out by making distinctions
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe properly distinguished; be well-articulated
  • nabactthe making of subtle distinctions
  • vt(oN)explain a contextually determinate thing distinctly
  • nab.ttstativethe distinction between N1 and N2
  • vt+prep+.N1+N2make a proper distinction between N1 and N2
分別   fēn bié OC: pɯn pred MC: pi̯un piɛt 13 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: negative: discriminative thinking; way of thinking which makes distinctions; false way of thinking
  • NPabrelationaldistinction
  • VPadNseparated out, distinguished
  • VPt[oN]make proper distinctions between things
  • VPt[oN]actmake distinctions BUDDH: discriminate (falsely); in the Buddhist context the compound word nearly always has a negative connotation (referring to making distinctions during the process of perception and thus creating a dualistic world-view, in which one discrimates between self and others, subject and object, etc.; as such one does not see things as they really are, i.e. in their state of thusness; in the Zen context fēnbié is often described as one of the main obstacles to enlightenment); SANSKRIT vikalpa, vibhajya
  • VPtoNmake distinction between
  • VPtoNpassiveget distinguished properly
  • VPtt+.S1+S2distinguish whether S1 or S2 is the case, be not indifferent to whether S1 or S2 is the case
   yì OC: p-lɯɡs MC: jɨ 12 Attributions

Yì 異 can be used putatively for "consider to be different" in theorising discourse.

  • vt(oN)N=plurdistinguish between contextually determinate things
  • vtoNdistinguish between; maintain a distinction between
  • vtt(oN1.)+prep+N2distinguish (one situation) (from another situation)
  • vttoN1. prep N2distinguish (properly) N1 from N2
  • nabactdifferentiation applied to things
   fēn OC: pɯn MC: pi̯un 10 Attributions

Fèn 分 refers to the results of the deliberate establishment of distinctions, and to the making of such distinctions.

  • vibe divided > be (clearly) held apart; be distinct; be clearly defined
  • vtoNhold apart, distinguish
  • vtoNpassivehe held apart; be held distinct
  • nabsemanticthe application of conceptual distinctions to reality
   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 7 Attributions
  • vtoNbe able to distinguish 不知五穀 "be unable to tell the five sorts of grain from one-another"
   gē OC: kaad MC: kɑt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNdistinguish between
  • vtoNpassivebe seperated; be distinguished
   chā OC: skhraal MC: ʈʂhɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNdistinguish; sort out the difference; establish a difference (in treatment)
   lí OC: b-rel MC: liɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNattitudinalkeep from one-another; distinguish
  • vtoNattitudinalkeep apart; consider separately from each other
審別   shěn bié OC: qhjɯmʔ pred MC: ɕim piɛt 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNresultativedistinguish carefully after critical examination
   qū OC: kho MC: khi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe separated out; be demarkated
   jué OC: kʷeed MC: ket 1 Attribution

Jué 決 is the concrete process by which one decides whether an established distinction obtains or does not obtain in a concrete case.

  • vtoNdetermine the difference
異別   yì bié OC: p-lɯɡs pred MC: jɨ piɛt 1 Attribution
  • NPabactthe making of appropriate distinctions in general
   xuān MC: sjwen OC: sqon 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbring out the difference between the Ns
   xuān MC: sjwen OC: sqon 1 Attribution
  • vtoNbring out the difference between the Ns
   pàn OC: phaans MC: phʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • vtoNseparate out; separate out so as to make clear
   xī OC: seeɡ MC: sek 0 Attributions

Xī 析 is to make a set of relevant distinctions on a given subject.

  • vtoNanalyse finely; disect, analyse
   shū OC: djo MC: dʑi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vtoNkeep apart; be kept apart (often of abstract things)
別異   bié yì OC: pred p-lɯɡs MC: piɛt jɨ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNpassivebe distinguished (from each other)
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNbring out the difference between the Ns

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: