ABLE  能夠

HAVE what one NEEDS in SELF:oneself FOR ACHIEVING something.
CAPABLE OFCOMPETENT TOEQUAL TOUP TOFIT TOPREPARED TOQUALIFIED TOALLOWED TOFREE TOIN A POSITION TO
Old Chinese Criteria

[ABSOLUTE/GRADED]

[ARCHAIC/CURRENT]

[DIFFICULT/EASY]

[ENDOGENIC/EXOGENIC]

[EMOTIONAL/UNEMOTIONAL]

[INCIDENTAL/INHERENT]

[INNATE/ACQUIRED]

[LASTING!/TEMPORARY]

[PHYSICAL/PSYCHOLOGICAL]

[PRACTICAL/THEORETICAL]

1. The commonest word is néng 能 "have an inherent capacity for, have the personal ability to".

[CURRENT], [ENDOGENIC], [GRADED], [LASTING]

2. Kě yǐ 可以 "be in an objective position to, have the possibility to".

[ABSOLUTE], [CURRENT], [EXOGENIC], [TEMPORARY!]

3. Zú yǐ 足以 emphasises sufficiency of conditions necessary to get something done.

[CURRENT], [GRADED], [INHERENT], [PHYSICAL]

4. Kè 克 typically comes to emphasise the ability to do something difficult in post-archaic times, but the word was equivalent to néng 能 in early texts.

[ABSOLUTE], [ARCHAIC], [INCIDENTAL], [TEMPORARY], [PHYSICAL]

5. Rén 任 emphasises a general qualification to achieve something worth achieving and not obviously easy to achieve.

[ABSOLUTE], [CURRENT], [DIFFICULT], [ENDOGENIC], [TEMPORARY]

6. Kān 堪 typically refers to the ability to do something others might not be willing or psychologically able to do.

[ABSOLUTE], [CURRENT], [DIFFICULT], [EMOTIONAL], [ENDOGENIC], [PSYCHOLOGICAL]

7. Jì 技 "expertise, know-how" refers to the talents for crafts and the like, and the word is not normally used as a verb. See SKILL.

[ACQUIRED], [CURRENT], [DIFFICULT], [GRADED], [LASTING], [PRACTICAL]

8. Lì 力 "strength" is sometimes used to refer to an ability to do someting which in some sense requires strength.

9. Zhī 知 refers to the intellectual ability to do something, especially to do something that is not intellectually trivial.

10. Jì néng 技能 refers to a lasting acquired skill.

NB: Dé 得 "cope, show an ability to do something by actually doing it" is an achievement verb and does not belong in this group. See COPE.

Modern Chinese Criteria

能夠

可以

得以

足以

有何不可

何嘗不可

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.95

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 617©

POSSE est vires ad aliqvid habere.

Generalius loqvendo potentia sive facultas ad res agendum triplex est

1. per proprias Vires, et haec est Qvalitas, Pollentia, Robur. 2. per impedimentorum absentiam, et haec est Libertas, Licentia, Jus, Fas, Authoritas, Venia. 3. Per res ipsas commode se offerentes: haec dicitur Occasio, Opportunitas, Commoditas.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

CAN

posse refers to an ability as a consequence of power or strength.

quire refers to an ability as a conseq uence of a consummate qualification.

valere refers to the possession of the right measure of strenght in order to live up to a certain task or to handle a situation.

pollere refers to the possession of very considerable strength or other means whereby one excels others in the ability to do things or to get one's will.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 146

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 991

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 102

1. From a semantic point of view what needs to be compared with ne2ng 能 is not only ke3 可 which does differ in obvious ways with regard to passivisation of the verb it governs, but ke3 yi3 可以. It is in the latter contrast that serious misunderstandings are easy to find.

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 976

耐,能

See ENDURE

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 252

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

CAN

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.9:8

CAPACITE.HABILITE; HABILE.SAVANT.DOCTE

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 58A

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 59A

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 59B

-ABEL

ZUGAENGLICHKEIT

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vt+V[0] : 254
  • VPt+V[0] : 61
  • nab : 54
  • vt+V[0]{PASS} : 51
  • vt(+V[0]) : 26
  • vt[+V[0]] : 21
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 20
  • vtoNab : 19
  • vtpostadV : 18
  • vtoN : 11
  • vt( V[0]{PASS}) : 6
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 5
  • NPab : 4
  • VPt+V[0]{PASS} : 4
  • vt[0]+V[0] : 3
  • vadN : 3
  • vtpostadVt1.+Vt2 : 2
  • VPt(+V[0]) : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • VP[adN] : 1
  • vi : 1
  • VPtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 孟子 : 79
  • 韓非子 : 75
  • 荀子 : 58
  • 論語 : 43
  • 春秋左傳 : 40
  • 說苑 : 28
  • 禮記 : 23
  • 百喻經 : 19
  • 祖堂集 : 19
  • 尚書 : 18
  • 論衡 : 15
  • 孝經 : 13
  • 呂氏春秋 : 13
  • 莊子 : 13
  • 毛詩 : 12
  • 臨濟錄 : 11
  • 管子 : 10
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 9
  • 戰國策 : 8
  • 史記 : 7
  • 六祖壇經 : 6
  • 韓詩外傳 : 5
  • 墨子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 4
  • 孫子 : 4
  • 朱子語類 : 3
  • 列子 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 典論一卷 : 2
  • 太平經 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 笑林一卷 : 1
  • 周易 : 1
  • 山海經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1

Words

   néng OC: nɯɯŋ MC: nəŋ 272 Attributions

The commonest word is néng 能 "have an inherent capacity for, have the personal ability to". CURRENT, ENDOGENIC, GRADED, INHERENT, LASTING

  • nabdispositioncapability; physical capability, concrete technical capability; potential, capacity 人各有能
  • vadNcapable, possessed of political clout, skilfull 能人
  • vt(+V[0])be able to perform a contexually determinate action or achieve a contextually determinate quality
  • vt[+V[0]]be capable and competent; be able to act, be in a position to act
  • vt+V[0]have the capacity to VERB properly, be constitutionally able to VERB; be physically capable of, be actually able to
  • vt+V[0]passivebe competently mastered
  • vt+V[0]subj=nonhuman(of non-human/inanimate subjects) be able to V
  • vt+V[0]temporarybe (temporarily) able to
  • vtoNbe capable of N 何能"what is he capable of" 能之
  • vtoNputativeconsider as capable
  • vtoNabshow a capacity for; be capable of Nab-ing
  • vt(oN)be capable of the contextually determinate thing
  • v[adN]N=humanmen who have qualifications/abilities
   kě OC: khlaalʔ MC: khɑ 87 Attributions

Kě 可 is occasionally used for kěyǐ 可以 and typically comes before passivised verbs: "be V-able".

  • vt(+V[0])can; is able to (short for 可以 with omitted verbal object)
  • vt[0]+V[0]absoluteit is possible to V, one can V; it is possible that there be V-ing
  • vt+V[0]{PASS}transitive verb which takes passivised verbs as object: be VERBable
  • vt+V[0]have the objective possibility of; be able to (under the circumstances) (short for 可以) FAYAN: 可南面
  • vt( V[0]{PASS})transitive verb with omitted passive verbal object: be (VERB)able
  • vt+:Vt(oN.)adV(0)methodcan thereby, can in this way
  • vt+:Vt(oN.)adV(0)reasoncan for that reason, can therefore, can thus
  • vt+:Vt(oN.)adV(0)conditional可以 can under these conditions; can under such circumstances; can given such a context
  • vt+:Vt(oN.)adV(0)place可以 can from such a place
   dé OC: tɯɯɡ MC: tək 32 Attributions
  • vt(+V[0])manage to do the contextually determinate thing V
  • vt+V[0]{PASS}be amenable to being V-ed (Find some of the many early examples!)
  • vt+V[0]be able to V
  • vtpostadVbe able to V (verbal complement expressing capability)
  • vtpostadVt1.+Vt2be able to VERB1 to the extent of VERB2 趁得及 糶得盡
可以   kě yǐ OC: khlaalʔ k-lɯʔ MC: khɑ jɨ 30 Attributions

Kě yǐ 可以 "be in an objective position to, have the possibility to". ABSOLUTE, INCIDENTAL, EXOGENIC, TEMPORARY, PHYSICAL.

  • VPt+V[0]be in an objective position to, have the possibility to; be well-advised to, should, negated: must not, should not
  • VPt+Sit is inadmissable
   zhī OC: te MC: ʈiɛ 26 Attributions

Zhī 知 refers to the intellectual ability to do something, especially to do something that is not intellectually trivial.

  • vt+V[0]be intellectually capable to V; understand how to, know how to V; have the good sense to; know the importance of Ving
  • vtoNbe intellectually capable of Nab
足以   zú yǐ OC: tsoɡ k-lɯʔ MC: tsi̯ok jɨ 22 Attributions

Zú yǐ 足以 emphasises sufficiency of conditions necessary to get something done. GRADED, INHERENT, PHYSICAL

  • VPt+V[0]{PASS}be worth V-ing
  • VPt+V[0]be capable of V-ing (NOT: be sufficient to V with); be in a position to
   jì OC: ɡreʔ MC: giɛ 20 Attributions

Jì 技 "expertise, know-how" refers to the talents for crafts and the like, and the word is not normally used as a verb. See SKILL. GRADED, CURRENT, DIFFICULT, ACQUIRED, LASTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL, PRACTICAL.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}dispositionexpertise, professional skill
  • vibe skillful (especially with one's hands)
   jiě OC: kreeʔ MC: kɣɛ 12 Attributions
  • vt(+V[0])be able to V
  • vt+V[0]be able to; know how to
  • vtoNhave the ability for
   kān OC: khluum MC: khəm 9 Attributions

Kān 堪 typically refers to the ability to do something others might not be willing or psychologically able to do. ABSOLUTE, CURRENT, DIFFICULT, EMOTIONAL, ENDOGENIC, INHERENT, INNATE, LASTING, PSYCHOLOGICAL.

  • vt(+V[0])be able to undertake the contextually determinate V-ing
  • vt+V[0]be able to undertake; be up to; have the capability to
  • vtoNbe able to undertake; be able to play the role of; be up to (a task, an honour); be up to (an opponent)
得而   dé ér OC: tɯɯɡ njɯ MC: tək ȵɨ 9 Attributions

may be V-ed, one may V them

  • VPt+V[0]{PASS}be capable of being V-ed
  • VPt+V[0]manage to; can come to
   nài OC: nɯɯs MC: nəi 8 Attributions

Nài 耐 refers to a physical ability to do something and appears to be a loan for 能.

  • vt+V[0]be able to (loan for 能)
   kè OC: khɯɯɡ MC: khək 7 Attributions

Kè 克 typically comes to emphasise the ability to do something difficult in post-archaic times, but the word was equivalent to néng 能 in early texts. ABSOLUTE, ARCHAIC, INCIDENTAL, TEMPORARY, PHYSICAL.

  • vibe capable and efficient
  • vt+V[0]be able to overcome the task of, have the stamina and power to; manage the difficult
技能   jì néng OC: ɡreʔ nɯɯŋ MC: giɛ nəŋ 6 Attributions

Jì néng 技能 refers to a lasting acquired skill.

  • NPab{N1=N2}dispositionskills and abilities of all kinds; one's skills; skill in general
  • VP[adN]those who have skills
伎 / 技   jì OC: ɡreʔ MC: giɛ jì OC: ɡreʔ MC: giɛ 5 Attributions
  • nabdisposition=技 entertaining trick, attractive skill [also general: skill in any field
   rén OC: njɯm MC: ȵim 4 Attributions

Rén 任 emphasises a general qualification to achieve something worth achieving and not obviously easy to achieve. ABSOLUTE, CURRENT, DIFFICULT, ENDOGENIC, ACQUIRED, TEMPORARY, PSYCHOLOGICAL.

  • nabdispositioncapability, power; capabilities, abilities; ability to perform duties
  • vtoNbe able to undertake, qualify for (a task);; be qualified for (fame);
  • vtoNpassivebe undertaken, be taken upon oneself 難任
可得   kě dé OC: khlaalʔ tɯɯɡ MC: khɑ tək 3 Attributions
  • VPt+V[0]be able to V
  • VPt(+V[0])be able to achieve the contextually determinate Ving
有以   yǒu yǐ MC: hjuwX yiX OC: ɢʷɯʔ k-lɯʔ 3 Attributions
  • VPt V(0)have what it takes to; be able thereby to
知能   zhī néng  MC: trje noj  OC: te nɯɯŋ  3 Attributions
  • NPabdisposition= zhi4néng 智能: intellect and capabilities
   huì OC: ɡloobs MC: ɦɑi 2 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]be able to V
  • vtoNhave a skill for
可與   kě yǔ MC: khaX yoX OC: khlaalʔ k-laʔ 2 Attributions
  • VPt V[0]= kěyi3 可以: be able to V
   lì OC: ɡ-rɯɡ MC: lɨk 1 Attribution

Lì 力 "strength" is sometimes used to refer to an ability to do someting which in some sense requires strength.

  • nabdispositionextent of one's ability, physical capacity
   xiǎo OC: qheewʔ MC: heu 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]be intellectually capable of V-ing
   zú OC: tsoɡ MC: tsi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]qualified to V
能了   néng liǎo OC: nɯɯŋ reewʔ MC: nəŋ leu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNperfectiveget to be able
能力   néng lì OC: nɯɯŋ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: nəŋ lɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPabdispositionability and strength
材能   cái néng OC: sɡɯɯ nɯɯŋ MC: dzəi nəŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabpsychabilities
   gǎn OC: klaamʔ MC: kɑm 0 Attributions
  • vt+V(0)be in a state to, be capable of V-ing
  • vt+V(0)rhetorical question
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPt V(0)have what it takes to

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: