DIFFICULT  困難

POSSIBLE BUT EVEN-IF TRIED ONLY ACHIEVED RARELY OR ONLY by USING BIG EFFORT.
HARDSTRENUOUSARDUOUSLABORIOUSTOUGHONEROUSBURDENSOMEDEMANDINGPUNISHINGGRUELINGBACK-BREAKINGEXHAUSTINGTIRINGFATIGUINGWEARISOMEINFORMAL HELLISHKILLINGARCHAIC TOILSOMEHARDCOMPLICATEDCOMPLEXINVOLVEDIMPENETRABLEUNFATHOMABLEOVER/ABOVE ONE'S HEADBEYOND ONEPUZZLINGBAFFLINGPERPLEXINGCONFUSINGMYSTIFYINGPROBLEMATICINTRICATEKNOTTYTHORNYTICKLISH
Taxonoymy

INACCESSIBLE

Antonymy

EASY

Kind Of

POSSIBLE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The clearly dominant word for anything that is hard to achieve or hard to sustain is nán 難 (ant. yì 易 "easy").

2. Jiān 艱 refers to hardship and diffuculties, typically with respect to certain tasks.

3. Jù 劇 "critical, virulent" sometimes has usages that come close to "troublesome, difficult".

Modern Chinese Criteria

困難

艱難

繁難

萬難

疑難

難於登天

為難

難人

作難

討厭

棘手

纏手

扎手

辣手

吃力

費力

吃勁

費勁

費事

費時

費難

好不容易

好容易

費手腳

費精神

費心思

老火

傷腦筋

談何容易

來之不易

千難萬難

難上加難

寸步難行

積重難返

戛戛乎難哉

海底撈針

大海撈針

挾山超海

挾泰山超北海

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 9.97

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 508

DIFFICILIS, e, qvod sine Virium intensione fieri non potest. Req. 1. Ut res sit possibile. Nam quod impossibile, nulla virium intensione peragitur. 2. Vires aliqvae. 3. aegre illuc sufficientes.

5 Axioms

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

DIFFICULT

arduus refers to something being hard of access.

difficilis refers to something being hard to do.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

ADVERSITAS

DIFFICULTAS

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 321

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 371ff

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 171

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 68

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 280

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 60A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 31
  • vi : 30
  • vt+V[0]{PASS} : 30
  • vt+V[0] : 23
  • vtoN : 7
  • VPi : 2
  • VPi-V : 1
  • vt V(0) : 1
  • vi0-V{SUBJECT} : 1
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT} : 1
  • n : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • nab.post-N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 42
  • 論語 : 17
  • 春秋左傳 : 12
  • 荀子 : 11
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 10
  • 戰國策 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 孟子 : 4
  • 說苑 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 法句經 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 呂氏春秋 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 中說 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   nán OC: mɢlaan MC: nɑn 122 Attributions

The clearly dominant word for anything that is hard to achieve or hard to sustain is nán 難 (ant. yì 易 "easy").

  • nab.post-Nactdifficulty in N
  • nabfactualna4n: difficult point, difficulty; what is difficult; difficult task; difficulties ahead
  • vigradedbe difficult; have difficulty to get anywhere 甚難
  • viinchoativerun into difficulties
  • visubject=humanbe a difficult case (said of persons); have problems
  • vt+prep+NPab{ACT}have difficulties VERBing 難乎有恆
  • vt+V[0]{PASS}be hard to be V-ed
  • vt+V[0]find it difficult to V, have trouble (doing something), have a hard time (doing something), find it hard to; be unlikely to (commit an offence one is bound to be punished for)
  • vt+V[0]omfind it difficult to (do what is topicalised before 難)
  • vtoNputativeregard something as difficult; find something dificult 難之
  • vifigurativebe difficult (i.e. impossible)
  • vt V(0)it is difficult (for one) to V
  • vi0-V{SUBJECT}it is difficult to V
   kùn OC: khuuns MC: khuo̝n 2 Attributions
  • ndifficulties; desperate situation; trouble
  • vtoNcausativecause serious difficulties for
   láo OC: raaw MC: lɑu 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]have a hard time doing something ??????????
   xiǎn OC: qhromʔ MC: hiɛm 1 Attribution
  • vadNdifficult to walk or drive on (of roads etc)
   jǐng OC: kreŋʔ MC: kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabeventalarm; alarming situation, crisis
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPiexpected answer: no!what problems would there be?
煩難   fán nán OC: ban mɢlaan MC: bi̯ɐn nɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPadNtroublesome or difficult
難可   nán kě OC: mɢlaan khlaalʔ MC: nɑn khɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]V=passivebe hard to V
難與   nán yǔ MC: nan yoX OC: mɢlaan k-laʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPi-V=難以 hard to
岨峿   qū wú MC: tshjo ngu OC: skha ŋaa 1 Attribution
  • VPibe excruciatingly hard
   jù OC: ɡlaɡ MC: gɣɛk 0 Attributions

Jù 劇"critical, virulent" sometimes has usages that come close to "troublesome, difficult".

  • nsubjectwhat is difficult; the burdensome; troublesome tasks
  • nabfactualtroublesome tasks
  • vioccasionally: be troublesome to deal with, critical XINLUN 劇如此
屯 / 屯   zhūn OC: tun MC: ʈʷin tún OC: duun MC: duo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vidifficult
   è OC: qreeɡ MC: ʔɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • nstraits; difficulties (MENG)
難及   nán jí OC: mɢlaan ɡrɯb MC: nɑn gip 0 Attributions
  • VPadNdifficult to get to the point of doing or reaching
難忍   nán rěn OC: mɢlaan njinʔ MC: nɑn ȵin 0 Attributions
  • VPpostadVto V insufferably??? ???
難易   nán yì OC: mɢlaan leeɡs MC: nɑn jiɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturerelative difficulty
   zhòng OC: doŋʔ MC: ɖi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • vibe a heavy task, be hard to do
深 / 深   shèn OC: qhljums MC: ɕim shēn OC: qhljum MC: ɕim 0 Attributions
  • vibe difficult to understand
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPi-V=難以 hard to
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPibe excruciatingly hard

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: