WALK  行走

MOVE across the FLOOR>ground USING one's LEGS.
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for walking is xíng 行 (ant. zhǐ 止 "stay put").

2. Bù 步 (ant. zǒu 走 "run fast") refers to dignified slow pacing along.

3. Mài 邁 refers to walking or (sometimes even with abstract subjects like time) moving forward.

4. Jiàn 踐 focusses on the physical aspect of walking as stepping on something or walking across something.

Modern Chinese Criteria










rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 805

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.45

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 10.47

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien


ambulare is taking a leisurely walk.

sapatiari is to walk out into the open.

deambulare is to walk up and down until one is tired.


ire refers to the act of walking, especially in a person deciding to go somewhere.

meare often refers specifically to beasts, ships, rivers and the like.

gradiri refers to walking in a quiet dignified manner, and with a regular measured step.

incedere refers specifically to walking along in aproud manner, in a procession, or in circumstances where one expects to be seen.


ingressus refers quite generally to the act of walking.

incessus refers to someone's gait that is characteristic of his person.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 6

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 114 and 283

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 73ff

DE VAAN 2008 Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages

ambulo, -are 'to walk' [v. I] (P1.+)

Derivatives: ambulacrum 'promenade' (P1.+), ambulator [m.], -trix [f.] 'who walks

about' (Cato+), ambulatio 'promenade, walk' (Varro+); deambulare 'to go for a

walk' (Cato+), deambulatio 'a walk' (Ter.), inambulare 'to pace up and down' (P1.+),

obambulare 'to walk up to' (P1.+), perambuiare 'to roam about' (PI.), redambulare

'to walk back' (PL).

cedO, -ere 'to go, proceed' [v. Ill; cessT, cessum] (P1.+)

Derivatives: cessare 'to hold back, hesitate; desist, rest' (P1.+), cessatio 'rest,

respite' (P1.+); abscedere 'to go away' (Naev.+), accedere 'to approach' (P1.+),

accessid 'approaching; addition' (P1.+), accessitare 'to approach repeatedly' (Cato),

aniecedere 'to surpass, precede' (P1.+), concedere 'to go (away), give way' (P1.+),

concessare 'to desist' (P1.+), decedere 'to go away, yield' (P1.+), excedere 'to retire,

depart' (PL+), incedere 'to arrive, walk' (Andr.+), intercedere 'to intervene' (P1.+),

intercessio 'veto' (Sisenna+), occedere 'to go so as to confront' (P1.+), procedere 'to

progress' (P1.+), recedere 'to withdraw' (P1.+), recessim *in retreat' (PI.), secedere 'to

draw aside' (P1.+), succedere 'to succeed; come tinder' (in PI. and Ter. only

'succeed'); necesse [adv.] 'essential, inevitable' (NaeV.+), necessus/um esse 'to be

indispensable' (SCBac.+), necessitas 'constraint need' (P1.+), necessarius

'necessary' (P1.+).

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.112/3

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 55
  • vtoN : 24
  • VPi : 8
  • vadV : 6
  • vi : 3
  • nab : 3
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vt prep N : 2
  • vadN : 2
  • NPab : 1
  • VPtoN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 18
  • 說苑 : 9
  • 祖堂集 : 8
  • 楚辭 : 8
  • 禮記 : 7
  • 荀子 : 7
  • 論語 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 春秋左傳 : 4
  • 莊子 : 4
  • 臨濟錄 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 論衡 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 黃帝內經 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1


   xíng OC: ɢraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 51 Attributions

The current general word for walking is xíng 行(ant. zhǐ 止 "stay put").

  • nabact[JDSW does not provide a phonetic gloss so that one assumes the reading is taken to be 如字] walking; way of walking; ability to walk
  • vadNwalking> passing by; walking along. marching past
  • vadVfrom walking, through walking 行乏 be tired from walking
  • viactwalk, take a walk; travel; be on the move; go on a tour of inspection; walk along
  • vifigurativeproceed
  • vtoNwalk on, take a walk on
  • vtoNcausativebe made to walk
  • vtoNobject=distancewalk the distance N 行七步
  • vt(oN)walk on the contextually determinate N
  • vifigurativespread everywhere
  • viderivedunmarked nominalisation: walking
  • vadVwalking on foot
   bù OC: baas MC: buo̝ 15 Attributions

Bù 步 (ant. zǒu 走 "run fast") refers to dignified slow pacing along.

  • vadNspecialised in walking on foot
  • vadVon foot, not riding but walking along
  • viactto pace (slowly); to walk along at measured speed; trot along;
  • viactmarch in a military campaign, set out in a military campaign
  • vtoNcausativecause to walk, make pace along (a horse etc)
  • vt+prep+NOBI: walk to>travel to?
  • nabpacing along
  • vtoNwalk along N
   qū OC: tsho MC: tshi̯o 9 Attributions
  • viactscuddle, scurry, shuffle forward (either fast or slowly)
   tú OC: daa MC: duo̝ 7 Attributions
  • vadNpedestrian
  • vadVproceeding by walking, on foot
  • viactproceed by foot, walk by foot; be without any vehicle
   rào OC: nɢjews MC: ȵiɛu 4 Attributions
  • vtoNwalk in a circle around, walk around in, circumambulate
  • vtoNfigurativesurround> flow around
經行   jīng xíng OC: keeŋ ɢraaŋ MC: keŋ ɦɣaŋ 4 Attributions
  • VPadNBUDDH: designed for walking around in (during pause in meditation to prevent sleepiness) [SK]
  • VPiactBUDDH: walk around
  • VPtoNBUDDH. translations: go to, walk to, walk around in (sometimes used in Buddh. scriptures in contrast to sleeping and sitting, see LI WEIQI 2004: 175)
縱橫   zòng héng OC: tsoŋs ɡʷraaŋ MC: tsi̯oŋ ɦɣaŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPiactroam around, move freely, go whereever one wants; travers freely
  • VPtoNN=placego back and forth in (a place)
行步   xíng bù OC: ɢraaŋ baas MC: ɦɣaŋ buo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPiwalk along (in a dignified way)
   cú OC: sɡaa MC: dzuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNrare: set out for (normally on foot)
   zhì OC: k-liɡs MC: ʈi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNinchoativeset out to reach
   cǐ OC: tsheʔ MC: tshiɛ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNwalk through; trample on; step on
   jí OC: sɡaɡ MC: dziɛk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNtrample on; step on
   qiè OC: skheb MC: tshiɛp 1 Attribution
  • viactgo to and fro; press forward
   dié OC: leeb MC: dep 1 Attribution
  • viacttrample; stamp; walk ???
   cù OC: sklɯwɡ MC: tsuk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpress > step on; trample on
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • vt+prep+Npass by the place N, walk by the place N
行遊   xíng yóu OC: ɢraaŋ lu MC: ɦɣaŋ jɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPiactgo for a walk, stroll around
   jù MC: kjoH OC: kas 1 Attribution
  • viwalk indecorously
   yóu MC: yuw OC: lu 1 Attribution
  • vt prep Nwalk about in
舉足   jǔ zú  MC: kjoX tsjowk  OC: klaʔ tsoɡ  1 Attribution
  • viinchoativelift one's feet> set out to go
趨行   qū xíng MC: tshju haeng OC: tsho ɢraaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabgait
   yóu OC: lu MC: jɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNgo for a walk in N; hike in
   suí OC: snul MC: si 0 Attributions
  • viwalk slowly
   jiàn OC: dzenʔ MC: dziɛn 0 Attributions

Jiàn 踐 focusses on the physical aspect of walking as stepping on something or walking across something.

  • viwalk
  • vtoNwalk to
   zhí OC: kljaɡ MC: tɕiɛk 0 Attributions
  • vtoNwalk through; follow behind; tread [step on][CA]
   sù OC: sruɡ MC: ʂuk 0 Attributions
  • vi.redactdrag the feet in walking, shuffle
   lìn OC: rins MC: lin 0 Attributions
  • viwalk with difficulties
   mài OC: mbraads MC: mɣɛi 0 Attributions

Mài 邁 refers to walking or (sometimes even with abstract subjects like time) moving forward.

  • vimove forward
微行   wēi xíng OC: mɯl ɢraaŋ MC: mɨi ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabactincognito expeditions by the emperor
涉路   shè lù OC: djeb ɡ-raaɡs MC: dʑiɛp luo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPiactwalk along 趕路
行道   xíng dào OC: ɢraaŋ ɡ-luuʔ MC: ɦɣaŋ dɑu 0 Attributions
  • VPiactwalk along 趕路
蹀躞   dié xiè OC: leeb seeb MC: dep sep 0 Attributions
  • VPiactwalk along making small steps
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vt prep Nwalk about in
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • viinchoativelift one's feet> set out to go

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: