HELP  幫助

TRY to PROFIT someone OR to CAUSE a person TO ACHIEVE something one BELIEVES is DIFFICULT for that person.
ASSISTAIDLEND A (HELPING) HAND TOGIVE ASSISTANCE TOCOME TO THE AID OFBE OF SERVICE TOBE OF USE TODO SOMEONE A FAVORDO SOMEONE A SERVICEDO SOMEONE A GOOD TURNBAIL SOMEONE OUTCOME TO SOMEONE'S/THE RESCUEGIVE SOMEONE A LEG UPINFORMAL GET SOMEONE OUT OF A TIGHT SPOTSAVE SOMEONE'S BACONSAVE SOMEONE'S SKIN
Taxonoymy

SUPPORTBLESS

Antonymy

HINDER

See also

SUPPORTASSISTANT

Kind Of

TRY

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The most general current word for helping someone else to perform a task is probably zhù 助 (ant. zǔ 阻 "hinder") which can refer to support given to men or other creatures.

2. Yuán 援 typically refers to spontaneous unsolicited and enthusiastic help.

3. Zuǒ 佐, yòu 佑 (deriving their meaning from the position of aides near the ruler), and also fǔ 輔 refer to official assistance in a formal context.

4. Fú 扶 is specifially help to those much in need of support.

5. Yì 益 (ant. sǔn 損 "act to hinder someone's progress") refers to support for someone who is already fairly well equipped for the task he or she gets support for.

6. Jiǎ 假 refers to - not necessarily overt - discreet support.

7. Zī 資 refers primarily to providing material support, but the word came to have common wider, generalised applications.

8. Jì 濟 refers to acute help for a current difficult task.

9. Yòu 祐 is a very ancient word referring specifically to assistance afforded by supernatural forces.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 14. 輔佐。 ACT AS ADMINISTRATIVE ASSISITANT

輔,通稱。

弼,通過諫諍匡正的方式而佐。

相,力大功大之佐。翊,護衛之佐,有古雅、莊重色彩。

佐,側重於具體事務之助。

佑,帶有偏護意味之佐。贊,帶有開創性之佐。

Modern Chinese Criteria

幫助 is the current modern word for help.

幫忙 refers to loyal assistance.

扶助 focusses on physical support.

協助 focusses on harmonious cooperation.

贊助 focusses on approval as motivation.

援助 (lit) focusses on sustained aid.

臂助 focusses on energetic supportive action.

救助 refers to succour.

匡助 (lit) refers to formal assistance.

輔助 (lit) typically refers to bureaucratic supportive action.

襄助 (lit) refers to formal assistance.

相幫 (lit) refers to loyal help.

幫同 (lit, rare) refers to providing aid.

幫襯 is a dialect word for help.

增援 focusses on help as adding stgrength.

聲援 refers to moral support.

搭手 "give someone a hand" refers to informal help.

援手 (lit) refers verbally as well as nominally to effective help

拉巴 (lit) refers to help and promotion.

誘掖 (lit) refers to help and encouragment.

提掖 (lit) refers to support and guidance.

提攜 (lit) refers to support and guidance.

提挈 (lit) refers nominally to formal assistance.

緩急相助

助我張目

助一臂之力

說項 refers in a traditional way to putting in a word for someone.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.58

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 471

AUXILIUM virium viribus auctio, qvasi d. (dicitur???) auxi alium viribus. Concurrunt ergo 1. agens principale. 2. agens concurrens. 3. opus unum commune, ad qvod efficciendum vires jungunt.

Vide IUVARE.

Ax

1. Qui juvatur, principalis agens est.

2. Qui juvat, agentem juvat.

3. Iuvans et juvatus eodem tendunt, alias enim se impedirent.

4. Iuvans et juvatus pariter se juvant. (Opus, Operarius et Auxiliator propportionata sunt)

5. Magna negotia magnis egent adjutoribus, multa multis, subtilia subtilibus.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

HELP

auxilium ferre is to help or come to the rescue of an ally in straits.

opem ferre is to help someone as a resourceful benefactor.

iuvare presupposes a person trying to do something and refers to the act of helping him to do so.

adiuvare is to help someone who is trying to do something.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 308

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

AUXILIUM

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 61

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 70

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 157

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 57

AIDE 1b

(Deployment of) resources R by a helper X to a helpee Y to perform an action Z

The use by X of his resources R with the aim of causing W to operate as a factor in enabling Y to perform his action Z.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 63

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 16

CAI SHAOWEI 2010 跟我學同義詞 32

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.383.337

SECOURIR.AIDER.ASSISTER

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.125

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.125

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 82A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 128
  • nab : 23
  • v[adN] : 13
  • VPtoN : 9
  • vi : 5
  • vttoN.+V[0] : 5
  • vt(oN) : 4
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 3
  • VPt(oN) : 3
  • vadN : 2
  • vt+V[0] : 2
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 2
  • NPab : 2
  • VPttoN1. N2 : 1
  • vttoN1. prep N2 : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • NP : 1
  • VPt+prep+N : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • n : 1
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2) : 1
  • n[adN] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 54
  • 春秋左傳 : 50
  • 孟子 : 15
  • 管子 : 12
  • 說苑 : 11
  • 戰國策 : 9
  • 論衡 : 8
  • 祖堂集 : 8
  • 尚書 : 6
  • 論語 : 5
  • 賢愚經 : 5
  • 臨濟錄 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 史記 : 3
  • 百喻經 : 3
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1

Words

   fǔ OC: baʔ MC: bi̯o 32 Attributions

Zuǒ 佐, yòu 佑 (deriving their meaning from the position of aides near the ruler), and also fǔ 輔 refer to official assistance in a formal context.

  • vttoN{PIVOT}.+N{PRED}help N in doing something or in being such and such
  • nabactsupport, help
  • v[adN]helper
  • viactbe of help, be helpful; be in a position to be of help
  • vtoNto help; be of use to; to support (normally rulers, but occasionally wicked persons or practices); to assist (the exercise of proper government)
  • vtoNpassivebe supported; be helped
  • vtoNreflexive.己help (oneself)
  • vttoN1. prep N2give help N1 to N2
   zhù OC:  MC: ɖʐi̯ɤ 29 Attributions

The most general current word for helping someone else to perform a task is probably zhù 助 (ant. zǔ 阻 "hinder") which can refer to support given to men or other creatures.

  • nsubjectthat which helps
  • nabacthelp, aid, assistance
  • v[adN]helper, accomplice; assistance; something that helps
  • v[adN]nonreferentialone who helps, supporter
  • vt(oN)offer help to the contextually determinate person(s)
  • vt+V[0]help to, assist to V
  • vtoN.+VV in aid of N
  • vtoNaid; help (Heaven to do evil); support; give moral support
  • vtoNcontinuousbe in general of help to
  • vtoNpassivebe given support
  • vttoN.+V[0]to help (a contextually determinate object) to do something
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotto help (somebody or something) to do something
   zuǒ OC: skaals MC: tsɑ 28 Attributions

Zuǒ 佐, yòu 佑 (deriving their meaning from the position of aides near the ruler), and also fǔ 輔 refer to official assistance in a formal context.

  • v[adN]an aide
  • vtoNhelp with (the charioteering); assist in (government) assist in an official capacity (as aide, a person of superior status); ZHOULI: assist (the king) [support][CA]
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]help the contextually determinate N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]help N to V
   zī OC: sti MC: tsi 22 Attributions

Zī 資 refers primarily to providing material support, but the word came to have common wider, generalised applications.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}featurehelpful elements; helpful acts, acts of kindness;
  • nabactsupport, help; also: helpful abstract elements
  • vt+prep+Ngive aid to
  • vtoNprovide support for, lend substantial support; help; supply the necessities for, give sustenance to, support
  • vtoNpassivebe supported, gain support
  • vtoNreflexive.自help (oneself)
   zàn OC: tsaans MC: tsɑn 13 Attributions
  • nabacthelp
  • vtoNgive generous support; (often said of Heaven) give succour to
  • vtoNobject=taskassist in, be of help in (a task)
   yuàn OC: ɢʷans MC: ɦiɛn 12 Attributions

Yuán 援 typically refers to spontaneous unsolicited and enthusiastic help.

  • nabactgenerous help and support
  • vadNsupporting; supportive
  • viactseek help (abroad)
  • vtoNoffer generous help; get generous help from
  • vt(oN)help the contextually determinate N
  • v[adN]helper; supporting force
   jì OC: tsiils MC: tsei 8 Attributions

Jì 濟 refers to acute help for a current difficult task.

  • vtoNhelp across a river> help to overcome a difficult situation, give succour to; help towards, contribute towards BUDDH: save, liberate
  • vtoNpassiveget helped out of a difficult situation
  • vadNancillary; helping; supporting
   bǔ OC: paaʔ MC: puo̝ 8 Attributions
  • nabactsupport, help
  • vtoNto provide (somebody) with material help in order to cover shortages; to supplement (something)
   kuāng OC: khʷaŋ MC: khi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions
  • vtoNassist; act as an assistant to; help out; come to the aid to
   fú OC: ba MC: bi̯o 6 Attributions

Fú 扶 is specifially help to those much in need of support.

  • vt(oN)help a contextually determinate person
  • vt+V[0]help to rise
  • vtoNcause/enable someone to lean on one> give one's support to, lend support to
   yì OC: qleɡ MC: ʔiɛk 4 Attributions

Yì 益 (ant. sǔn 損 "act to hinder someone's progress") refers to support for someone who is already fairly well equipped for the task he or she gets support for.

  • vibe of help, have a positive function
  • vtoNcontribute to, help towards; to benefit
   xiàng OC: sqaŋs MC: si̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNassist importantly; act as an important assistant to
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]help the implicit N to V
  • vtoNderivedsupport aesthetically
   bèi OC: bralʔ MC: biɛ 4 Attributions
  • vtoNhelp, support
   fèng OC: boŋʔ MC: bi̯oŋ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNhelp and serve
  • vtoNN=acthelp with (an activity)
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 2 Attributions
  • nabacthelp, support; Grand Ricci: Aider; seconder; accompagner. Aide; assistant; protection; secours.
  • VPttoN1. N2support N1 with N2, help N1 by bestowing N2 on N1; archaic (SHI)
振 / 振   zhèn OC: kljɯns MC: tɕin zhēn OC: kljɯn MC: tɕin 2 Attributions
  • vtoNhelp out; aid and abet
化度   huà dù OC: hŋʷraals ɡ-laaɡs MC: hɣɛ duo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNBUDDH: to help, to liberate through instruction, to teach and thereby lead somebody to liberation
救度   jiù dù OC: kus ɡ-laaɡs MC: kɨu duo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)omBUDDH: help to cross over (to the shore of nirvāṇa) > save, liberate
施與   shī yǔ OC: lʰal k-laʔ MC: ɕiɛ ji̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactgenerosity in giving to the poor
  • VPtoNgive succour to, give generous aid to
賑濟   zhèn jì OC: kljɯns tsiils MC: tɕin tsei 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNprovide aid and sustenance to
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 1 Attribution

Zuǒ 佐, yòu 佑 (deriving their meaning from the position of aides near the ruler), and also fǔ 輔 refer to official assistance in a formal context.

  • vtoNhelp
   bì OC: brɯd MC: bit 1 Attribution
  • vtoNassist (as minister a ruler)
   páng OC: baaŋ MC: bɑŋ 1 Attribution
  • n[adN]helper by one's side
   pí OC: bi MC: bi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto help; assist; support; strengthen
   chōu OC: kh-ru MC: ʈhɨu 1 Attribution
  • vicure> avail, be of help
   yì OC: p-lɯɡ MC: jɨk 1 Attribution
  • vtoNsupport
   jiāo OC: kreew MC: kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactmutual help; relations of cooperation
佐助   zuǒ zhù OC: skaals MC: tsɑ ɖʐi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)(+N2)omhelp/assisst a contextually determinate person with something
佐贊   zuǒ zàn OC: skaals tsaans MC: tsɑ tsɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nassist somebody, help
佐輔   zuǒ fǔ OC: skaals baʔ MC: tsɑ bi̯o 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNhelp, assisst (somebody)
加被   jiā bèi OC: kraal bralʔ MC: kɣɛ biɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactsupport, help, assisstance (this is an elevated expression and the subject is usually the Buddha; there are several examples in BIANWEN)
  • VPtoNhelp, assisst, support, add power to (this is an elevated expression and the subject is usually the Buddha; there are several examples in BIANWEN)
廣濟   guǎng jì OC: kʷaaŋʔ tsiils MC: kɑŋ tsei 1 Attribution
  • VPiacthelp creatures on a large scale
濟度 / 濟渡   jì dù OC: tsiils ɡ-laaɡs MC: tsei duo̝ jì dù OC: tsiils ɡ-laaɡs MC: tsei duo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)omBUDDH: cause to cross over (to the other shore, i.e. nirvāṇa) > help; liberate; save (sentient beings)
資給   zī jǐ OC: sti krub MC: tsi kip 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNhelp and give sustenance to
輔佐   fǔ zuǒ OC: baʔ skaals MC: bi̯o tsɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNsupport and help
輔相   fǔ xiàng OC: baʔ sqaŋs MC: bi̯o si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPagentsenior political leaders, political supporters
  • VPtoNassist (somebody) (the exercise of proper government); support (somebody)
   zhōu OC: tjɯw MC: tɕɨu 1 Attribution
  • vtoN=賙 succour, help
   xù MC: zjowk OC: sɢloɡ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcompensate for shortcomings of, help
   jiǎ OC: kraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions

Jiǎ 假 refers to - not necessarily overt - discreet support.

  • vtoNto help (gain power); to aid indirectly
   yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • vtoNaid 天右之 "Heaven helped them"
   bāng OC: paaŋ MC: pɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • v[adN]post-Han: helper
  • vtoNhelp
   dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ 0 Attributions
       yòu OC: ɢʷɯs MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions

    Yòu 祐 is a very ancient word referring specifically to assistance afforded by supernatural forces.

         hàn OC: ɡaans MC: ɦɑn 0 Attributions
      • nsupport
      左右   zuǒ yòu OC: skaalʔ ɢʷɯʔ MC: tsɑ ɦɨu 0 Attributions
      • VPtoNassist See Yijing and GY: 左右之
      裨輔   bì fǔ OC: pe baʔ MC: piɛ bi̯o 0 Attributions
      • VPtoNhelp

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: