DAMAGE  

CHANGE so as to CAUSE TO BECOME MORE BAD.
Old Chinese Criteria

1. By far the commonest general word for damage is hài 害 (ant. lì 利 "benefit").

2. Shāng 傷 "impair" and sǔn 損 "reduce and impair" (all ant. yì 益 "strengthen") are weaker than hài 害 and definitely suggest the survival of what is impaired.

3. Zéi 賊 is stronger than hài 害 and definitely suggests that the damage done is serious indeed - possibly fatal.

Modern Chinese Criteria

有害 is the abstract and most general modern word for inflicting damage.

損害 is the most common modern word for inflicting damage.

傷害 focusses protoypically on injury.

危害 focusses prototypically on exposing things to danger.

禍害 focusses on the disaster inflicted.

苦害 focusses on the "bitter" suffering inflicted.

妨害 focusses on the damage constituting hindrance.

殘害 focusses on the damage as crippling.

戕害 refers to serious bodily harm, possibly lethal harm.

戕賊 refers to potentially lethal serious harm.

貽誤 refers to bungling or spoiling things.

損傷 refers figuratively to serious harm

摧殘 refers to serious harmful devastation.

侵蝕 refers to damage in the form of corrosion or erosion and is marginal in this group.

侵害 refers to the aggressive act of inflicting damage or harm.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 11.28

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 11.29

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

IMPAIR

depravare refers to the act of impairing something in such a way that it is not quite beyond restitution.

corrumpere refers to the act of impairing something in such a way that it is beyond repair or restitution.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

DAMNUM

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 55

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 71 and 140

MENGZI TONGYI 2002 “孟子”同義詞研究 250

TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996 Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary 409

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.275

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.115

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 60B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 93
  • nab : 31
  • VPtoN : 16
  • vt+prep+N : 16
  • vt[oN] : 9
  • NPab : 4
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 3
  • vtoN : 2
  • n : 2
  • nab.post-N : 2
  • VPt+prep+N : 2
  • VPi : 2
  • VP[adNab] : 2
  • VPadV : 1
  • VPt[oN] : 1
  • vadN : 1
  • v[adN] : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • nab.t : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 31
  • 春秋左傳 : 25
  • 荀子 : 19
  • 論衡 : 12
  • 呂氏春秋 : 9
  • 百喻經 : 9
  • 墨子 : 8
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 8
  • 論語 : 8
  • 管子 : 7
  • 孟子 : 7
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 6
  • 說苑 : 5
  • 戰國策 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 史記 : 2
  • 賢愚經 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 尹文子 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 法集要頌經 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   hài OC: ɡaads MC: ɦɑi 78 Attributions

By far the commonest general word for damage is hài 害 (ant. lì 利"benefit").

  • nab.tdamage to N
  • nabeventspecifically, ancestral harm; CC generally, harmful impact; kinds of damage done
  • v[adN]something that does damage (human or animal); menace
  • vt(oN)(try to) harm a contextually determinate person
  • vt[oN]be harmful; do damage to others; be harmful in any way; be a harmful thing to do
  • vt+prep+Nbe deleterious to; do damage to
  • vtoNgradedto damage, to inflict harm; impair (clear-sightedness) 甚害田
  • vtoNfigurativedo abstract damage to, impair
  • vt(oN)figurativeto inflict a mental harm (on a contextually determinate object)
  • vtoNpassiveget injured or damaged; suffer harm
  • vtoNreflexive.己harm (oneself) 害己
  • vtoNreflexive.身do harm to (oneself)
  • vtoNreflexive.自damage (oneself)
  • nharmful thing
  • nab.post-Ndamage to Ndamage to N
  • nab.post-Ndamage from Ndamage from N
  • vtoNmiddle voicefigurative: be aesthetically impaired
  • vtoNbe regarded as harmful to one's interests
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 25 Attributions

Shāng 傷 "impair" and sǔn 損 "reduce and impair" (all ant. yì 益 "strengthen") are weaker than hài 害 and definitely suggest the survival of what is impaired.

  • nabeventharm, damage
  • vt+prep+Ndo damage to
  • vtoNinflict harm on (physical objects)
  • vtoNfigurativedo damage to (abstract things); do abstract damage to or hurt (persons)
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe damaged, suffer damage 傷於下
  • vtoNreflexive.自damage (oneself)
  • vtoNfigurativeabstract: impair
   sǔn OC: squunʔ MC: suo̝n 13 Attributions

Shāng 傷 "impair" and sǔn 損 "reduce and impair" (all ant. yì 益 "strengthen") are weaker than hài 害 and definitely suggest the survival of what is impaired.

  • vt[oN]be deleterious
  • vt+prep+Nimpair; do damage to
  • vtoNinflict damage on
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe damaged; be impaired
   zéi OC: sɡɯɯɡ MC: dzək 9 Attributions

Zéi 賊 is stronger than hài 害 and definitely suggests that the damage done is serious indeed - possibly fatal. See also VILLAIN

  • nabactthat which damages something irrecoverably; villainy
  • vtoNdamage and ruin, harm; try to harm viciously; do villainous harm to
  • vt+prep+Ndo serious damage to
不利   bù lì OC: pɯʔ rids MC: pi̯ut li 8 Attributions
  • VP[adNab]litotesdisadvantage, harm done to one 子亦有不利焉
  • VPtoNlitotesbe less than profited> suffer great loss
  • vt+prep+Nlitotesdo harm to
  • vtoNlitotesnot benefit> damage
   bìng OC: bɢraŋs MC: bɣaŋ 6 Attributions
  • vtoNcause to be injured, inflict damage on; cause trouble for
   quē OC: khʷeed MC: khet 6 Attributions
  • vtoNdamage
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe damaged
毀傷   huǐ shāng OC: qhʷralʔ lʰaŋ MC: hiɛ ɕi̯ɐŋ 4 Attributions
  • VPiflawed, full of mistakes; impaired
  • VPt(oN)omcause or allow the contextually determinate N to be damaged
  • VPtoNcause to be flawed, cause to be full of mistakes; impair, have a negative impact on
  • VPtoNpassiveget harmed by
累害   lèi hài OC: rols ɡaads MC: liɛ ɦɑi 4 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}eventany kind of harm, any kind of damage
  • VPtoNinhibit and harm
  • VPtoNpassiveget damaged
   kuī MC: khjwe OC: khʷral 4 Attributions
  • vtoNdo harm to
   suì OC: sqluds MC: si 3 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativedo supernatural damage to
  • nabmalevolent influence; supernatural curse
殘害   cán hài OC: dzaan ɡaads MC: dzɑn ɦɑi 3 Attributions
  • VPiactdo harm; harm things
  • VPt(oN)do harm to a contextually determinate person
  • VPt+prep+Ndo disastrous harm to
   cán MC: dzan OC: dzaan 3 Attributions
  • vtoNinflict harm on
  • vtoNpassivebe damaged, get harmed
   qiāng OC: sɡaŋ MC: dzi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNinflict damage on
   què, quē OC: khod MC: khi̯ɐt 2 Attributions
  • vtoNimpair; damage; be harmful to
戕賊   qiāng zéi OC: sɡaŋ sɡɯɯɡ MC: dzi̯ɐŋ dzək 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNinflict all sorts of damage on
損害   sǔn hài OC: squunʔ ɡaads MC: suo̝n ɦɑi 2 Attributions
  • NPabactharmful actions; actions harmful to the cause of justice
  • VPtoNdamage
可害   kě hài MC: khaX hajH OC: khlaalʔ ɡaads 2 Attributions
  • NPabfeatureharmfulness
   chuāng OC: skhraŋ MC: ʈʂhi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNdamage, cut short (one's life)
   shā OC: sreed MC: ʂɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativework against the interests of, clip the wings of, reduce the number of; cause harm to
   máo OC: mu MC: mɨu 1 Attribution
  • vadNfigurativenoxious,pestilential
   píng OC: brɯŋ MC: bɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNmaltreat and encroach upon the rights/privileges of N
侵惱   qīn nǎo OC: skhim nuuʔ MC: tshim nɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNinvade and worry> molest
侵略   qīn lǜe OC: skhim ɡ-raɡ MC: tshim li̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativeinterfere with, damage
   shāng OC: lʰaŋ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativedamage to the extent of breaking > break off
傷損   shāng sǔn OC: lʰaŋ squunʔ MC: ɕi̯ɐŋ suo̝n 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNreflexive.自do damage to (oneself)
損壞   sǔn huài OC: squunʔ ɡruuls MC: suo̝n ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • NPabprocessdestruction, decay
棄疾   qì jí OC: khils dzid MC: khi dzit 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Ndo harm to (??)
毀害   huǐ hài OC: qhʷralʔ ɡaads MC: hiɛ ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdamage
苦切   kǔ qiē, qiè OC: khaaʔ snʰiid MC: khuo̝ tshet 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNinflict severe harm on
賊害   zéi hài OC: sɡɯɯɡ ɡaads MC: dzək ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNdo great harm to
菑然   zāi rán MC: -- nyen OC: -- njen 1 Attribution
  • VPadVas if one was damaged
毒賊   dú zéi MC: dowk dzok OC: duuɡ sɡɯɯɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]to do malicious harm to others
   léi OC: ruul MC: luo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdamage
   kěn OC: khɯɯnʔ MC: khən 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdamage ???? (ZHOULI???)
   huài OC: ɡruuls MC: ɦɣɛi 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdo rude harm to
   jì OC: ɡɯs MC: gɨ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNdamage
   lì OC: ɡ-rɯɯls MC: lei 0 Attributions
  • vtoNfigurativebe harmful to; be in disharmony with 五行不相沴
   tòng OC: kh-looŋs MC: thuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcausativecause pain to> harm
   zhòng OC: krluŋs MC: ʈuŋ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNharm, target with damaging action, take harmful measures against
   luàn OC: ɡ-roons MC: lʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • nabpassive
  • vtoN
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • vtoNinflict harm on
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VPadVas if one was damaged

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: