GENEROUS  恩惠

HABITUALLY GIVE of one's WEALTH to THOSE WHO NEED it.
GENEROSITYLIBERALLAVISHMAGNANIMOUSMUNIFICENTGIVINGOPENHANDEDFREE-HANDEDBOUNTIFULUNSELFISHUNGRUDGINGFREEINDULGENTPRODIGALLITERARY BOUNTEOUSLIBERALITYLAVISHNESSMAGNANIMITYMUNIFICENCEOPENHANDEDNESSFREE-HANDEDNESSUNSELFISHNESSKINDNESSBENEVOLENCEALTRUISMCHARITYBIG-HEARTEDNESSGOODNESSLITERARY BOUNTEOUSNESS
Old Chinese Criteria

1. Probably the most general word for generosity is huì 惠 (ant. sè 嗇 "stingy, ungenerous"), and this refers to any kind of emotional as well as material munificence by a person of superior status.

2. Hòu 厚 (ant. báo 薄 "less than ample") refers to generosity of treatment which is not necessarily directed towards inferiors.

3. Shī 施 focuses on the very activity involved in generous treatment of others, and the subject of this activitiy is normally a person of superior status.

4. E!n 恩 (ant. chóu 仇 "hostile attitude") refers primarily to an attitude or disposition (typically on the part of a person of superior status) to be generous.

5. Dé 德 and the rarer zé 澤 refer to graceful and spiritually inspiring munificence, typically from a person of supremely high status.

6. Kuān 寬 and the rarer guǎng 廣 can refer to a general disposition towards non-narrow and broadly directed generosity.

7. Zhān 霑 refers to receiving the benefits of generosity and is thus marginal in this group, and the word is rare.

NB: Kāng kǎi 慷慨 refers to generousity with one's resources, but the usage is first attested in Ming novels.

Modern Chinese Criteria

恩惠

恩典

恩德

恩澤

恩情

恩遇

恩寵

德澤

雨露

人情

好處

嘉惠

春暉

恩光渥澤

大恩

宏恩

大德

隆恩

殊遇

大恩大德

雨露之恩

小惠

甜頭

小恩小惠

活命之恩

救命之恩

再造之恩

再生之恩

不斬之恩

好說

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 473

BENEFICIUM ex benevolentia datum alicui aliquid, per qvod illi bene sit. Tria ergo conc. 1. Indigens aliqvis. 2. indigentiam explens. 3. interveniens utrinqve benevolentia. Factum enim ab invito non reputatur beneficium, nec datum malevolo animo.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

GENEROUS

Largus refers to anyone who makes a rich present to anyone of any kind.

benignus refers to someone who follows a pure impaulse of humanity, love towards his fellow men in making rich presents.

liberalis refers to someone who, as a result of a prou feeling of self-respect feels inclined to show generosity.

munificus refers to someone who is amply generous in generous out the the goodness of his heart, and with a deep desire to do good to others.

GENEROUS

prodigus refers to prodigality inasmuch as someone disregards monetary considerations.

profusus refers to produgality insofar as something thinks of nothing as being too expensive as long as it can minister to his pleasures, from levity of character.

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 361

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 99

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 181

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

BENEFICENTIA

CHARITAS

FAVOR

LIBERALITAS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 50

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 172

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 2.1063

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.187

DIVISIONES 1906 Divisiones quae vulgo dicuntur Aristoteleae no.17/20

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 63A

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 94
  • NPab : 32
  • vi : 31
  • vtoN : 22
  • vadV : 17
  • VPi : 15
  • vt+prep+N : 9
  • vadN : 6
  • nab : 3
  • VPt[oN] : 3
  • vt[oN] : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • vpostadV : 2
  • VPtoN : 1
  • VPt+V[0] : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1
  • NP : 1
  • VPadV : 1
  • VPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 60
  • 春秋左傳 : 50
  • 管子 : 17
  • 賢愚經 : 15
  • 說苑 : 14
  • 百喻經 : 12
  • 論語 : 11
  • 禮記 : 8
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 尚書 : 5
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 孟子 : 3
  • 史記 : 2
  • 臨濟錄 : 2
  • 淮南子 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 荀子 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 孝經 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 文選 : 1
  • 鮑氏集 : 1

Words

   huì OC: ɢʷiids MC: ɦei 47 Attributions

Probably the most general word for generosity is huì 惠 (ant. sè 嗇 "stingy, ungenerous"), and this refers to any kind of emotional as well as material munificence by a person of superior status.

  • nabpublic (often demonstrative) generosity (usually on a large scale); act of generosity MOVE TO GENEROUS NAB
  • nabactact(s) of public generosity
  • nabpsychgenerosity of heart
  • vadNgenerous
  • vadVgenerously; gracefully
  • viactbe generous
  • vtoNbe generous towards
   shī OC: lʰal MC: ɕiɛ 32 Attributions

Shī 施 focuses on the very activity involved in generous treatment of others, and the subject of this activitiy is normally a person of superior status.

  • nabactacts of generosity; kinds of generosity; generous support
  • vadNgenerously supplied
  • viactshow generosity in action
  • viimperativebe generous!
  • vt+prep+Nshow generosity towards, be beneficial towards; cultivate through generosity
  • vtoNgive alms to
  • vtoNmiddle voicereceive generosity
  • vt[oN]show generousity to people; give generous handouts to people
  • nabpsychologicalgenerosity
德 / 得   dé OC: tɯɯɡ MC: tək dé OC: tɯɯɡ MC: tək 27 Attributions

Dé 德 and the rarer zé 澤 refer to graceful and spiritually inspiring munificence, typically from a person of supremely high status. Dé 德 and the rarer zé 澤 refer to graceful and spiritually inspiring munificence, typically from a person of supremely high status.

  • vtoNbe generous towards
  • vtoNpsychfeel well-disposed towards, have warm feelings towards; build up warm feelings fowards; build up good relations with
  • nabdispositionovert charismatic generosity, ability to display magnanimity; goodwill
  • nabstativegood relations, mutual charismatic good will; good will; favourable attitude
  • viactshow virtuous generosity and goodness in action
  • vt(oN)show generosity towards the contextually determinate N
  • vt+prep+Nbe generous towards
  • nabactact of generosity
   hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 25 Attributions

Hòu 厚 (ant. báo 薄 "less than ample") refers to generosity of treatment which is not necessarily directed towards inferiors.

  • nabactmoral generosity
  • nabdispositiongenerosity; munificence; lavishness
  • vadNabundant, lavish; generous
  • vadVgenerously; sumptuously; richly;  amply
  • vibe generous (in temperament)
  • viactgenerous in attitude and action; be substantial (of rewards etc); be lavish
  • vpostadVgenerously, with abundant generosity; extensively
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe more lavish, be more generous than
  • vt+prep+Npsychbe generous towards (oneself)
  • vtoNbe generous with regard to
  • vtoNcausativemake lavish (salaries etc); increase the size of
   ēn OC: qɯɯn MC: ʔən 20 Attributions

Ēn 恩 (ant. chóu 仇 "hostile attitude") refers primarily to an attitude or disposition (typically on the part of a person of superior status) to be generous.

  • nabacta significant generous action by a benefactor 恩不甚
  • nabdispositiongenerous loving concern;gracious generosity by superiors, primarily as an attitude, but occasionally also as manifested in action: generous gratuitous favours; emotional good-will, emotional ties; Hanfei: gratuitous kindness
布施   bù shī OC: paas lʰal MC: puo̝ ɕiɛ 16 Attributions
  • NPabactBUDDH: giving, making offerings (to the Buddha or the monks/nuns); SANSKRIT dāna[pāramitā]
  • VPiactbe generous in action BUDDH: to practice generosity/charity, to give alms (one of the Six Perfections of a Bodhisattva, see liùdù 六度); SANSKRIT dāna
慈惠   cí huì OC: dzɯ ɢʷiids MC: dzɨ ɦei 12 Attributions
  • NPabdispositionloving and caring generosity
  • VPadNmotivated by affectionate generosity
  • VPt[oN]be loving and generous (typically as a superior)
  • NPabconceptnotion of love and care
  • NPabactdevoted generosity
寬裕   kuān yù OC: khoon k-loɡs MC: khʷɑn ji̯o 11 Attributions
  • NPabdispositiontolerance and generosity
  • VPiactpractice tolerant generosity
   xìng OC: ɢreeŋʔ MC: ɦɣɛŋ 9 Attributions
  • vadVin polite formulae: gracefully; by your grace; kindly, generously 願大王幸V
   zé OC: ɡrlaaɡ MC: ɖɣɛk 7 Attributions

Dé 德 and the rarer zé 澤 refer to graceful and spiritually inspiring munificence, typically from a person of supremely high status.

  • nabdispositiongenerosity towards others; relations of mutual generosity
   néng OC: nɯɯŋ MC: nəŋ 6 Attributions
  • vtoNtreat well
惠澤   huì zé OC: ɢʷiids ɡrlaaɡ MC: ɦei ɖɣɛk 4 Attributions
  • NPabactgenerosityDCD: 猶恩澤。《漢書 ‧ 鄭崇傳》: " 朕幼而孤,皇太太后躬自養育,免于襁褓,教道以禮,至於成人,惠澤茂焉。 "
   rén OC: njin MC: ȵin 4 Attributions
  • nabpsychologicalmoral generosity
  • vishow moral generous concern
  • vtoNshow generous and virtuous concern for
   yù OC: k-loɡs MC: ji̯o 3 Attributions
  • nabpsychLIJI 14.11: large-mindedness
  • vadNbeing large-minded; generous
  • vibe generous
  • vtoNbe generous in respect to
   guǎng OC: kʷaaŋʔ MC: kɑŋ 2 Attributions

Kuān 寬 and the rarer guǎng 廣 can refer to a general disposition towards non-narrow and broadly directed generosity.

  • v[adN]nonreferentialthe generous
  • vadVgenerously
  • viactbe generous
   mǐ OC: mralʔ MC: miɛ 2 Attributions
  • vtoNbe generous to
施予   shī yǔ OC: lʰal laʔ MC: ɕiɛ ji̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactgenerosity to others
  • VPitransitivebe prepared to give things away, be generous to others
  • VPtoNbe generous to
   dūn OC: tuun MC: tuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vichangebecome generous
   chuò OC: thjewɡ MC: tɕhi̯ɐk 1 Attribution
  • vibe generous ???
  • vtoNcausativebe generous to
周澤   zhōu zé OC: tjɯw ɡrlaaɡ MC: tɕɨu ɖɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • NPfeelings of generosity and friendship (on the part of superiors towards inferiors)
   ēn OC: qɯɯn MC: ʔən 1 Attribution
  • VPt+V[0]be generous enough to V
寬厚   kuān hòu OC: khoon ɡooʔ MC: khʷɑn ɦu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactgenerosity in action
寬容   kuān róng OC: khoon k-loŋ MC: khʷɑn ji̯oŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt[oN]act with generosity and tolerance
幸而   xìng ér OC: ɢreeŋʔ njɯ MC: ɦɣɛŋ ȵɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVby your grace
廣大   guǎng dà OC: kʷaaŋʔ daads MC: kɑŋ dɑi 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychbroadness of mind, generosity, liberality
德者   dé zhě OC: tɯɯɡ kljaʔ MC: tək tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcharismatic generosity; charisma
惠恤   huì xù OC: ɢʷiids sqʷiɡ MC: ɦei sʷit 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNresultativebe generous so as to show sympathy with
惠施   huì shī OC: ɢʷiids lʰal MC: ɦei ɕiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPiactbe generous to others
  • VPt(oN)distribute generously a contextually determinate object
愛惠   ài huì OC: qɯɯds ɢʷiids MC: ʔəi ɦei 1 Attribution
  • NPabactloving generosity
慈恩   cí ēn OC: dzɯ qɯɯn MC: dzɨ ʔən 1 Attribution
  • NPabactloving generosity
恩澤   ēn zé MC: 'on draek OC: qɯɯn ɡrlaaɡ 1 Attribution
  • NPabfeaturegenerosity
   rùn MC: -- OC: njuns 1 Attribution
  • NPabactmunificence
   kuān OC: khoon MC: khʷɑn 0 Attributions

Kuān 寬 and the rarer guǎng 廣 can refer to a general disposition towards non-narrow and broadly directed generosity.

  • viactbe generous and liberal
   zhān OC: krlem MC: ʈiɛm 0 Attributions

Zhān 霑 refers to receiving the benefits of generosity and is thus marginal in this group, and the word is rare.

  • vireceive munificence
不吝   bù lìn OC: pɯʔ rins MC: pi̯ut lin 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNlitotesnot be stingy with>be generous with 不吝千金璧
博施   bó shī OC: paaɡ lʰal MC: pɑk ɕiɛ 0 Attributions
  • nabactwide-reaching generosity/beneficence
厚遇   hòu yù OC: ɡooʔ ŋos MC: ɦu ŋi̯o 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNtreat generously
恩德   ēn dé OC: qɯɯn tɯɯɡ MC: ʔən tək 0 Attributions
  • NPabactacts of generosity
慷慨   kǎng kài OC: khlaaŋʔ khɯɯds MC: khɑŋ khɑi 0 Attributions

NB: Kāng kǎi 慷慨 refers to generousity with one's resources, but the usage is first attested in Ming novels.

  • VPiactbe generous in the use of one's resources for the benefit of others
施心   shī xīn OC: lʰal slɯm MC: ɕiɛ sim 0 Attributions
  • NPabpsychgenerosity
見遇   jiàn yù OC: keens ŋos MC: ken ŋi̯o 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)encounter a contextually determinate person; polite: (have the good fortune to) encounter (a person)
   yì OC: ŋrals MC: ŋiɛ 0 Attributions
  • vibe generous and charitable in the performance of one's moral duty
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturegenerosity
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPabactmunificence

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: