PUNISH  刑罰刑法

RESTRAIN OR DAMAGE a CULPRIT BECAUSE of his/her CRIMES.
DISCIPLINETEACH SOMEONE A LESSONTAN SOMEONE'S HIDEINFORMAL WALLOPCOME DOWN ON (LIKE A TON OF BRICKS
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The general word for punishment is wú xíng 五刑, traditionally in SHU, LYUXING listed as "dà pí 大辟 "decapitation", yuè 刖 "mutilation of foot", yì 劓, gōng 宮 "castration", mò 墨 "branding". The list varied through time and is different in different sources.

2. Xíng 刑 refers specifically to physical punishment.

3. Fá 罰 refers to non-physical forms of punishment including typically fines. See FINE

4. Yù 獄 can be used to refer to any kind of punitive action taken against criminals.

5. Fǎ 法 can occasionally be used, mainly in early texts, to refer not to criminal law but to the application of such laws to criminals.

6. Zuò 坐 refers to a condemned person being held responsible for a criminal act and being punished. See CONDEMN

7. Tǎo 討 is a moralistic term referring to a momentous act of punishment in the name of justice, and the meaning often vascillates between ATTACK and PUNISH, when the reference is a punitive attack. See ATTACK

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

HUMAN BODY 41. 肢體肉刑。

墨,用刀刺面,然後將它染黑,

從其動作又稱 “ 黥 ” ,漢代起多稱 “ 黥 ” ,

後世發展為 “ 刺配 ” 。

劓,割鼻子。

刖,砍掉腳或腳趾。

髕,挖掉膝蓋骨。

刵,割掉耳朵。

Modern Chinese Criteria

處罰

處分

責罰

懲罰

懲辦

論處

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 21.37

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 146

MULTATIO, POENA, SUPPLICIUM

359. Inter multationem, poenam, et supplicium. Multatio potest esse, et sine sanguine, in damno pecuniae. Supplicium cum sanguine; poena vero dolor sine sanguine.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

PUNISHMENT

punitio is punishment as required by the law.

mulcta is compensation for injury done, according to the law.

castigatio is chastisement which may serve to improve the individual, especially a rebuke.

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 215

Gerichtswesen:

FINSTERBUSCH 1966 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 235

Scharfrichter:

FINSTERBUSCH 2000 Verzeichnis und Motivindex der Han-Darstellungen 806

Strafvollzugsszene:

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 256

KRASOVEC 1999 Reward, Punishment, and Forgiveness: The Thinking and Beliefs of Ancient Israel in the Light of Greek and modern Views

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

POENA

PUNITIO

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 127

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 56

MAUTHNER WP 1924 Woerterbuch der Philosophie. Neue Beitraege zu einer Kritik der Sprache III.249

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 12

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 3.1507

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 10.208

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

STRAFARBEIT

STRAFEN

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 267f

POIRIER 1991 Histoire des moeurs 2.611-698

BORCHERT 2005 The Encyclopedia of Philosophy

PUNISHMENT

JONES 2005 Encyclopedia of Religion

DISMEMBER

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.152.114

CHATIER.PUNIR

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.170

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 146A

AHNDEN

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vtoN : 106
  • nab : 61
  • NPab : 9
  • NPab{N1&N2} : 9
  • vt[oN] : 9
  • VPtoN : 9
  • vt(oN) : 6
  • vtoNPab{S} : 5
  • NP : 4
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 4
  • nab : 3
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2 : 3
  • VPt prep N : 2
  • vi : 2
  • VPi : 1
  • vtoS : 1
  • vt+prep+N : 1
  • VPt(oN) : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 73
  • 春秋左傳 : 72
  • 說苑 : 15
  • 尚書 : 8
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 論語 : 6
  • 管子 : 6
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 5
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 韓詩外傳 : 3
  • 墨子 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 漢書 : 2
  • 文子 : 2
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 史記 : 2
  • 祖堂集 : 2
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 賢愚經 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 毛詩 : 1
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1

Words

   tǎo OC: thuuʔ MC: thɑu 58 Attributions

Tǎo 討 is a moralistic term referring to a momentous act of punishment in the name of justice, and the meaning often vascillates between ATTACK and PUNISH, when the reference is a punitive attack. See ATTACK

  • nabactpunishment
  • vt(oN)punish the contextually determinate object
  • vt[oN]punish
  • vtoNobject=crimepunish 討罪
  • vtoNobject=culpritseek out and punish; punish (for an offence); launch a punitive attack on
  • vtoNpassivebe punished, have a punitive expedition carried out against one
  • vtoNreflexive.自punish (oneself)
  • vtoNPab{S}punish the fact that S
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 50 Attributions

Xíng 刑 refers specifically to physical punishment.

  • nobjectone condemned to physical punishment
  • nab.post-V{NUM}actpunishment; kind of punishment GY: 刑五而已 "There are only five kinds of punishments..."
  • nabactpunishment (physical or otherwise)
  • nabactphysical punishment
  • nabconceptproper punishment
  • viactcarry out punishments
  • vtoNN=hum(punish by mutilation>) punish harshly, punish physically; mutilate
  • vtoNN=actpunish (a crime), typically by mutilation of the culprit
  • vtoNpassivebe punished by mutilation; get punished; get oneself punished
  • nabactphysical punishment
  • vtoNmiddle voicereceive corporal punishment, receive physical punishment
   fá OC: bod MC: bi̯ɐt 38 Attributions

Fá 罰 refers to non-physical forms of punishment including typically fines. See FINE

  • nabactpunishment through fines; more generally: punitive action
  • vt[oN]mete out punishments or fines, take punitive action
  • vtoNcondemn to the payment of a fine or some other form of mild punishment; generally: to punish
  • vtoNreflexive.自punish (oneself)
  • vtoStake punitive action against (a state of affairs described in S)
  • vt(oN)punish/fine the contextually determinate human N
  • vtoNpassiveget punished
   zhū OC: to MC: ʈi̯o 30 Attributions
  • nabactpunishment; legal criminal proceedings
  • viactmete out punishment
  • vt[oN]mete out severe punishments to people
  • vt+prep+Ngeneralapply punishments to
  • vtoNpunish officially (more or less severely); apply strictures to
  • vtoNobject=crimepunish
  • vtoNpassivebe punished
  • nabthe being punished
刑罰   xíng fá OC: ɡeeŋ bod MC: ɦeŋ bi̯ɐt 9 Attributions
  • NPab{N1&N2}nonreferentialvarious kinds of penalties and punishments
   chéng OC: dɯŋ MC: ɖɨŋ 6 Attributions
  • vtoNimpose mild punishment, use punitive sanctions; chastise
  • vtoNmiddle voicebe chastised
  • vt(oN)punish the contextually determinate N
刑戮   xíng lù OC: ɡeeŋ ɡ-ruɡ MC: ɦeŋ luk 5 Attributions
  • NPphysical punishment or execution
  • VPtoNpassivebe punished so as to be put to death> get executed
誅罰   zhū fá OC: to bod MC: ʈi̯o bi̯ɐt 4 Attributions
  • NPabactpunishment or fine of any kind
  • NPabactbeing punished
  • VPiactcarry out punishments of any sort
   shī OC: qhlji MC: ɕi 3 Attributions
  • vttoN1.+prep+N2dispose of the corpse (of someone N1) in (a place N2); display the corpses (of someone N1) in (a place N2)曹人尸諸城上
   fǎ OC: pab MC: pi̯ɐp 3 Attributions

Fǎ 法 can occasionally be used, mainly in early texts, to refer not to criminal law but to the application of such laws to criminals.

  • nabactSHU, GUAN: refers generally to the application of criminal law to criminals
  • vtoNapply the law to: punish
   chí OC: rlɯ MC: ɖɨ 3 Attributions
  • vtoNdeal with according to the law (and punish)
  • vtoNpassivebe properly sentenced and punished; be legally dealt with in connection with a crime committed
辜磔   gū zhé OC: kaa krlaaɡ MC: kuo̝ ʈɣɛk 3 Attributions
  • nquartering
  • VPt(oN)carve up in public
  • VPtoNpassiveget publicly executed
   yù OC: ŋoɡ MC: ŋi̯ok 2 Attributions

Yù 獄 can be used to refer to any kind of punitive action taken against criminals.

  • nabactimprisonment; punitive measures such as imprisonment; punitive procedure; punishment
刑辟   xíng bì OC: ɡeeŋ peɡ MC: ɦeŋ piɛk 2 Attributions
  • NPabactpunishments
鞭笞   biān chī OC: pen rlʰɯ MC: piɛn ʈhɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNflog (intensely?, in any way?)
  • VPtoNfigurativechastise
   fú 2 Attributions
  • vtoNfine to drink a cup of alcohol (at a feast); to sconce
髕腳   bìn jiǎo MC: bjijX kjak OC: binʔ kaɡ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoNpassivehave one's feet and kneecaps cut off
   xiāo OC: keew MC: keu 1 Attribution
  • vtoNhave (someone) executed and his body exposed to public view
   chuí OC: tjolʔ MC: tɕiɛ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNto whip; flog; also: to punish/castigate (a state)
   gū OC: kaa MC: kuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNexecute publicly and leave the body in the open as a public disgrace; drastic punishment
   jǐng OC: sɡeŋʔ MC: dziɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpassiveby extension, occasionally: be thrown into a pit
五刑   wǔ xíng OC: ŋaaʔ ɡeeŋ MC: ŋuo̝ ɦeŋ 1 Attribution

The general word for punishment is wú xíng 五刑 , traditionally in SHU, LYUXING listed as "dà bì 大辟 "decapitation", yuè 刖 "mutilation of foot", yì 劓, gōng 宮 "castration", mò 墨 "branding". The list varied through time and is different in different sources.

  • NPabthe five mutilating kinds of punishment
刀杖   dāo zhàng OC: k-laaw daŋʔ MC: tɑu ɖi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpassivepunishment suffered
戮辱   lù rǔ OC: ɡ-ruɡ njoɡ MC: luk ȵi̯ok 1 Attribution
  • NPabacthumiliation through harsh public punishment
  • VPtoNpassiveget humiliated through harsh public punishment
有討   yǒu tǎo OC: ɢʷɯʔ thuuʔ MC: ɦɨu thɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+Nconativetry to attack??? ???
箠笞   chuí chī OC: tjolʔ rlʰɯ MC: tɕiɛ ʈhɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNfigurativecastigate
糾逖   jiū tì OC: kiw theeɡ MC: kɨu thek 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNchastise
加刑   jiā xíng MC: kae heng OC: kraal ɡeeŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt prep Npunish
典刑   diǎn xíng MC: tenX heng OC: tɯɯnʔ ɡeeŋ 1 Attribution
  • nabpluralpunishments
   jīn MC: kim OC: krɯm 1 Attribution
  • nabpunishment by imposition of a fine
罰懲   fá chéng MC: bjot -- OC: bod dɯŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpluralpunishments
   zuò OC: sɡools MC: dzʷɑ 0 Attributions

Zuò 坐 refers to a condemned person being held responsible for a criminal act and being punished. See CONDEMN

       wán OC: ɡoon MC: ɦʷɑn 0 Attributions
    • vtoNpunish lightly by shaving someone's hair off so as to mark him off for menial punitive service
       fèi OC: pods MC: pi̯ɐi 0 Attributions
    • vtoNtake away the right to serve in political functions
       gǒng OC: koŋʔ MC: ki̯oŋ 0 Attributions
    • nmanacles (ZHOULI)
    • vtoNput wooden handcuffs on a prisoner as punishment
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    zǎn

    • vtoNpunish by squeezing the fingers
       jiā OC: kraal MC: kɣɛ 0 Attributions
    • vtoNapply the wooden collar, cangue
        OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

    chí?

    • vtoNcane with short canes
       nài OC: nɯɯs MC: nəi 0 Attributions
    • vtoNshave off beard and hair at the temples as punishment, a milder form of kūn 髡
       yàn OC: ŋranʔ MC: ŋiɛn 0 Attributions
    • vtoNdecide a court case is general and does not imply punishment
       kào OC: khuus MC: khɑu 0 Attributions
    • vtoNput in manacles is very late and has replaced
       kūn OC: khluun MC: khuo̝n 0 Attributions
    • npunishment in the form of being shaved bald and beardless like a eunuch (as a milder replacement for castration)
    奪爵   duó jué OC: dood tsewɡ MC: dʷɑt tsi̯ɐk 0 Attributions
    • vtoNcondemn to removal of rank and privileges
    籍門   jí mén OC: sɡaɡ mɯɯn MC: dziɛk muo̝n 0 Attributions
    • vtoNstrike the whole clan off the population register forever
    隸臣   lì chén OC: ɡ-rɯɯds ɡjiŋ MC: lei dʑin 0 Attributions
    • vtoNdeprive culprit of house servants
    髕腳   bìn jiǎo MC: bjijX kjak OC: binʔ kaɡ 0 Attributions
    • DELETEpassivehave one's feet cut off

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: