INTENSELY  

To a HIGH DEGREE.
VERYEXTREMEGREATACUTEFIERCESEVEREHIGHEXCEPTIONALEXTRAORDINARYHARSHSTRONGPOWERFULPOTENTOVERPOWERINGVIGOROUSEXTREMELYEXCEEDINGLYEXCEPTIONALLYEXTRAORDINARILYTREMENDOUSLYIMMENSELYHUGELYINTENSELYACUTELYABUNDANTLYSINGULARLYUNCOMMONLYDECIDEDLYPARTICULARLYSUPREMELYHIGHLYREMARKABLYREALLYTRULYMIGHTILYEVER SOINFORMAL TERRIFICALLYAWFULLYFEARFULLYTERRIBLYDEVILISHLYMAJORLYSERIOUSLYMEGAULTRADAMNDAMNEDDEADREALWAYMIGHTYAWFULDARNED
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word referring to high degree of something or intensity of the application of a predicate is shèn 甚 (ant.* post-Buddhist (NANBEICHAO) lŸè 略 "slightly").

2. Yǐ 已 and dà 大 refer to an extreme degree. See also EXCESSIVE

3. Zhì 至 and jí 極 refers to the ultimate or extreme high degree of something, but the meaning of jí 極 was weakened by Han times times to something like the general meaning of shèn 甚.

4. Zuì 最 refers to the largest degree or highest intensity within a given set compared. See MOST.

5. Jìng 勁 and jí 疾 add the notion of vigour to that of intensity of degree.

6. Hòu 厚 typically refers to a high degree or high intensity of something positive.

7. Zhòng 重 freely refers to an impressive intensity beyond expectation of both positive or negative qualities or actions.

8. Tòng 痛 refers specifically to a high degree of feelings or emotions.

Modern Chinese Criteria

極其

極度

分外

特別

萬分

非常

很是 as in 很是不對

異常

特別

格外

非凡

分外

十分

十二分

萬分

十二萬分

不勝

無任

百般

百倍

充分

老大

好生

好不

交關

那個

萬狀

要命

要死

不行

赫然

夠勁兒

夠受的

夠嗆

雅 (lit,obs) is a highly literary way of expressing intensity of degree.

綦 (obs) "extremely"

不可開交

死去活來

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 12.44

  • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

    INTENSE

    valde simply means "very much".

    perquam means "to an extraordinary degree".

    admodum means "tolerably much".

    multum means "considerably".

    magnopere means "quite a lot"

  • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 449

    最,取with roof without dot

    1. The second graph too rare to be treated in SSC.

  • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 181

  • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 119

  • Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Second Edition ( BROWN 2005) p.

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.442.400

    TRES.FORT.BIEN

  • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no. 2

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 518/522/524

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vadV : 200
  • vi : 37
  • vpostadV : 36
  • VPpostadV : 21
  • ppostadV : 14
  • vt+prep+N : 12
  • VPadV : 12
  • vad.VtoN : 11
  • p+N.postS : 10
  • vpostadVtoN : 10
  • padV{NEG} : 9
  • vadN : 6
  • vadV.adN : 6
  • vadV1.adV2 : 5
  • padV : 5
  • vadV{NEG}.adV : 5
  • NPadS : 4
  • vadV.postadVtoN : 4
  • VPadN.adV : 3
  • vt+prep+Nab : 3
  • PPadN.postS : 3
  • vi-P.+NPab{S}{SUBJ} : 3
  • vt+V[0] : 3
  • vadV1.postadV2 : 3
  • vtoN : 3
  • padS1.post-S2 : 3
  • vadV.postadN : 3
  • vt+prep+N1.postVtoN2 : 3
  • PPadV : 2
  • vadV{NEG} : 2
  • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adS : 2
  • vadV+V : 2
  • vt[0]oN.postadV : 2
  • vad.V1postadV2 : 1
  • nab : 1
  • vadS : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • v(adN) : 1
  • vi.red:adN : 1
  • VPpostadN : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • vad.VtoV : 1
  • vpost-V.postadN : 1
  • vad.Vt+prep+N : 1
  • vadVt(pass) : 1
  • padN : 1
  • npro.adNPab{S} : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 111
  • 春秋左傳 : 51
  • 百喻經 : 50
  • 賢愚經 : 41
  • 祖堂集 : 39
  • 說苑 : 27
  • 戰國策 : 16
  • 臨濟錄 : 12
  • 孟子 : 12
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 10
  • 莊子 : 9
  • 論語 : 9
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 史記 : 7
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 列子 : 4
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 4
  • 禮記 : 4
  • 管子 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 太平經 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 3
  • 記纂淵海 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 法言 : 2
  • 法集要頌經 : 2
  • 法句經 : 2
  • 公孫龍子 : 1
  • 類說 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 全上古三代秦漢三國六朝文(全晉文) : 1
  • 朱子語類 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 韓詩外傳 : 1
  • 楚辭 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1

Words

   shèn OC: ɡljums MC: dʑim 146 Attributions

The current general word referring to high degree of something or intensity of the application of a predicate is shèn 甚 (ant.* post-Buddhist (NANBEICHAO) lyuè 略 "slightly").

  • vad.Vt+prep+N甚大於 "be much greater than"
  • vad.VtoN甚愛之,甚禮之
  • vad.VtoVadverb-raisingvery 甚以為苦 "consider very hard to bear".
  • vadN必有甚惡"extreme wickedness"
  • vadV.adNvery 甚病之人
  • vadV.postadN置表甚長"put out a long advertisement"
  • vadV.postadVtoNintensely 待之甚敬
  • vadVvery much, strongly; also: too much, excessively before VP: very; emphatic after VP: enormously, tremendously
  • vadV1.adV2very 甚多入人田中
  • vadVt(pass)甚重於王"was regarded as highly important by the king"
  • vi-P.+NPab{S}{SUBJ}甚矣天下之惑也"how extreme the confusion of the world is!"
  • vi-P.adS甚矣吾衰也"How I decline!"
  • vi.red:adN甚甚之辭"aggravating formulation"???
  • viactcarry things far, go beyond the normal 已甚者"one who carries things too far"
  • vigradedbe intense; be excessive, be too much; often comparative: be more intense (than), more than 太甚
  • vpostadV怒甚 "get very angry", 醉甚"be very drunk"
  • vpostadVtoNintensely 愛宛甚 "love Wǎn intensely"
  • vt[0]oN.postadVmore intensely than (something) 其勸甚此 "one will encourage them even more than this"
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe more intense than; be stronger than 甚於
  • vt+prep+N1.postVtoN2gradedmore than 悅愛之甚於王 "appreciated and loved here more than the king (did)"
  • vtoNoverdo (something) 非甚之"critcise him for overdoing it"
  • vtoNgradedbe more intense than
  • vt(oN)putativetake very seriously
  • v(adN)an extreme example of N
  • nabintensity
  • vad.V1postadV2very V-ly
   dà OC: daads MC: dɑi 75 Attributions

Yǐ 已 and dà 大 refer to an extreme degree. See also EXCESSIVE

  • vt+prep+Nabgradedbe greater that doing so and so, be more serious than doing so and so
  • v-E2R.adVgreatly
  • vadV.adNgreatly, on a large scale (modifying a verb, the phrase again modifying a noun)
  • vadVin a big way; very much, mightily, highly, greatly; on a large scale
  • vtoNgradedmore than N
  • vadVderivedstrictly
   zhòng OC: doŋʔ MC: ɖi̯oŋ 29 Attributions

Zhòng 重 freely refers to an impressive intensity beyond expectation of both positive or negative qualities or actions.

  • vt+prep+Nabgradedbe more serious than doing so and so
  • vadNsubstantial (rewards); serious (disease)
  • vadVintensely, very much; heavily; substantially
  • vifigurativebe intensive, be strong, be heavy; be grave
  • vpost-V.postadNserious (disease etc)
  • vtoNcausativecause to become even more intense, aggravate, exacerbate
  • vpostadVintensely, powerfully
深 / 深   shèn OC: qhljums MC: ɕim shēn OC: qhljum MC: ɕim 14 Attributions
  • vadVdeeply, intensely
  • vibe intense (also of colour!)
  • vpostadVintensely [perhaps in the end to be taken as vi with sentential subject]
  • vadNprofound, intense
  • vadVV=passiveon a large scale
   shēng OC: sraaŋ MC: ʂɣaŋ 14 Attributions
  • ppostadV(colloquial) suffix after verbs expressing high degree or intensity (often appearing together with intensifying adverb tài 太)
   kuàng OC: qhʷaŋs MC: hi̯ɐŋ 13 Attributions
  • p+N.postSgradedhow much more?
  • padS1.post-S2how much more when
   yǐ OC: k-lɯʔ MC: jɨ 12 Attributions

Yǐ 已 and dà 大 refer to an extreme degree. See also EXCESSIVE

  • vadVvery intensely, exceedingly, very much
   liáng OC: ɡ-raŋ MC: li̯ɐŋ 12 Attributions
  • vadV.postN{SUBJ}:adSa lot, to a fair degree
  • vadVvery 良久
  • vadV1.adV2a lot, to a fair degree
  • vadV1.postadV2very
  • vadSon an intense scale, to a pretty large extent
   tè OC: ɡ-lɯɯɡ MC: dək 11 Attributions
  • vadVespecially; very; singularily; for the sole purpose
   dū OC: k-laa MC: tuo̝ 10 Attributions
  • padV{NEG}completely (often with negatives: not at all)
  • padVcompletely, utterly
   qiè OC: snʰiids MC: tshei 7 Attributions
  • vadVintensely, incisively, really, very
  • vpostadVpost-verbal intensifier: very, really, intensely (early examples in sūtra translations) (the V can be a complex verbal phrase) 苦痛酸切 suffering intensely (LONG AGAMA, T.1/1: 125c18) 苦切無量 suffer immeasurable (T.3/156: 152b7)
   hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 6 Attributions

Hòu 厚 typically refers to a high degree or high intensity of something positive.

  • vadNsevere, substantial
  • vadVseverely, seriously; on a serious scale
  • vifigurative: serious; substantial; considerable in extent
  • nabfeatureseriousness, serious commitment
   sǐ OC: pliʔ MC: si 6 Attributions
  • vpostadVV to the degree of dying > post(ad)verbial intensifier (compare 殺/煞 in this function)
   bìng OC: beeŋʔ MC: beŋ 5 Attributions
  • vadV{NEG}.adV(not) at all
   jí OC: krɯb MC: kip 5 Attributions
  • vpostadVurgently and intensely
   jí OC: dzid MC: dzit 4 Attributions

Jìng 勁 and jí 疾 add the notion of vigour to that of intensity of degree.

  • vadVintensely>loudly
  • vibe intense, be of high degree of intensity
  • viactuse great force
大者   dà zhě OC: daads kljaʔ MC: dɑi tɕɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • NPadSin the worst case
   kǒng OC: khooŋʔ MC: khuŋ 3 Attributions
  • vadVpoetic: extremely
   shū OC: djo MC: dʑi̯o 3 Attributions
  • vadV{NEG}intensifier preceding negated verbs: not at all, not in the least, not the slightest
  • vadVvery
   qí OC: ɡe MC: giɛ 3 Attributions
  • padV(be) only > (be) exactly
   jué OC: dzod MC: dziɛt 3 Attributions
  • vadVextraordinarily much, with inordinate intensity; with negations: (not) at all
  • vpostadVextremely, in an unparallelled way
無厭   wú yàn OC: ma qems MC: mi̯o ʔiɛm 3 Attributions
  • VPpostadVwithout ever getting fed up with V-ing
不自勝   bù zì shèng OC: pɯʔ sblids lʰɯŋs MC: pi̯ut dzi ɕɨŋ 3 Attributions
  • VPpostadVuncontrollably, very intensely
   yě OC: lalʔ MC: jɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • padNvocativeintensifying particle
  • padVintensifying particle: really, indeed
   bèi OC: bɯɯʔ MC: bəi 2 Attributions
  • vadVwith redoubled intensity > more intensely than ever
   què OC: khaɡ MC: khi̯ɐk 2 Attributions
  • vadVcertainly; by all means; cf. modern Chinese dǎo 倒 "really" [mod CH]
   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 2 Attributions
  • vibe intense; perhaps also postposed vpostadV: do this intensely
  • vadVintensely, very much
  • vpostadVmuch, intensely
   zhí OC: dɯɡ MC: ɖɨk 2 Attributions
  • vadV+Vintensitivedeverbal intensifier before modal verbs expressing obligation: really (should); really (must); sometimes also appearing with an emphatic copula or other verbs
頗 / 頗   pò OC: phaals MC: phʷɑ pō OC: phaal MC: phʷɑ 2 Attributions
  • vadVintensely; very much
何其   hé qí OC: ɡlaal ɡɯ MC: ɦɑ gɨ 2 Attributions
  • PPadVHow V!
極為   jí wéi OC: ɡɯɡ ɢʷal MC: gɨk ɦiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVextremely
極理   jí lǐ OC: ɡɯɡ ɡ-rɯʔ MC: gɨk lɨ 2 Attributions
  • VPpostadVprofoundly, intensely
況復   kuàng fù OC: qhʷaŋs buɡs MC: hi̯ɐŋ bɨu 2 Attributions
  • PPadN.postSgradedhow much more/less
無度   wú dù OC: ma ɡ-laaɡs MC: mi̯o duo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPpostadVboundlessly, infinitely; very much
甚為   shèn wéi OC: ɡljumʔ ɢʷal MC: dʑim ɦiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPadVintensely
不能自勝   bù néng zì shèng OC: pɯʔ nɯɯŋ sblids lʰɯŋs MC: pi̯ut nəŋ dzi ɕɨŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPpostadVuncontrollably
   wéi OC: ɢʷal MC: ɦiɛ 2 Attributions
  • vt+V[0]count as especially V; be regarded as typically V
   yì OC: ŋɡɯd MC: ŋɨt 1 Attribution
  • vadVgreatly; powerfully
   hé OC: ɡlaal MC: ɦɑ 1 Attribution
  • npro.adNPab{S}rhetorical questionHow true it is that S!
   zuì OC: skoods MC: tsɑi 1 Attribution

Zuì 最 refers to the largest degree or highest intensity within a given set compared. See MOST.

  • vadVextremely
   jìng OC: keŋs MC: kiɛŋ 1 Attribution

Jìng 勁 and jí 疾 add the notion of vigour to that of intensity of degree.

  • vadVviolently, strongly
   jí OC: ɡrɯb MC: gip 1 Attribution
  • vt+V[0]go so far as to V
   kě OC: khlaalʔ MC: khɑ 1 Attribution
  • vadVreally; truely (usually with negated verb)
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 1 Attribution
  • vadVreally, definitely
   jù OC: ɡaʔ MC: gi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
  • vadVhugely???
   chè OC: thed MC: ʈhiɛt 1 Attribution
  • vpostadVcompletely, thoroughly
   xún OC: sqʷlin MC: sʷin 1 Attribution
  • vadVreally; truly; very (SHI)
   tòng OC: kh-looŋs MC: thuŋ 1 Attribution

Tòng 痛 refers specifically to a high degree of feelings or emotions.

  • vadVintensely
   yì OC: qleɡ MC: ʔiɛk 1 Attribution
  • vadVtoo much, excessively
   shāo OC: smreewɡs MC: ʂɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • vadVcolloquialcolloquial intensifier: very, to a high degree (also in BIANWEN and Tang poetry)
   jī OC: skleɡ MC: tsiɛk 1 Attribution
  • vadVcumulatively> very
   qióng OC: ɡʷɯŋ MC: guŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadVwith all one's might> powerfully, intensely
   dǔ OC: tuuɡ MC: tuok 1 Attribution
  • vadNintense, virulent
  • vpostadVintensely
   zhì OC: kljiɡs MC: tɕi 1 Attribution

Zhì 至and jí 極 refers to the ultimate or extreme high degree of something, but the meaning of jí 極 was weakened by Han times times to something like the general meaning of shèn 甚.

  • vadVextremely
   guò OC: klools MC: kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • vadVexceedingly
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe more intense than N
   jìng OC: kraŋs MC: kɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • vadV{NEG}intensely (before negative verbs)
   dùn OC: tuuns MC: tuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • vadVvery
倍加   bèi jiā OC: bɯɯʔ kraal MC: bəi kɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVdoubly
千萬   qiān wàn OC: snʰiin mblans MC: tshen mi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVby a huge margin; vastly, hugely;
大煞 / 大殺   dà shā OC: daads sreed MC: dɑi ʂɣɛt dà shā OC: daads sreed MC: dɑi ʂɣɛt 1 Attribution
  • VPadVvery
尤甚   yóu shèn OC: ɢʷɯ ɡljums MC: ɦɨu dʑim 1 Attribution
  • VPadVegregiously, outstandingly
極大   jí dà OC: ɡɯɡ daads MC: gɨk dɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPadVintensely
殊死   shū sǐ OC: djo pliʔ MC: dʑi̯o si 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVputting in the ultimate effort
流血   liú xuè OC: ru qhʷiiɡ MC: lɨu het 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVresultativeso as to cause blood flowing.
深厚   shēn hòu OC: qhljum ɡooʔ MC: ɕim ɦu 1 Attribution
  • VPibe profound and intense
無地   wú dì OC: ma lils MC: mi̯o di 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVextremely; without a limit (postposed to a V)
無極   wú jí OC: ma ɡɯɡ MC: mi̯o gɨk 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVvery intensely, infinitely much
無疆   wú jiāng OC: ma kaŋ MC: mi̯o ki̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVboundlessly
甚大   shèn dà OC: ɡljumʔ daads MC: dʑim dɑi 1 Attribution
  • VPadVintensely, to a high degree
直是   zhí shì OC: dɯɡ ɡljeʔ MC: ɖɨk dʑiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVsimply [GUOYU CIDIAN: 真是;竟是]
逼切   bī qiē, qiè OC: pɯɡ snʰiid MC: pɨk tshet 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadNurgently, pressingly
隆猛   lóng měng OC: ɡ-rum mraaŋʔ MC: luŋ mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVviolently, furiously
世所未有   shì suǒ wèi yǒu OC: lʰebs sqraʔ mɯds ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɕiɛi ʂi̯ɤ mɨi ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVin an unheard-of way, to an unprecedented degree
無以加焉   wú yǐ jiā yān OC: ma k-lɯʔ kraal qran MC: mi̯o jɨ kɣɛ ʔiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVin the extreme, to an "unsurpassable" degree
   yuàn  MC: hjwonX  OC: ɢʷans  1 Attribution
  • vpostadVby a long shot, very much
至於此   zhì yú yū cǐ MC: tsyijH 'jo tshjeX OC: kljiɡs qa tsheʔ 1 Attribution
  • VPpostadVreaching to this point> to this degree
龐然   páng rán MC: baewng nyen OC: brooŋ njen 1 Attribution
  • VPadN.adVwhacking (big etc)
不勝   bù shēng MC: pjut sying OC: pɯʔ lʰɯŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVuncontrollably much, extremely much
況於   kuàng yú yū MC: xjwangH 'jo OC: qhʷaŋs qa 1 Attribution
  • PPadN.postShow much more should is this true with regard to N
   dàn OC: daans MC: dɑn 0 Attributions
  • vadNplenty of; much
   jù OC: ɡlaɡ MC: gɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • vadNintense, virulent (of diseases etc)
   yán OC: ŋɡam MC: ŋi̯ɐm 0 Attributions
  • vadNintense and painful
   hóng OC: ɡʷɯɯŋ MC: ɦəŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVOBI: greatly; very; to a high degree
   bào OC: boowɡs MC: bɑu 0 Attributions
  • vadVone a furiously intense scale, on a reckless scale
   gèng OC: kraaŋs MC: kɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadV{NEG}(not) at all
   héng OC: ɡʷraaŋ MC: ɦɣaŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVextensively
   shā OC: sreed MC: ʂɣɛt 0 Attributions
  • vpostadVpostverbal intensifier
   tài OC: thaads MC: thɑi 0 Attributions
  • vadNhigh (antiquity etc), extreme
   jīn OC: tsin MC: tsin 0 Attributions
  • vadVBUDDH. translations: very, utterly
   yì OC: p-lɯɡs MC: jɨ 0 Attributions
  • vadVvery much
   huāng OC: hmaaŋ MC: hɑŋ 0 Attributions
  • vadVextensively; excessivley
   kù OC: khuuɡ MC: khuok 0 Attributions
  • vadVextremely strongly
   gé OC: krɯɯɡ MC: kɣɛk 0 Attributions
  • vichange to the bad> extreme (of illness)
增上   zēng shàng OC: tsɯɯŋ ɡljaŋʔ MC: tsəŋ dʑi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    好個   hǎo gè OC: qhuuʔ kaals MC: hɑu kɑ 0 Attributions
    • VPadVvery, utterly, really (vernacular intensifier, since Tang period)
    非凡   fēi fán OC: pɯl blom MC: pɨi bi̯ɐm 0 Attributions
    • VPpostadVuncommonly; beyond the ordinary
    非常   fēi cháng OC: pɯl djaŋ MC: pɨi dʑi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
    • VPadVinordinately; extraordinarily
    • VPpostadVin the extreme, very much, inordinately
       wàn OC: mblans MC: mi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
    • vadVvery much
       è OC: qaaɡ MC: ʔɑk 0 Attributions
    • vadVbadly, extremely, intensely
       shèng OC: lʰɯŋs MC: ɕɨŋ 0 Attributions
    • vadVlargely, greatly
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPpostadVto this degree
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPadVuncontrollably much, extremely much

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: