ABUNDANT  茂盛

HAVE OR BE INTENSELY MANY, TYPICALLY DESIRABLE, THINGS.
PLENTIFULCOPIOUSAMPLEPROFUSERICHLAVISHABOUNDINGLIBERALGENEROUSBOUNTIFULLARGEHUGEGREATBUMPEROVERFLOWINGPROLIFICTEEMING
Taxonoymy

FATSUFFICIENTSURPLUS

Antonymy

TENUOUSWEAKFEWEXHAUST

See also

FILL

Kind Of

MANY

Old Chinese Criteria

ABSTRACT/CONCRETE

ARTIFICIAL/NATURAL

HIGH-DEGREE/LOW-DEGREE

SPECIALISED/UNSPECIFIC

1. The general word for abundance of any kind, man-made or natural, concrete or abstract, is shèng 盛 (ant.*xī 稀 "sparse").

[GENERAL]

2. Fēng 豐 (ant.*qiàn 歉 "poor natural harvest") refers primarily to the natural abundance of some feature or resource, but in elevated archaic discourse the word may also refer to abundance of sacrifice and the like. NB: The rare fēng 丰 was not homophonous in ancient times, and the meaning emphasises beauty as well as abundance.

[NATURAL!]

3. Hòu 厚 (ant. báo 薄 "meagerly supplied with something") primarily refers to man-made or man-caused generous abundance, prototypically in contexts such as hospitality or exchange of presents.

[ARTIFICIAL]

4. Yōu 優 (ant.* liè 劣 "in short supply") refers to special (often commendable) abundance.

[HIGH DEGREE], [ABSTRACT!]

5. Ráng 穰 often refers specifically to abundance of harvest. See HARVEST.

[NATURAL], [SPECIFIC]

5. Pèi rán 沛然 typically refers to the abundance of a flow of things, prototypically rain.

7. Yáng 洋 typically refers specifically to abundance of water over a wide area, but the word is occasionally used in transferred senses to refer to wide-spread abundance. The image of water remains distantly present.

[NATURAL], [SPECIFIC]

8. Wò 渥 (ant. báo 薄 "not very abundant, poorly supplied with liquid or vital energy etc.") typically refers to an abundance of liquids or gases.

[NATURAL], SPECIFIC]

9. Duō 多 is the general word for a large number or a large amount of things. See MANY

Modern Chinese Criteria

豐富 is the current general modern word for quantitative abundance and qualitative variation, viewed as a positive feature. (ZHANG ZHIYI 1981: 72)

豐厚 typically adds the notion that what is abundant is also important or valuable, and the word normally refers to concrete rather than abstract things, although it may occasionally refer to a range of knowledge etc.. (Cf. ZHANG ZHIYI 1981: 72, LIU SHUXIN 1987: 175)

豐盛 typically focusses on abundance of concrete things like foodstuffs and wine. ZHANG ZHIYI 1981: 72

豐 (cl) is mostly quantitative and has a strong literary flavour. (cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 175)

豐滿 focusses positively on full-bodied internal richness of bodies or of fruit and the like, and also to their sufficiency for a given purpose. (Cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 178)

飽滿 refers to an inner richness of flowers or fruits, and also more abstractly to an abundance of inner energy e.g. of a person or a tale. (Cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 178, and 74)

充分 refers to sufficiency in abstract conditions, reasons and the like. (Cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 74)

充沛 refers to natural abundance typically of abstract things like energy, in a highly commendatory way. (Cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 74)

充足 refers to abundance as sufficiency for a certain purpose. (Cf. LIU SHUXIN 1987: 74)

雄厚 typically refers to abundance of an abstract kind, as in financial resources or power and the like.

豐美 (lit, rare) focusses on attractiveness of what is abundant.

豐沛 (lit) focusses on natural abundance.

富足 refers to abundance of economic means.

富饒 refers to abundance of assets.

豐衍 (lit, rare) refers to plentiful presence of what is attractive.

豐盈 (lit) refers to physical fulsomeness viewed as attractive.

豐碩 refers to abundance of resources.

充裕 refers to ample supply of things like time etc..

充實 refers to sufficiency of necessities.

千倉萬箱 (prov) refers idiomatically to superabundance of goods.

有如山積 (lit) refers to an extraordinary and growing amount of something.

旺盛

豐盛

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis, based on CL. 18.11.2003. CH

Old Chinese Contrasts

1. The words may refer primarily to man-made abundance (yōu 優, yù 裕 ), or primarily to natural abundance (fēng 豐, yáng 洋 ), or they may indifferently refer to natural or man-made abundance (shèng 盛 ).

>>UNSPECIFIC

2. The words may have strong positive connotations (yōu 優, fēng 豐 ), or they may be basically neutral (yáng 洋, hòu 厚 ).

3. The words may refer to a basically permanent state of abundance (fēng 豐, yáng 洋, yù 裕 ), or to a transitory stage of abundance (shèng 盛 )

4. The words may have strong comparative connotations (yōu 優 ), or they may describe abundance without emphasis on the comparison with less abundant situations (all others).

CILIN 詞林 Eb041_01

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 451©

ABUNDARE

necessariorum ultra necessitatem habere.

Ax. Melius est abundare qvam deficere. (quia melius est esse, quam non esse.)

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

abundare is to be in typically positively appreciated or valued abundant supply. 盛

redundare is to be in often negatively judged or feared superabundance.

affluere is to be in externally caused superabundance of any kind.

GEORGES 1975 REICHLICH

largus is the general word for abundance.

uber refers to rich contents of something.

opimus refers to abundance of booty and the like.

amplus refers to admirable abundance.

locuples refers to extensiveness or abundance in value rather than just in quantity.

LW

uber, uberis (gen.), uberior -or -us, uberrimus -a -um ADJ [XXXBX]

fertile, rich, abundant, abounding, fruitful, plentiful, copious, productive;

copiosus, copiosa -um, copiosior -or -us, copiosissimus -a -um ADJ [XXXBO]

plentiful/copious/abundant; well supplied/equipped, w/ample resources; prolific;

abundans, abundantis (gen.), abundantior -or -us, abundantissimus -a -um ADJ [XXXBO]

abundant; overflowing; abounding, copious, in large measure; overdone; rich;

opimus, opima, opimum ADJ [XXXBX]

rich, fertile; abundant; fat, plump; [opima spolia => spoils from a general];

fecundus, fecunda -um, fecundior -or -us, fecundissimus -a -um ADJ [XXXBO]

fertile, fruitful; productive (of offspring), prolific; abundant; imaginative;

creber, crebra -um, crebrior -or -us, creberrimus -a -um ADJ [XXXBO]

thick/crowded/packed/close set; frequent/repeated, constant; numerous/abundant;

HUANG XIAODONG 2003 “荀子”單音節形容詞同義關係研究 240

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 11.27

UEBERFLUSS, UEBERFLUSSGESELLSCHAFT

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 121

ROBERTS 1998 Encyclopedia of Comparative Iconography 17

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 41
  • vadN : 23
  • VPi : 12
  • vadV : 10
  • vtoN : 9
  • vt+N : 7
  • nab : 6
  • vi.red : 3
  • VPadV : 3
  • nadN : 2
  • VPadS : 2
  • vpostadV : 2
  • vi : 1
  • VPi.red : 1
  • VPt prep N : 1
  • vt0oNm : 1
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 1
  • vt0+N{SUBJ} : 1
  • n : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 27
  • 春秋左傳 : 22
  • 賢愚經 : 11
  • 論語 : 8
  • 管子 : 8
  • 說苑 : 7
  • 論衡 : 6
  • 毛詩 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 呂氏春秋 : 4
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
  • 莊子 : 2
  • 百喻經 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 景德傳燈錄 : 1
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 鹽鐵論 : 1
  • 祖堂集 : 1

Words

   hòu OC: ɡoos MC: ɦu 35 Attributions

Hòu 厚 (ant. báo 薄 "meagerly supplied with something") primarily refers to man-made or man-caused generous abundance, prototypically in contexts such as hospitality or exchange of presents. >>ARTIFICIAL

  • nsubjectwhat is abundant, thick
  • nabfeatureabundance; availability of rich assets (of a state); state of wealth
  • vadNabundant, substantial (profit etc)
  • vadVabundantly, richly, generously; abundantly supplied; heavily; with abundant booty
  • vi+prep+Nbe abundantly supplied with N
  • vibe richly supplied, be abundant, lavish; be substantial; be abundant in number; be affluent
  • vichangebecome abundant, lavish; become richer in resources
  • vpostadVabundantly, in large quantity
  • vtoNcausativemake abundant; maximise; cause to be richly supplied, enrich
   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 18 Attributions

The general word for abundance of any kind, man-made or natural, is shèng 盛 (ant.*xī 稀 "sparse").

  • vadNabundant
  • vadVabundantly, richly
  • vibe abundant; flourish
  • vichangeget to be abundant; become stronger
  • nabfeatureabundance
  • vtoNabound in> have an abundance of, have (excessively) many or much
豐 / 酆   fēng OC: phuŋ MC: phuŋ fēng OC: phuŋ MC: phuŋ 15 Attributions

Fēng 豐 (ant.*qiàn 歉 "poor natural harvest") refers primarily to the natural abundance of some feature or resource, but in elevated archaic discourse the word may also refer to abundance of sacrifice and the like. The rare fēng 丰 was not homophonous in ancient times, and the meaning emphasises beauty as well as abundance. [NATURAL!] Fēng 豐 (ant.*qiàn 歉 "poor natural harvest") refers primarily to the natural abundance of some feature or resource, but in elevated archaic discourse the word may also refer to abundance of sacrifice and the like. The rare fēng 丰 was not homophonous in ancient times, and the meaning emphasises beauty as well as abundance. [NATURAL!]

  • vadNsumptuous; abundant (harvest); luxurious (growth of grass)
  • vibe abundant; be strong and resourceful
  • vtoNcausativemake abundant (the wealth of the people); cause (a state) to be rich; cause (trees etc.) to bear abundant fruit
  • vt+Nabound in, have an abundance of
  • vadNfigurativeeffusive, profuse in diction
   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 10 Attributions

Duō 多 is the general word for a large number or a large amount of things. See MANY.

  • vadVabundantly, on a large scale
  • vt+Nhave a great deal of, abound in
  • vt0oNmthere is an abundance of (rain etc)
沛然   pèi rán OC: phoobs njen MC: phɑi ȵiɛn 6 Attributions
  • VPadSabundantly
  • VPadVabundantly, intensively
  • VPiintensitiveto be abundant like a flow of water
   wò OC: qrooɡ MC: ʔɣɔk 5 Attributions

Wò 渥 (ant. báo 薄 "not very abundant, poorly supplied with liquid or vital energy etc.") typically refers to an abundance of liquids or gases.

  • vibe abundant (of liquids and gaseous substances; often used figuratively)
   rǎng OC: njaŋʔ MC: ȵi̯ɐŋ 3 Attributions

Rǎng 穰 refers, occasionally, to the abundance of a population or to abundance of food supply. [SPECIALISED]

  • nadN(of harvests) abundant
  • vibe flourishing; be abundant
   yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 2 Attributions

Yōu 優 (ant.* liè 劣 "in short supply") refers to special abundance. {HIGH DEGREE], [ABSTRACT!]

  • vibe in abundant supply; have a surplus, not be exhausted (often used figuratively)
   yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions

Yáng 洋 typically refers specifically to abundance of water over a wide area, but the word is occasionally used in transferred senses. The image of water remains present. [NATURAL], [SPECIALISED]

  • vi.redfigurativegushing, copious, vast; mellifluous 洋洋
   tiǎn OC: thɯɯnʔ MC: then 2 Attributions
  • nabfeaturegreat abundance of resources
  • nadNsumptuous, rich, abundant
   mào OC: moos MC: mu 2 Attributions
  • vadNabundant and flourishing
   ráo OC: nɢjew MC: ȵiɛu 2 Attributions
  • vt+Nhave a rich supply of
  • vt0+N{SUBJ}there is a rich supply of
鬱茂   yù mào OC: qud moos MC: ʔi̯ut mu 2 Attributions
  • VPibe thick and abundant (of growth)
   lè OC: ɡ-raawɡ MC: lɑk 1 Attribution
  • vadNpleasingly rich 樂歲
   zī OC: tsɯ MC: tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • vibe abundant (SHI) ZHANG HENG, 東京賦:鳥獸阜滋"there was an abundance of birds and beasts".
  • nabactacting with abundant generosity
   tāo OC: kh-luu MC: thɑu 1 Attribution
  • viintensitivebe overabundant
   tāo OC: kh-luu MC: thɑu 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe overabundant all over the place
   zé OC: ɡrlaaɡ MC: ɖɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • nabfeatureabundance
   guàn OC: koons MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vadNluxuriantly growing
   chì OC: khljɯɡs MC: tɕhɨ 1 Attribution
  • vichangeacquire great intensitity (like that of a flame)
  • viprocessflourish
   dǔ OC: tuuɡ MC: tuok 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativeto increase; to make more abundant
   yù OC: k-loɡs MC: ji̯o 1 Attribution
  • virare in later literature and archaic: SHUOWEN be abundant, be ample (But note that most attested usages are figurative and psychological involving "generosity".)
  • vtoNcausativemake ample, make abundant
滑澤   huá zé OC: ɡruud ɡrlaaɡ MC: ɦɣɛt ɖɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPiintensitivebe rich and abundant
積滿   jī mǎn OC: skleɡ mboonʔ MC: tsiɛk mʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in abundant supply
  • VPtoNfill out> be in abundant supply in
繁熾   fán chì OC: ban khljɯɡs MC: bi̯ɐn tɕhɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe abundant, numerous LONG AGAMA, T.1/1: 117c20 花果繁熾。 flowers and fruits were abundant
茂盛   mào shèng OC: moos djeŋs MC: mu dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in abundance, abound
薄厚   báo hòu OC: baaɡ ɡooʔ MC: bɑk ɦu 1 Attribution
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative abundance
豐厚   fēng hòu OC: phuŋ ɡooʔ MC: phuŋ ɦu 1 Attribution
  • VPibe abundant and unstinting
豐滿   fēng mǎn OC: phuŋ mboonʔ MC: phuŋ mʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • vibe abundant
豐盛   fēng shèng OC: phuŋ djeŋs MC: phuŋ dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in abundance
豐茂   fēng mào OC: phuŋ moos MC: phuŋ mu 1 Attribution
  • VPibe abundant
饒多   ráo duō OC: nɢjew k-laal MC: ȵiɛu tɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe in abundance
饒益   ráo yì OC: nɢjew qleɡ MC: ȵiɛu ʔiɛk 1 Attribution
  • VPibe abundantly endowed; be superabundant
湯湯   shāng shāng MC: syang syang OC: lʰaŋ lʰaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPi.redbe abundant and wast like a stream
紛藹   fēn ǎi  MC: phjun 'ajH  OC: phɯn qaads  1 Attribution
  • VPt prep Nbe abundant in quantity
繁茂   fán mào MC: bjon muwH OC: ban moos 1 Attribution
  • vibe abundantly many
   bó OC: paaɡ MC: pɑk 0 Attributions
  • vibe abundant and varied
   yǒu OC: ɢʷɯʔ MC: ɦɨu 0 Attributions
  • vadNOBI: being present in abundance
  • viOBI: be in abundant supply, be present in abundance. See Takashima 1978 Early China
   yì OC: k-liɡ MC: jit 0 Attributions
  • vifigurativebe or come to be in overflowing abundance
   nóng OC: noŋ MC: ɳi̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • nadNgrowing in clusters
   fù OC: buʔ MC: bɨu 0 Attributions
  • viabundant ZHANG HENG, 東京賦:鳥獸阜滋"there was an abundance of birds and beasts".
  • vtoNcausativecause to be abundant FAYAN: 務在殷民阜財 "the purpose is in giving ample supplies to the people and making their supplies abundant".
   zú OC: tsoɡ MC: tsi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • vt+Nabound in
   shí OC: ɢljiɡ MC: ʑit 0 Attributions
  • vadNabundant, plentiful
   yú OC: la MC: ji̯ɤ 0 Attributions
  • viabound; be in abundance; be in superabundant abundant supply
  • nabfeaturesuperabunance 求餘 "seek superabundance"

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: