MANY  

BIG in QUANTITY.
NUMEROUSA GREAT/GOOD DEAL OFA LOT OFPLENTY OFCOUNTLESSINNUMERABLESCORES OFCROWDS OFDROVES OFAN ARMY OFA HORDE OFA MULTITUDE OFA MULTIPLICITY OFMULTITUDINOUSMULTIPLEUNTOLDSEVERALVARIOUSSUNDRYDIVERSEASSORTEDMULTIFARIOUSCOPIOUSABUNDANTPROFUSEAN ABUNDANCE OFA PROFUSION OFINFORMAL LOTS OFUMPTEENLOADS OFMASSES OFSTACKS OFSCADS OFHEAPS OFPILES OFBAGS OFTONS OFOODLES OFDOZENS OFHUNDREDS OFTHOUSANDS OFMILLIONS OFBILLIONS OFZILLIONS OFGAZILLIONS OFA SLEW OFA BOATLOAD OFMORE —— THAN ONE CAN SHAKE A STICK AT
Antonym

FEW

Hypernym

BIG -> SIZE -> QUANTITY -> DEGREE -> FEATURE -> OBJECT -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

MUCH

Hyponym
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The dominant word referring to numerousness and a large quantity of a stuff is duō 多 (ant. shǎo 少 ).

2. Zhòng 眾 (ant. guǎ 寡 "few") and zhū 諸 refer to a large number of items of a certain kind.

3. Shù 庶 (ant. shǎo 少 "few") refers to a large number of typically animate and preferably human beings.

4. Fēn 紛 and the rarer yún yún 紜紜 refer to a confusing assembly of many things.

5. Shù 數 (ant.* dú 獨 "the only one" or * dān 單 ) refers to a fairly large number of things of a specified kind.

6. Fán 繁 refers to a large number of proliferating things.

7. Zhēng 烝 is a poetic word characterising the large size of a population.

Modern Chinese Criteria

大量

很多

好多

好些

許多

不少

眾多

多數 refers specifically to a majority of items and is marginal in the group.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

LEIBNIZ 6.4 P. 30: M u l t i t u d o magnitudo numeri. N u m e r o s u m ens per aggregationem magnum, v.g. Exercitus numerosus.

  • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 13.15

  • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 355

  • 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci ( WU SANXING 2008) p. 377ff

  • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 100

  • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.439.399

    BIEN.BEAUCOUP.ABONDAMENT.DOPIEUSEMENT

  • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 249

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vi : 86
  • vadV : 37
  • vadN : 30
  • VPadN : 28
  • vt0oN{SUBJ} : 21
  • n.red:adN : 21
  • VPi : 19
  • vad.VtoN : 13
  • vi.red:adV : 12
  • NPpro.adN : 8
  • vtoN : 8
  • VPt0oN{SUBJ} : 6
  • vi.red : 6
  • vt( prep N) : 4
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2} : 4
  • NPadN : 4
  • vt+prep+N : 3
  • nab : 3
  • v[adN] : 3
  • PPadN : 3
  • padN : 3
  • NPab : 3
  • nadV : 3
  • NP : 2
  • VPt0oN1pro.postN1{SUBJ} : 2
  • nm : 2
  • VPpostadN : 2
  • VP[adN] : 2
  • n[adN] : 2
  • vadS : 2
  • vad.Vt(oN) : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • vpostadN : 1
  • NP{NUM}(+N) : 1
  • nmadN : 1
  • vt0oN : 1
  • nadN : 1
  • npost-N : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 66
  • 春秋左傳 : 30
  • 賢愚經 : 29
  • 百喻經 : 28
  • 祖堂集 : 23
  • 臨濟錄 : 15
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 15
  • 管子 : 14
  • 說苑 : 12
  • 戰國策 : 10
  • 毛詩 : 9
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 荀子 : 8
  • 論語 : 8
  • 法集要頌經 : 8
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 6
  • 莊子 : 6
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 5
  • 朱子語類 : 5
  • 法言 : 5
  • 尚書 : 5
  • 楚辭 : 4
  • 史記 : 4
  • 論衡 : 3
  • 晏子春秋 : 2
  • 孝經 : 2
  • 孫子 : 2
  • 鹽鐵論 : 2
  • 老子 : 2
  • 墨子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 1
  • 翻譯名義集 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   duō OC: k-laal MC: tɑ 116 Attributions

The dominant word referring to numerousness and a large quantity of a stuff is duō 多 (ant. shǎo 少).

  • vt0oN{SUBJ}.adSthe more there is N, the more S: 多...彌...
  • nmsubj=nonhumanmuch, what there is much of
  • v[adN]many; a great part, the greater part
  • vad.VtoNreference=objectmany of the object N; much of the object stuff
  • vadNnumerous, a great many, many; much; a lot of; a large number of
  • vadNdefinitethe many
  • vadVin large numbers, one a wide scale; in large quantities on a large scale; referring to the object: many objects; most subjects
  • vadVreference=objecton a large scale> many objects; much object stuff
  • vichangebecome more and more
  • vigradedbe many; be abundant, be much; be more than enough; be in a majority
  • vimuchbe much, be plentiful
  • vpostadNa lot, much
  • vt(oN)have many of the contextually determinate things; be multifarious
  • vt+prep+Ngradedbe more than 多於鄰國
  • vt0oN{SUBJ}there are/were/will be many; be many
  • vtoNbe as many as, amount to
  • vtoNgradedbe more than; be greater than
  • vadVsuperlativemost
  • vt( prep N)be in the majority (as compared to the contextually determinate N)
  • v[adN]many things
  • vtoNhave many
  • vadVin many ways
  • vad.Vt(oN)reference=objectmany of the contextually determinate objects N; much of the contextually determinate object stuff
   zhòng OC: tjuŋs MC: tɕuŋ 55 Attributions

Zhòng 眾 (ant. guǎ 寡 "few") and zhū 諸 refer to a large number of items of a certain kind.

  • n[adN]nonreferentialthose who are more> the majority
  • nabstativenumerousness
  • npost-Nthe crowd of Ns 夜叉眾
  • vadNdefinitethe numerous (primarily of persons), the numerous (dignified objects); the many; all the various
  • vadNgrammatical termreferring to many items GULIANG Yin 4 衛人者眾辭也 "a plural phrase (!)"
  • vadNindefinitemany
  • vadNN=nonhuthe many; a great deal of
  • vichangebecome many; become numerous, become more
  • vigradedbe many, be numerous; contain many members; be in the majority 甚眾
  • vpostadNgradedin large numbers 甚眾
  • vt0oNgradedthere are many, there is a proliferation of [construction opaque]
  • vtoNhave many, contain many
   zhǒng OC: tjoŋʔ MC: tɕi̯oŋ 33 Attributions
  • n.red:adNsundry; all kinds of, various, many, all sorts of
  • n.redall kinds of things
  • npost-V{NUM}.adVin V[NUM] number of ways
  • vi.red:adVin many ways
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 16 Attributions

Fán 繁 refers to a large number of proliferating things.

  • vadVabundantly, in proliferation; prolifically; multifariously
  • vibe manifold; be abundant, elaborate, numerous
  • vichangeproliferate; archaic, poetic: be flourishing; become numerous, multiply
  • vtoNcausativemake numerous, cause (punishments) to proliferate
  • v[adN]abstracta superabundance of varied things
  • vadNseveral, multiple
多少   duō shǎo OC: k-laal hmljewʔ MC: tɑ ɕiɛu 12 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurequantity, amount
  • NPabobjectVERB how much, how many
  • VPadNmany, numerous
  • VPadNquestionhow many? how much?
  • VPipredicativebe how many? be how much?
多有   duō yǒu OC: k-laal ɢʷɯʔ MC: tɑ ɦɨu 10 Attributions
  • VPibe many in number
  • VPt0oN{SUBJ}there are many
  • VPt0oN1pro.postN1{SUBJ}There are many instances of N1
無數   wú shù OC: ma sqros MC: mi̯o ʂi̯o 9 Attributions
  • VPadNinnumerable
  • VPiwithout number > coutnless, numerous, very many
  • VPpostadNinnumerable
幾何   jǐ hé OC: kɯlʔ ɡlaal MC: kɨi ɦɑ 8 Attributions
  • NPpro.adNhow many
許多   xǔ duō OC: hŋaʔ k-laal MC: hi̯ɤ tɑ 6 Attributions
  • NP{NUM}(+N)many (contextually determinate N)
  • VP[adN]many things
  • VPadNmany, numerous; all kinds of
   dà OC: daads MC: dɑi 5 Attributions
  • vad.VtoNwith respect to a large number of N > on a large scale, involving a large amount of object stuff
   shù OC: qhljaɡs MC: ɕi̯ɤ 5 Attributions

Shù 庶 (ant. shǎo 少"few") refers to a large number of typically animate and preferably human beings.

  • vadNdefinitethe numerous; all the many, all the multifarious
  • vibe teeming
  • vitimeoccasionally, archaic: be multitudinous; adjectival, perhaps also archaic: numerous in kind; multitudinous
不少   bù shǎo OC: pɯʔ hmljewʔ MC: pi̯ut ɕiɛu 5 Attributions
  • VPilitotesbe many in number; be quite a few
若干   ruò gān OC: njaɡ kaan MC: ȵi̯ɐk kɑn 4 Attributions
  • VPadNseveral; numerous
   wàn OC: mblans MC: mi̯ɐn 3 Attributions
  • vadN10,000 > the many N, the countless N
  • vadNcountless
   jī OC: skleɡ MC: tsiɛk 3 Attributions
  • vadNaccumulated > many
   zhū OC: klja MC: tɕi̯ɤ 3 Attributions
  • padNquantifierplural marker, in translation from Sanskrit> the many different N, the several N (the reference is to a closed enumerable set)
恆沙   héng shā OC: ɡɯɯŋ sraal MC: ɦəŋ ʂɣɛ 3 Attributions

Skt: Gangaa-nadii-vaalukaa

  • NPadNintensitiveBUDDH: sand of the Ganges river > as numerous as the sand of the Ganges> countless
若而   ruò ér OC: njaɡ njɯ MC: ȵi̯ɐk ȵɨ 3 Attributions
  • PPadNso many
許多般   xǔ duō bān OC: hŋaʔ k-laal paan MC: hi̯ɤ tɑ pʷɑn 3 Attributions
  • NPabfigurative?? "all sorts of" > all kind of things ??
  • VPadNall kinds of; a great number of (see also 許多 and 多般)
   yún OC: ɢun MC: ɦi̯un 3 Attributions
  • nadVin large numbers (like clouds)
   fán OC: ban MC: bi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • vichangebecome numerous
   fēn OC: phɯn MC: phi̯un 2 Attributions

Fēn 紛 and the rarer yún yún 紜紜 refer to a confusing assembly of many things.

  • vadSin abundance, abundantly
  • vibe numerous, confused and various; be mixed and manifold
   lěi OC: rolʔ MC: liɛ 2 Attributions
  • vadNaccumulated> several; large amount of
熾盛   chì shèng OC: khljɯɡs djeŋs MC: tɕhɨ dʑiɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPiflourish > be abundant, be numerous
  • VPpostadNin abundance
   guǎ OC: kʷraaʔ MC: kɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptquantity, number of items
如許多   rú xǔ duō OC: nja hŋaʔ k-laal MC: ȵi̯ɤ hi̯ɤ tɑ 2 Attributions
  • VPadNintensitiveso many, so much
萬夫   wàn fū MC: -- pju OC: mblans pa 2 Attributions
  • NPlots of people, a huge number of people
   jù OC: ɡlaɡ MC: gɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vibe many 事劇而功寡
  • vtoNcausativemultiply, increase in number > exacerbate
   yǔ OC: ŋʷaʔ MC: ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe very numerous
   chén OC: din MC: ɖin 1 Attribution
  • nmadNfigurativeas many as specks of dust > numberless
振 / 振   zhèn OC: kljɯns MC: tɕin zhēn OC: kljɯn MC: tɕin 1 Attribution
  • vi.redpoetic: be multitudinous
   zú OC: sɡooɡ MC: dzuk 1 Attribution
  • vibe numerous
   kūn OC: kuun MC: kuo̝n 1 Attribution
  • nadNmumerous; swarming (insects)
   bǎi OC: praaɡ MC: pɣɛk 1 Attribution
  • vadVfigurativemany times
  • vadNfigurativemany; lot of
   qí OC: ɡril MC: gi 1 Attribution
  • vibe numerous; many; ample; abundant
   chóu OC: dɯw MC: ɖɨu 1 Attribution
  • vibe numerous
   hōng OC: hmɯɯŋ MC: həŋ 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe very many
   ǎi OC: qaads MC: ʔɑi 1 Attribution
  • vibe numerous
   zhé OC: dib MC: ɖip 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe in swarms: very many
   shēn OC: srin MC: ʂɪn 1 Attribution
  • vi.redbe multitudinous
   fēng OC: phuŋ MC: phuŋ 1 Attribution
  • vibe in abundance, be many; be proliferating
  • viexcessivebe in superabundance
   èr OC: njis MC: ȵi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNcausativemake manifold
   yǔ OC: ŋʷaʔ MC: ŋi̯o 1 Attribution
  • vi.redSHI: be numerous; flock together in a herd
不勝   bù shēng OC: pɯʔ lʰɯŋ MC: pi̯ut ɕɨŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNcountless
不鮮   bù xiǎn OC: pɯʔ sqenʔ MC: pi̯ut siɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPilitotesbe not to few (i.e. many)
千萬   qiān wàn OC: snʰiin mblans MC: tshen mi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
  • VPadNinnumerable
多子   duō zǐ OC: k-laal sklɯʔ MC: tɑ tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPabcolloquialmuch > a big deal idiomatic: 無多子 there is not much to it!
多眾   duō zhòng OC: k-laal tjuŋs MC: tɑ tɕuŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPadNnumerous
多般   duō bān OC: k-laal paan MC: tɑ pʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPadNmany, various, of so many kinds, in so many ways
猥多   wěi duō OC: quulʔ k-laal MC: ʔuo̝i tɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPibe many
眾多   zhòng duō OC: tjuŋs k-laal MC: tɕuŋ tɑ 1 Attribution
  • VPigradedbe many
種果   zhǒng guǒ OC: tjoŋʔ kloolʔ MC: tɕi̯oŋ kʷɑ 1 Attribution
  • NPadNmany
難計   nán jì OC: mɢlaan kiis MC: nɑn kei 1 Attribution
  • VPibe hard to count> be many
非算   fēi suàn OC: pɯl sqoonʔ MC: pɨi sʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • VPadNuncountably high (number); uncountably many
頗有   pǒ yǒu OC: phaalʔ ɢʷɯʔ MC: phʷɑ ɦɨu 1 Attribution
  • VPadNmany
   shèng  MC: dzyengH  OC: djeŋs  1 Attribution
  • vadNdefinitethe many
數眾   shù zhòng MC: srjuH -- OC: sqros -- 1 Attribution
  • VPibe many
   liè MC: ljet OC: b-red 1 Attribution
  • vadNa range of, a number of
   cóng OC: dzooŋ MC: dzuŋ 0 Attributions
  • nadVin large numbers> growing thickly
   tān OC: thaan MC: thɑn 0 Attributions
  • vibe numerous
   huǒ OC: ɡloolʔ MC: ɦʷɑ 0 Attributions
  • viQi dialect, rare, SHUOWEN: be many, be numerous
   dūn OC: tuun MC: tuo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vadNnumerous
  • vinumerous
   yīn OC: qɯn MC: ʔɨn 0 Attributions
  • vibe numerous
   zhēn OC: tsrin MC: ʈʂin 0 Attributions
  • vibe numerous
   zhēng OC: kjɯŋ MC: tɕɨŋ 0 Attributions

Zhēng 烝 is a poetic word characterising the large size of a population.

  • vadVin great numbers
  • vibe many; be numerous
    OC:  MC:  0 Attributions

tuī

  • viample; numerous
   wěi OC: quulʔ MC: ʔuo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vad.Vt+Nreference=Nmany N; much of N
   bīn OC: phin MC: phin 0 Attributions
  • vibe numerous, be multifarious
   wǔ OC: maʔ MC: mi̯o 0 Attributions
  • vibe numerous
多寡   duō guǎ OC: k-laal kʷraaʔ MC: tɑ kɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}quantityrelative quantity
少多   shǎo duō OC: hmljewʔ k-laal MC: ɕiɛu tɑ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturerelative quantity
弘多   hóng duō OC: ɡʷɯɯŋ k-laal MC: ɦəŋ tɑ 0 Attributions
  • VPibe many; be abundant
無算   wú suàn OC: ma sqoonʔ MC: mi̯o sʷɑn 0 Attributions
  • VPibe countless; be of no definite number (LIJI)
紜紜   yún yún OC: ɢun ɢun MC: ɦi̯un ɦi̯un 0 Attributions

Fēn 紛 and the rarer yún yún 紜紜 refer to a confusing assembly of many things.

  • vi.redintensitivebe very varied, be very numerous [EXAMPLES???]
   hǎi OC: hmlɯɯʔ MC: həi 0 Attributions
  • nmmultitude
數眾   shù zhòng MC: srjuH -- OC: sqros -- 0 Attributions
  • VPibe many

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: