STRONG  強勁

ABLE to ACHIEVE DIFFICULT TASKS of the BODY OR to the MIND.
POWERFULMUSCULARBRAWNYPOWERFULLY BUILTSTRAPPINGSTURDYBURLYMEATYROBUSTATHLETICTOUGHRUGGEDLUSTYSTRONG AS AN OX/HORSEINFORMAL BEEFYHUNKYHUSKYDATED STALWART
Antonym

WEAKLACK STRENGTH.

Hypernym

ABLEHAVE what one NEEDS in SELF:oneself FOR ACHIEVING something. -> HAVERELATION to something such that it BE-IN:is in one OR is CONTROLLED by one. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

See also

HARDSTRONG so that one CAN NOT CHANGE its SHAPE.HEALTHYSTRONG IN-S0-FAR as one LACK ILLNESS OR PAIN.FORTIFYBUILD CITY WALLS FOR DEFENDING a PLACE.BEAUTIFULEXCELLENT in APPEARANCE.

Hyponym
  • HARD STRONG so that one CAN NOT CHANGE its SHAPE.
    • HEALTHY STRONG IN-S0-FAR as one LACK ILLNESS OR PAIN.
      • POWER ENDURING STRENGTH AND ABILITY to CAUSE OTHERS to ACT:do what one DESIRES them to DO.[[MACHT]]
        • AUTHORITY POWER that is BASED ON REPUTATION AND NOT BASED ONLY ON LAW.
        • STUBBORN EXCESSIVELY STRONG of MIND, TEND to REFUSE to CHANGE one's ATTITUDE.
          • LIVELY STRONG, AND QUICK in REACTING.
            • INDEPENDENT STRONG so as NOT to DEPEND on or be CAUSED by anthying.
              • SURPASS Be MORE EXCELLENT OR STRONG IN-RELATION-TO ANOTHER IN ACTION.
                Old Chinese Criteria

                1. The current general word for the temporary state of strength, physical or political, are qiáng 強 (ant. ruò 弱 "weak").

                2. The typically nominal or adverbial lì 力 commonly refers to a permanent property of strength..

                3. Yì 毅 (ant. nuò 懦 "weak") refers to inflexible and unshakeable firmness as well as strength.

                4. Jìng 勁 (ant. léi 羸 "weak") and jìng 競 (ant. shuāi 衰 "reduced state, lack of energy") refers to strength mainly under the aspect of a physical or mental energy.

                5. Zhuàng 壯 (ant. ruò 弱 "weak") refers to longish-term constitutional physical strength.

                6. Jiàn 健 (ant. shuāi 衰 "in a reduced state, lacking energy") refers to temporary short-term constitutional strength which is the result of a good physical constitution. See HEALTHY

                Modern Chinese Criteria

                力量

                力氣

                強大

                強硬

                強勁

                精銳

                無敵

                有力

                神力

                強有力

                精神飽滿

                孔武有力

                兵強馬壯

                舉世無敵

                天下無匹

                所向無敵

                所向披靡

                一往無前

                無往不勝

                無堅不摧

                攻無不克

                戰無不勝

                泰山壓頂

                拔海蕩山

                拔山扛鼎

                摧枯拉朽

                降龍伏虎

                兵不血刃

                投鞭斷流

                旌旗蔽空

                人多勢眾

                強盛

                富強

                國富民強

                causative:

                加固

                鞏固

                rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

                • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 1027

                • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 4.81

                • Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles ( CASSIN 2004) p. 1221

                • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

                  STRENGTH

                  vis refers to the strength which shows itself in moving and in attacking, as an ability to constrain others.

                  robur refers to the strength which shows itself in holding one's own sustaining what needs to be sustained, while remaining firm and solid.

                  STRONG

                  validus means strong, in an active sense.

                  firmus refers to strength from an immovable position, and consequently steadfastness.

                  robustus refers to passive strength through the compact nature of something, and its empenetrable durable materials.

                • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 320

                • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

                  FORTITUDO

                • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 310

                • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 267

                • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.93.68

                  STABILITE.CONSTANCE.FERMETE

                • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.95.71

                  VIGOUREUX.FORT.ROBUSTE

                • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.191

                • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 58A

                Attributions by syntactic funtion

                • vadN : 46
                • vi : 37
                • vtoN : 25
                • nab : 23
                • VPi : 12
                • v[adN] : 12
                • NP : 11
                • nadV : 10
                • vadV : 7
                • NPab : 6
                • nab(.post-N) : 5
                • VPadN : 3
                • NPadN : 3
                • vi.red : 3
                • NP[adN] : 2
                • VPtoN : 2
                • nab.post-N : 1
                • nab.adV : 1
                • n : 1
                • vt+prep+N : 1
                • VPadV : 1
                • ncc : 1

                Attributions by text

                • 戰國策 : 48
                • 晏子春秋 : 19
                • 史記 : 16
                • 呂氏春秋 : 14
                • 說苑 : 12
                • 孟子 : 11
                • 阮籍集四卷 : 9
                • 管子 : 9
                • 荀子 : 8
                • 禮記 : 6
                • 淮南子 : 5
                • 祖堂集 : 5
                • 賢愚經 : 5
                • 法句經 : 4
                • 百喻經 : 4
                • 毛詩 : 4
                • 莊子 : 3
                • 楚辭 : 3
                • 論衡 : 3
                • 韓非子 : 2
                • 老子 : 2
                • 法言 : 2
                • 法集要頌經 : 2
                • 妙法蓮華經 : 2
                • 韓詩外傳 : 2
                • 文子 : 2
                • 孫子 : 2
                • 列子 : 2
                • 春秋左傳 : 2
                • 臨濟錄 : 2
                • 陸機集十一卷 : 1
                • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 1
                • 鹽鐵論 : 1

                Words

                強 / 強   qiáng OC: ɡaŋ MC: gi̯ɐŋ qiáng OC: ɡaŋ MC: gi̯ɐŋ 88 Attributions

                The current general word for the temporary state of strength, physical or political, are qiáng 強 (ant. ruò 弱 "weak"). The current general word for the temporary state of strength, physical or political, are qiáng 強 (ant. ruò 弱 "weak").

                • nabpsychbeing really strong as personality
                • vibe tough, vigorous, strong; of persons or institutions: be physically strong; psychological: formidable, strong
                • viartificiallybe artificially strong
                • nabdispositioncurrent state of physical or political strength; current power; current energy
                • vadNvigorous, strong; powerful (of states)
                • nabsocialpolitical clout; superior strength. supremacy, preponderance of strength; power-play
                • vtoNcausativestrengthen, reinforce
                • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are strong and powerful; person who is strong; the stronger party
                • vadVin a forceful way, using force; insistently; too energetically, strongly 勉強地
                • nccsubjectthat which is strong> superpower
                • vadNnon-restrictivenon-restrictive adjective: (presupposed to be) strong
                • vichangebecome strong; gain in strength; become a superpower
                • nabprocessbecoming strong
                • vt+V[0]insist on VERBING (perhaps this should be vadV "insistingly")
                • vtoNgradedbe stronger than somebody or something
                • vigradedto be stronger
                • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be strong> strengthen (oneself) 修身自強
                • vadVfigurativein a forced way > artificially (based on wrong assumptions)
                • vt+prep+Ngradedstronger than N
                • vtoNcausativestrengthen (one's determination/aspirations etc)
                • v(adN)strong (states etc)
                • vifigurativebe non-physically strong
                • v[adN]nonreferentialthe strong (=強者), versus the weak)
                • viactbecome strong
                   lì OC: ɡ-rɯɡ MC: lɨk 29 Attributions

                The typically nominal or adverbial lì 力 commonly refers to a permanent property of strength..

                • nab.adVin strength, regarding strength or power
                • nabactfeats of physical strength
                • nabfeaturepower, effect
                • nabstativephysical strength; physical force
                • nadNstrong
                • vifigurativebe forceful and convincing, strong and energetic
                • vtoNcausativecause (oneself) to be constitutionally (not just temporarily) strong
                • nab(.post-N)the strength of N
                • nab.post-Npowerful influence of N
                • nadVusing (often: all one's) strength, powerfully, with one's power/strength; with all one's strength 力田 "work hard in agriculture"
                   zhuàng OC: skraŋs MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ 23 Attributions

                Zhuàng 壯 (ant. ruò 弱 "weak") refers to longish-term constitutional physical strength.

                • nsubjectwhat is strong
                • nabstativephysical constitutional strength, sound build; strong state
                • v[adN]nonreferentialthose who are in their prime, those who are strong; those who are able-bodied
                • vadNconstitutionally strong; robust; in one's prime; able-bodied
                • vibe in strong basic shape, be going strong; be stout, be robust, be able-bodied, be in one's prime; be constitutionally strong; be fit and strong enough to work; thrive particularly
                • vichangebecome strong; grow strong; increase in strength; reach one's full strength
                • vt+prep+Ngradedbe stronger than (something/someone else)
                • vtoNcausativemake strong; strengthen
                勇力   yǒng lì OC: k-loŋʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ji̯oŋ lɨk 10 Attributions
                • NPadNbrave and strong> formidable
                • NPabpsychcourage of one's convictions; moral strength
                • NP[adN]the brave and strong
                • VPibe brave and strong
                • nabaudacity and strength
                   gù OC: kaas MC: kuo̝ 7 Attributions

                The standard word for internal inherent solidity is jiān 堅 (ant. cuì 脆 "brittle"), and the standard word for external firmness, sturdiness and immobility is gù 固.

                • nabpsychfirmness
                • vadNfirm; solid
                • vadVfigurativepersistently, in an insisting manner; firmly
                • vibe firm, not to be easily moved; solid and good; secure and unshakeable; be staunch. persistent
                • vifigurativebe firm, be self-assured and unwobbling 甚固
                • vtoNcausativecause to be firm and solid, firm up; strengthen the position of
                • nabfirmness, solidity
                壯士   zhuàng shì OC: skraŋs dzrɯʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ ɖʐɨ 6 Attributions
                • NPsturdy gentleman; able gentlemen; brave men
                   jìng OC: keŋs MC: kiɛŋ 5 Attributions

                Jìng 勁 (ant. léi 羸 "weak") and jìng 競 (ant. shuāi 衰 "reduced state, lack of energy") refers to strength mainly under the aspect of a physical or mental energy.

                • nabdispositionstrength and vigour
                • vibe energetic and strong
                • vtoNcausativestrengthen; give added force to; "stiffen (someone's) spine
                • vadNnon-restrictive: energetic; of powerful impact
                堅固   jiān gù OC: kiin kaas MC: ken kuo̝ 5 Attributions
                • NPabfeaturestrength
                • VPadVstrongly
                • VPibe strong and firm
                • VPpostadVstrongly
                • VPtoNabstractkeep solid and firm
                壯佼 / 壯狡   zhuàng jiǎo OC: skraŋs kreewʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ kɣɛu zhuàng jiǎo OC: skraŋs kreewʔ MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ kɣɛu 4 Attributions
                • NPnonreferentialthose who are strong and virile
                   qiáng 4 Attributions
                • v[adN]N=humanthe powerful ones
                • v[adN]N=animalthe powerful animals
                • nabfeaturestrength
                   jiàn OC: ɡans MC: gi̯ɐn 3 Attributions

                Jiàn 健 (ant. shuāi 衰 "in a reduced state, lacking energy") refers to temporary short-term constitutional strength which is the result of a good physical constitution. See HEALTHY

                • nabfeaturestrength
                • v[adN]nonreferentialthe strong one; the strong ones
                • vibe in good physical shape and strong
                • vifigurativebe politically strong; be powerful
                   bào OC: boowɡs MC: bɑu 2 Attributions
                • vadNstrong, violent (rain, wind)
                萬乘   wàn shèng MC: -- -- OC: mblans -- 2 Attributions
                • VPadNfigurativepossessed of 10 000 chariots> powerful, militarily mighty
                   pī OC: phrɯ MC: phi 1 Attribution
                • vi.redbe very strong; be robust; be mighty
                   yì OC: ŋɡlɯds MC: ŋɨi 1 Attribution

                Yì 毅 (ant. nuò 懦 "weak") refers to inflexible and unshakeable firmness as well as strength.

                • nabstativefirmness
                • vadNtough; reckless
                • vioften used negatively: callous; headstrong, very tough;
                   tè OC: ɡ-lɯɯɡ MC: dək 1 Attribution
                • nabindependent strength
                   chéng OC: djeŋ MC: dʑiɛŋ 1 Attribution
                • vadNstrong; sturdy; dominant
                   féi OC: bul MC: bɨi 1 Attribution
                • vtoNcausativestrengthen, add strength to
                   cháng OC: ɡrlaŋ MC: ɖi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                • vadNthe strongest, the superior
                • vtoNcausativecause to grow stronger
                   jiōng OC: kʷeeŋ MC: keŋ 1 Attribution
                • vi.redbe very strong; sturdy (horses)
                   kuí OC: ɡʷril MC: gi 1 Attribution
                • vi.redstrong and sturdy; vigorous (horses)
                力士   lì shì OC: ɡ-rɯɡ dzrɯʔ MC: lɨk ɖʐɨ 1 Attribution
                • NPstrongman
                堅實   jiān shí OC: kiin ɢljiɡ MC: ken ʑit 1 Attribution
                • VPadNfirm and solid
                堅強   jiān qiáng OC: kiin ɡaŋ MC: ken gi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                • VPtoNcausativecause to be firm and strong >strengthen, firm up
                堅強   jiān qiáng OC: kiin ɡaŋ MC: ken gi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                • VPibe very tough or strong
                堅牢   jiān láo OC: kiin ruu MC: ken lɑu 1 Attribution
                • VPibe firm and strong
                壯健   zhuàng jiàn OC: skraŋs ɡans MC: ʈʂi̯ɐŋ gi̯ɐn 1 Attribution
                • NPabfeaturevigour
                多力   duō lì OC: k-laal ɡ-rɯɡ MC: tɑ lɨk 1 Attribution
                • VPibe strong
                • VPt+prep+Ngradedbe stronger than N
                強梁   qiáng liáng OC: ɡaŋ k-raŋ MC: gi̯ɐŋ li̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
                • VPibe strong and inflexible
                有力   yǒu lì OC: ɢʷɯʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ɦɨu lɨk 1 Attribution
                • VPibe endowed with strength; be strong
                浡然   bó rán OC: bɯɯd njen MC: buot ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
                • VPadVvigorously, being full of energy
                筋力   jīn lì OC: kɯn ɡ-rɯɡ MC: kɨn lɨk 1 Attribution
                • NPabfeaturephysical strength
                色力   sè lì OC: sqrɯɡ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ʂɨk lɨk 1 Attribution
                • NPabphysical strength
                   tǐng MC: dengX OC: deeŋʔ 1 Attribution
                • vibe straight and strong
                   jiān MC: ken OC: kiin 1 Attribution
                • vibe strong and firmly established
                千乘   qiān shèng MC: tshen -- OC: snʰiin -- 1 Attribution
                • NPadNpossessing one thousand of chariots > mighty
                堅彊   jiān qiáng MC: ken gjang OC: kiin ɡaŋ 1 Attribution
                • VPi= gang1qiáng 剛強: be tough and strong
                猛毅   měng yì MC: maengX ngj+jH OC: mraaŋʔ ŋɡlɯds 1 Attribution
                • VPibe very tough, be extremely resolute, verging at recklessness
                   qíng OC: ɡraŋ MC: gɣaŋ 0 Attributions
                • vibe strong
                • vadNstrong
                   dù OC: ɡ-laaɡs MC: duo̝ 0 Attributions
                     jìng OC: ɡreŋs MC: gɣaŋ 0 Attributions
                  • vibe ready for competition, be competitive> be vigorous and energetic, be in good shape; often used with negative: 不競
                     è OC: ŋɡraaɡ MC: ŋɣɛk 0 Attributions
                  • vi.red:adNstrong-willed; obstreporous
                  • vi.red(of words) be strong and show a fighting spirit
                  勁強   jìng qiáng OC: keŋs ɡaŋ MC: kiɛŋ gi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                  • VPichangebecome strong
                  勁直   jìng zhí OC: keŋs dɯɡ MC: kiɛŋ ɖɨk 0 Attributions
                  • VPitough
                  堅脆   jiān cuì OC: kiin tshods MC: ken tshiɛi 0 Attributions
                  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}conceptstrength or brittleness
                  • NPab{nab1ant.nab2}featurerelative strength or brittleness
                  強弱   qiáng ruò OC: ɡaŋ njewɡ MC: gi̯ɐŋ ȵi̯ɐk 0 Attributions
                  • NPabrelative strength
                  強毅   qiáng yì OC: ɡaŋ ŋɡlɯds MC: gi̯ɐŋ ŋɨi 0 Attributions
                  • VPibe strong
                  死力   sǐ lì OC: pliʔ ɡ-rɯɡ MC: si lɨk 0 Attributions
                  • none's complete energy, all the energy one has, all one's strength, total effort
                  肥壯   féi zhuàng OC: bul skraŋs MC: bɨi ʈʂi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                  • VPibe fat and vigorous; be stout
                  餘力   yú lì OC: la ɡ-rɯɡ MC: ji̯ɤ lɨk 0 Attributions

                  residual strength/energy

                  • NPabfeatureextra strength; supplementary energy
                     qì OC: khɯds MC: khɨi 0 Attributions
                  • nabfeaturedynamic strength and force
                     yáng OC: k-laŋ MC: ji̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                  • viYIJING: be strong
                     zhāng OC: krlaŋ MC: ʈi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
                  • vtoNstrengthen vtoN@causative
                      MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
                  • vibe strong and firmly established

                  Existing SW for

                  Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: