BODY  身體

SHAPE of an ANIMAL OR HUMAN OR of THINGS.
FIGUREFRAMEFORMPHYSIQUE
Old Chinese Criteria

[[CONGERIES]]

1. The general word for the body versus the heart and soul is xíng 形 (ant. xīn 心 ) but note that this word also applies generally to non-human physical shape..

2. Qū 軀 "physical frame" refers to body as seen from the outside, objectively, not as part of the person, and as constituted by flesh and bones.

3. Shēn 身 (which also means "person") specifically refers to the main trunk of the body typically excluding head, arms and legs.

4. Tǐ 體 refers to body as constituted by its various parts, in particular the limbs, and when it refers to the body as a whole the reference is to the posture and carriage of the body.

5. Zhī 肢 refers specifically to the limbs and cannot be used to refer to other parts of the body at all. See LIMB

6. Gōng 躬 is an elevated word which can be used to refer to a person as a whole, but also specifically to the body. See PERSON

7. Xíng tǐ 形體 is the standard current binome for the physical body of both men and animals, including the body after death, among other things as the container of vital energy qì 氣.

NB: Shī 尸 refers specifically to the dead body. See CORPSE

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

BODY 26.

身,多指不包括頭的身體。

躬,指身體從頸椎至尾椎的部分。

體,側重於指身體的各個組成部分。

軀,指整個肉體。

骸,用於自稱,含有謙下、卑微、行將就木的意味。

幹,特指身體的主要部分,即軀幹。

肢,四肢。

Modern Chinese Criteria

身體

肢體

軀體

肌體

肉體

肉身

身子

身軀

軀幹

七尺

臭皮囊

形體

形骸

軀殼

全身

渾身

一身

通身

滿身

周身

遍身

遍體

個子

個兒

個頭兒

身材

身長

身量

身軀

塊頭

長度

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 4.11

CASSIN 2004 Vocabulaire européen des philosophies. Dictionnaire des intraduisibles 705

LEIB

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 4

KOERPER UND KOERPERTEILE.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 6

GERNET 1994 L'intelligence de la China. Le social et le mental 270-279

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 53

HUANG JINGUI 1995 古代文化詞異集類辨考 Gudai wenhua ci yi ji lei bian kao 477/8

IORDANSKAJA 1996 A Russian-English Collocational Dictionary of the Human Body 361

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 86

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 83

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1376

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1880

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1.574

VIGARELLO 2006 Histoire du corps Univers historique

WANG FENGYANG 1993 古辭辨 Gu ci bian 115/123

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 57ff

POIRIER 1991 Histoire des moeurs 3.419

HSU 2010 Pulse Diagnosis in Early Chinese Medicine 392

BARNARD AND SPENCER 2002 Encyclopedia of Social and Cultural Anthropology

BARCK 2010 Ästhetische Grundbegriffe 3.428

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.379

HOROWITZ 2005 New Dictiornary of the History of Ideas, 6 vols.

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • n : 120
  • n[post-N] : 58
  • NP[post-N] : 46
  • NP{N1=N2} : 38
  • NPab : 28
  • NP : 10
  • n(post-N) : 9
  • NP(post-N) : 9
  • nadV : 7
  • NPm : 3
  • nab : 3
  • n : 2
  • nadN : 2
  • NPpost-N : 1
  • VPi : 1
  • NP(adN) : 1
  • NPab[.post-N] : 1

Attributions by text

  • 論衡 : 36
  • 莊子 : 36
  • 賢愚經 : 32
  • 韓非子 : 27
  • 六祖壇經 : 26
  • 呂氏春秋 : 22
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 16
  • 祖堂集 : 14
  • 文子 : 12
  • 荀子 : 11
  • 百喻經 : 11
  • 淮南子 : 10
  • 法句經 : 9
  • 說苑 : 8
  • 春秋左傳 : 8
  • 楚辭 : 8
  • 韓詩外傳 : 7
  • 臨濟錄 : 7
  • 管子 : 5
  • 孟子 : 5
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 禮記 : 3
  • 孝經 : 3
  • 法集要頌經 : 3
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
  • 陸機集十一卷 : 2
  • 黃帝內經 : 2
  • 太平經 : 1
  • 列子 : 1
  • 鶡冠子 : 1
  • 五行 : 1

Words

   shēn OC: qhjin MC: ɕin 108 Attributions

Shēn 身 (which also means "person") specifically refers to the main trunk of the body excluding head, arms and legs.

  • n(post-N)the body of the contextually determinate N
  • n[post-N]one's own body [many of the BODY n need to be moved here]
  • nbody as a whole; especially the main trunk as opposed to the head; body as embodying the person
  • nabsolutethe body
  • nabfigurativephysical manifestation
  • nadVinstrumenton the body; with one's body; physically
   xíng OC: ɡeeŋ MC: ɦeŋ 40 Attributions

The general word for the body versus the heart and soul is xíng 形(ant. xīn 心).

  • n(post-N)the body of the contextually determinate N
  • n[post-N]body; physical appearance (mostly n(post-N))
  • nreflexivephysical body as opposed to the Self which has this body (without being identical with it)
  • nbody
形體   xíng tǐ OC: ɡeeŋ rʰiiʔ MC: ɦeŋ thei 39 Attributions

Xíng tǐ 形體 is the standard current binome for the physical body of both men and animals, including the body after death, among other things as the container of vital energy qì 氣.

  • NP{N1=N2}one's body (also: body of the deceased; even overall physical shape of Heaven and earth) 人形體 "human body"
  • VPiprocessbe embodied, take a physical form
   tǐ OC: rʰiiʔ MC: thei 28 Attributions

Tǐ 體 refers to body as constituted by its various parts, in particular the limbs, and when it refers to the body as a whole the reference is to the posture and carriage of the body.

  • n(post-N)the limbs of the contextually determinate N
  • nlimb, limbs; body as constituted by its parts
  • nfigurativearticulated structures
  • nabmathematical termCHEMLA 2003:
  • nadNphysical
  • nadVbodywise; with the body
  • n[post-N]one's body, the human body
  • nabone complex literary structure
身體   shēn tǐ OC: qhjin rʰiiʔ MC: ɕin thei 25 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]body
   qū OC: kho MC: khi̯o 14 Attributions

Qū 軀 "physical frame" refers to body as seen from the outside, objectively, not as part of the person, and as constituted by flesh and bones.

  • n[post-N]one's (own) body
  • nphysical frame
法身   fǎ shēn OC: pab qhjin MC: pi̯ɐp ɕin 11 Attributions
  • NPabfigurativeBUDDH: dharma-body; the truth-body of Buddha > the undecaying body of Buddha symbolizing the truth of his teaching; skr. dharmakāya
色身   sè shēn OC: sqrɯɡ qhjin MC: ʂɨk ɕin 9 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]the physcial body; the "rūpa" body; body of form
   gōng OC: kʷɯŋ MC: kuŋ 8 Attributions

Gōng 躬 is an elevated word which can be used to refer to a person as a whole, but also specifically to the body. See PERSON

  • n[post-N]N=selfarchaic?: [one's own] body 鞠躬
化身   huà shēn OC: hŋʷraals qhjin MC: hɣɛ ɕin 8 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: "transformation body"; this refers to a Buddha's body transformed into the physical shape of a sentient being as expedient means to teach and liberate them; the transformaton body is equipped with supernatural qualitites in order to assess and adapt to the capacities of sentient beings; SANSKRIT: nirmāna-kāya
形骸   xíng hái OC: ɡeeŋ ɡrɯɯ MC: ɦeŋ ɦɣɛi 7 Attributions
  • NP(post-N)physical shape including flesh and bones (sometimes considered as a heap or congeries of things constituting the dead body)
  • NPbody
肌膚   jī fū OC: kril pqla MC: ki pi̯o 6 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]FLESH AND SKIN> body
報身   bào shēn OC: puuɡs qhjin MC: pɑu ɕin 4 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the retribution/reward body of Buddha; also translated as "bliss-body"; SANSKRIT saṃboga-kāya See DDB: http://www.buddhism-dict.net/cgi-bin/xpr-ddb.pl?58.xml+id('b5831-8eab')
筋骨   jīn gǔ OC: kɯn kuud MC: kɨn kuot 3 Attributions
  • NPmsinews and bones> all sorts of inner parts of the body
五陰   wǔ yīn OC: ŋaaʔ qrɯm MC: ŋuo̝ ʔim 2 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]buddhistBUDDH: five skandhas (which constitute the phycho-physical exististence) > my physical body, one's existence (as body and mind)
佛身   fó shēn OC: bɯd qhjin MC: bi̯ut ɕin 2 Attributions
  • NPabbuddhistBUDDH: the Buddha-body; SANSKRIT buddha-kāya
腰領   yāo lǐng OC: qew ɡ-reŋʔ MC: ʔiɛu liɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabprocesswaist and neck; body (as something which may be cut at the waist or the neck)
骨骸   gǔ hái OC: kuud ɡrɯɯ MC: kuot ɦɣɛi 2 Attributions
  • NPbody
肢體   zhī tǐ MC: tsye thejX OC: kje rʰiiʔ 2 Attributions
  • NPNP(post-N): one's limbs and body
口腹   kǒu fù MC: khuwX pjuwk OC: khooʔ puɡ 2 Attributions
  • NPmouth and belly, body parts associated with eating
   zhì OC: tjid MC: tɕit 1 Attribution
  • nphysical frame, physical condition??
   gǔ OC: kuud MC: kuot 1 Attribution
  • nbuild, overall shape of body
   hái OC: ɡrɯɯ MC: ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • nfigurativeone's physical frame (as a living person)
下部   xià bù OC: ɢraaʔ bɯʔ MC: ɦɣɛ buo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPlower part of the body
十身   shí shēn OC: ɡjub qhjin MC: dʑip ɕin 1 Attribution
  • NP(adN)buddhistBUDDH: the ten bodies of a Buddha; in the AVATAMSAKA there are two sets of body described
形器   xíng qì OC: ɡeeŋ khrɯds MC: ɦeŋ khi 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N]articulated body
形範   xíng fàn OC: ɡeeŋ bomʔ MC: ɦeŋ bi̯ɐm 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N]physical frame
形貌   xíng mào OC: ɡeeŋ mreews MC: ɦeŋ mɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N]physical appearance
形軀   xíng qū OC: ɡeeŋ kho MC: ɦeŋ khi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NP[post-N]body
本身   běn shēn OC: pɯɯnʔ qhjin MC: puo̝n ɕin 1 Attribution
  • NPab[.post-N]one's own dharma body
皮袋   pí dài OC: bral lɯɯɡs MC: biɛ dəi 1 Attribution
  • NP(post-N)leather bag > body (derogatory expression for the human body)
躬身   gōng shēn OC: kʷɯŋ qhjin MC: kuŋ ɕin 1 Attribution
  • NPpost-Nbody
軀體   qū tǐ OC: kho rʰiiʔ MC: khi̯o thei 1 Attribution
  • NPabbody; body and limbs
骨法   gǔ fǎ OC: kuud pab MC: kuot pi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
  • NP(post-N)body structure, bone structure of the body
骸形   hái xíng OC: ɡrɯɯ ɡeeŋ MC: ɦɣɛi ɦeŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPbody including skeleton
殼陋子   què lòu zǐ OC: khrooɡ roos sklɯʔ MC: khɣɔk lu tsɨ 1 Attribution
  • NP(post-N)BUDDH: husk of grain > referring to the physical body as 'shell, home' for the mind/soul (also written 殼漏子)
骨體   gǔ tǐ MC: kwot thejX OC: kuud rʰiiʔ 1 Attribution
  • NPagentphysical body
   zhī OC: kje MC: tɕiɛ 0 Attributions

Zhī 肢 refers specifically to the limbs and cannot be used to refer to other parts of the body at all. See LIMB

    真體   zhēn tǐ OC: tjin rʰiiʔ MC: tɕin thei 0 Attributions
      身起   shēn qǐ OC: qhjin khɯʔ MC: ɕin khɨ 0 Attributions
      • NP[post-N]Tang: physical body (examples in WANGFANZHI)

      Existing SW for

      Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: