COURAGE  勇敢

VIRTUE OR ATTITUDE of DARING to ACT:carry-out DANGEROUS BUT NECESSARY ACTS.
BRAVERYCOURAGEOUSNESSPLUCKPLUCKINESSVALOURFEARLESSNESSINTREPIDITYNERVEDARINGAUDACITYBOLDNESSGRITTRUE GRITHARDIHOODHEROISMGALLANTRYGUTSSPUNKMOXIECOJONESBALLSCOURAGEOUSVALIANTVALOROUSINTREPIDHEROICLIONHEARTEDBOLDFEARLESSGALLANTDARINGPLUCKYAUDACIOUSUNFLINCHINGUNSHRINKINGUNAFRAIDDAUNTLESSDOUGHTYMETTLESOMESTOUTHEARTEDSPIRITEDGAMEGUTSYSPUNKY
Antonymy

COWARDLY

See also

DARE

Kind Of

ATTITUDE

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard general word for courage is yǒng 勇 (ant. nuò 懦 "pusillanimousness, chicken-liveredness"), which refers to positive boldness evinced in the face of danger or risk. Cf. fortitudo

2. Hàn 悍 (ant. qiè 怯 "fearfulness") is foolhardiness and recklessness under conditions of danger or risk. Cf. Latin ferocia

3. Gǎn 敢 (ant. qiè 怯 "fearfulness") is the ability of an individual to take considered reasonable risks where appropriate or where required by ritual propriety.

4. Guǒ 果 and duàn 斷 (ant. xū1 需 "hestant") is general resoluteness as an attitude towards the conduct of one's affairs. Cf. Latin audacia

5. Zhì 志 "morale, fighting spirit" and the rarer wǔ 武 is the courageous warlike attitude of a whole group. Cf. Latin acrimonia, animus

6. Qì 氣 "morale, fighting spirit" is typically the morale of an individual but can also occasionally be used of groups. Cf. Latin spiritus

Modern Chinese Criteria

勇敢

英勇

驍勇

驃勇

神勇

大勇

勇猛

勇武

英武

英雄

孤膽

大膽

斗膽

膽大

剽悍

強悍

無畏

一身是膽

膽大如斗

膽大包天

群威群膽

英勇絕倫

奮不顧身

赴湯蹈火

出生入死

捨生忘死

視死如歸

萬死不辭

生死置之度外

臨危不懼

無所畏懼

了無懼色

履險如夷

身先士卒

前赴後繼

前僕後繼

萬夫莫當

吃了豹子膽

如入無人之境

初生之犢不怕虎

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

Old Chinese Contrasts

Kant: BEANTWORTUNG DER FRAGE: WAS IST AUFKLÄRUNG ?

Berlinische Monatsschrift. Dezember-Heft 1784. S. 481-494

AUFKLÄRUNG ist der Ausgang des Menschen aus seiner selbstverschuldeten Unmündigkeit. Unmündigkeit ist das Unvermögen, sich seines Verstandes ohne Leitung eines anderen zu bedienen. Selbstverschuldet ist diese Unmündigkeit, wenn die Ursache derselben nicht am Mangel des Verstandes, sondern der Entschließung und des Mutes liegt, sich seiner ohne Leitung eines andern zu bedienen. Sapere aude! Habe Mut, dich deines eigenen Verstandes zu bedienen! ist also der Wahlspruch der Aufklärung.

Faulheit und Feigheit sind die Ursachen, warum ein so großer Teil der Menschen, nachdem sie die Natur längst von fremder Leitung freigesprochen [A482]... dennoch gerne zeitlebens unmündig bleiben; und warum es anderen so leicht wird, sich zu deren Vormündern aufzuwerfen.

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.52

COMENIUS 1665 De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione 469

AUDERE ultra Scire et posse velle tentare. Seu est actionum viribus aut scientiae improportionatam tentare.

Conc. 1. Objectum difficile, magnum, aut ignotum, vetitum. 2. Vires exiguae aut scientia et veniae spes. 3. Voluntas tamen superandi.

AUDACIA est ad res susceptu periculosas animositas.

Conc. 1. Excessus Voluntatis. 2. Defectus scientiae seu judicij. 3. Virium intensio summa.

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 65

TEMERARIUS, AUDAX

59. Ex Agraetii mente, temeritas sine consilio, audacia post consilium. C. Fronto hinc forte emendandus: Audax non timet, temerarius non providet; nam male [col. 17D] alioqui, audax non providet, temerarius non timet.

]

59. Inter Audacem et temerarium. Audax non timet, temerarius non aestimat periculum.

125

TEMERITAS, AUDACIA

Temeritas sine consilio dicitur, audacia post consilium.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

COURAGE

ferocia refers to the kind of natural and even wild courage that may be ascribed to animals as well as humans.

fortitudo denotes a passive moral courage and resilience in defense.

virtus can refer to energetic and impressive active courageinvolving crucially the courage of one's own convictions, displayed in impressive action.

audacia refers neutrally to contempt of danger.

audentia refers to the laudable spirit of courageous enterprise.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 37

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 323

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum 36

ALACRITAS

AUDACIA

TEMERITAS

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 167

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1939

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 10.894

TAPFERKEIT

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 108

UNGER 2009 Kleine Schriften Deutsche Ostasienstudien 225-239

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.331:220

COURAGE.BRAVOURE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 2.7:6

EFFRONTE.AUDACIEUX.HARDI

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.162.121

COEUR.COURAGE.VALEUR.BRAVOURE.INTREPIDITE

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.413.373

HARDIESSE.AUDACE.EFFRONTERIE

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no. 70

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.252

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO. 91

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 47B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 61
  • vi : 27
  • vt+V[0] : 18
  • VPi : 8
  • v[adN] : 6
  • vadN : 6
  • NP : 4
  • NPab : 4
  • nadN : 3
  • vt(oV[0]) : 1
  • vtoN : 1
  • VPadN : 1
  • vadV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 33
  • 論語 : 21
  • 春秋左傳 : 17
  • 荀子 : 15
  • 孟子 : 13
  • 孝經 : 8
  • 說苑 : 6
  • 百喻經 : 5
  • 管子 : 4
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 呂氏春秋 : 2
  • 戰國策 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 史記 : 1
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 晏子春秋 : 1
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 淮南子 : 1
  • 老子 : 1
  • 法句經 : 1
  • 尚書 : 1

Words

   yǒng OC: k-loŋʔ MC: ji̯oŋ 67 Attributions

The standard general word for courage is yǒng 勇 (ant. nuò 懦 "pusillanimousness, chicken-liveredness"), which refers to positive boldness evinced in the face of danger or risk. Cf. fortitudo

  • nabactbravery, foolhardy boldness
  • nabdispositionvalour; boldness
  • nabpsychcourage
  • v[adN]nonreferentialparagon of courage; the brave
  • v[adN]pluralthe brave (of such and such a place) HF
  • vadNcourageous; bold 勇士
  • viactshow courage in action
  • viinchoativebecome courageous
  • vipsychbe courageous; be bold; be brave
  • vtoNputativeregard as particularly courageous
  • nabactact of courage
   gǎn OC: klaamʔ MC: kɑm 20 Attributions

Gǎn 敢 (ant. qiè 怯 "fearfulness") is the ability of an individual to take considered reasonable risks where appropriate in civil life or where required by ritual propriety.

  • nabdispositioncivil courage, determination and conviction
  • nabpsychcourage
  • vt+V[0]have the courage to V
  • vt(oV[0])dare to do the contextually determinate act V
   hàn OC: ɡaans MC: ɦɑn 7 Attributions

Hàn 悍 (ant. qiè 怯 "fearfulness") is foolhardiness and recklessness under conditions of danger or risk. Cf. Latin ferocia

  • nabpsychferociousness
  • vadNferocious, obstreporous
  • viferocious, fiercely courageous, habitually violent; obstreporous
   dǎn OC: k-laamʔ MC: tɑm 6 Attributions
  • nabdispositionfighting spirit
  • viXUN: be courageous
   wǔ OC: mbaʔ MC: mi̯o 5 Attributions
  • viof troops: be spirited, be militarily efficient; be in accordance with the proper military spirit
   qì OC: khɯds MC: khɨi 4 Attributions

Qì 氣 "morale, fighting spirit" is typically the morale of an individual but can also occasionally be used of groups. Cf. Latin spiritus

  • nabdispositionfighting spirit
勇者   yǒng zhě OC: k-loŋʔ kljaʔ MC: ji̯oŋ tɕɣɛ 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialabstractly: the courageous person (at any time and in any place)
  • NPdefinitethe courageous ones
   jiè OC: kreeds MC: kɣɛi 3 Attributions
  • nabpsychdetermination, moral determination, moral straightness
  • vadNdetermined, firm, ready for battle
   guǒ OC: kloolʔ MC: kʷɑ 3 Attributions

Guǒ 果 and duàn 斷 (ant. xū1 需 "hestant") is general resoluteness as an attitude towards the conduct of one's affairs. Cf. Latin audacia

  • vibe utterly determined to live up to one's aspirations or intentions; be full of determination
  • viactbe excessively determined to go through with one's plans LY 毋果
  • nabactdecisive courage
   háo OC: ɡoow MC: ɦɑu 3 Attributions
  • nadNvaliant
果敢   guǒ gǎn OC: kloolʔ klaamʔ MC: kʷɑ kɑm 3 Attributions
  • VPadNcourageous
  • VPibe decisive in action
   duàn OC: toons MC: tʷɑn 2 Attributions
  • nabdispositiondicisiveness, decisive determination CA
  • vadVdecisively
   yì OC: ŋɡlɯds MC: ŋɨi 2 Attributions
  • viof humans: be psychologically firm and unshakable, tough, resilient
  • nabpsychfirmness of conviction
勇健   yǒng jiàn OC: k-loŋʔ ɡans MC: ji̯oŋ gi̯ɐn 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychcourage and strength
  • VPibe courageous and vigourous
愓悍   dàng hàn MC: dangX hanH OC: ɡ-laaŋʔ ɡaans 2 Attributions
  • VPinegativeferocious, typically to the point of cruelty
   hàn OC: ɡaans MC: ɦɑn 1 Attribution
  • nabactacts of courage in defense of what is right
勇敢   yǒng gǎn OC: k-loŋʔ klaamʔ MC: ji̯oŋ kɑm 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychcourage
勇氣   yǒng qì OC: k-loŋʔ khɯds MC: ji̯oŋ khɨi 1 Attribution
  • NPabdispositionthe energy that comes from courage
勇膽   yǒng dǎn OC: k-loŋʔ k-laamʔ MC: ji̯oŋ tɑm 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychpsychological dispositions relating to courage
大膽   dà dǎn OC: daads k-laamʔ MC: dɑi tɑm 1 Attribution
  • VPidenominalbe courageous (compare modern 小氣)
有氣   yǒu qì OC: ɢʷɯʔ khɯds MC: ɦɨu khɨi 1 Attribution
  • VPihave courage> be courageous
   jié OC: tsiiɡ MC: tset 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychologicalcourage and integrity
蕩悍   dàng hàn MC: dangX hanH OC: ɡ-laaŋʔ ɡaans 1 Attribution
  • VPinegative= dang4han4 愓悍, ferocious, typically to the point of cruelty
   zhì OC: kljɯs MC: tɕɨ 0 Attributions

Zhì 志 "morale, fighting spirit" and the rarer wǔ 武 is the courageous warlike attitude of a whole group. Cf. Latin acrimonia, animus

  • nabpsych(military) morale
賁憤 / 憤    OC:  MC:  fèn OC: bɯnʔ MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions
  • vtoNto brave
   mèi OC: mɯɯds MC: muo̝i 0 Attributions
  • vt+prep+Nab{ACT}have the blind temerity to
勇懼   yǒng jù OC: k-loŋʔ ɡʷas MC: ji̯oŋ gi̯o 0 Attributions
  • NPabdispositionrelative courage
弘毅   hóng yì OC: ɡʷɯɯŋ ŋɡlɯds MC: ɦəŋ ŋɨi 0 Attributions
  • VPiactbe morally firm with a broad perspective> be courageous with a large (moral) perspective; show a large perspective in courage
怯勇   qiè yǒng OC: khab k-loŋʔ MC: khi̯ɐp ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabfeaturerelative courage
膽勇   dǎn yǒng OC: k-laamʔ k-loŋʔ MC: tɑm ji̯oŋ 0 Attributions
  • NPabdispositioncourage (great or small)

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: