FEAR  害怕

BAD FEELING IN-RELATION-TO what one BELIEVES to be a DANGER which one is TRYING to AVOID.
BE AFRAID OFBE FEARFUL OFBE SCARED OFBE APPREHENSIVE OFDREADLIVE IN FEAR OFBE TERRIFIED OFBE ANXIOUS ABOUTWORRY ABOUTFEEL APPREHENSIVE ABOUTHAVE A PHOBIA ABOUTHAVE A HORROR OFTAKE FRIGHT AT
Hypernym

FEELINGNATURAL REACTION IN one's MIND. -> REACTCHANGE one's THINKING OR ACTING BECAUSE one is PERCEIVING something. -> CHANGEEVENT involving two MOMENTS t1 and t2, such that a THING at the MOMENT t1 is DIFFERENT FROM that THING at the MOMENT t2. -> EVENTREALITY that ARISES in TIME. -> REALITYEXIST and NOT ONLY BE IMAGINED. -> EXISTBE-IN the UNIVERSE of SPACE AND TIME. -> BE INRELATION between a THING AND what that THING FILLS OR PART:partially FILLS. -> RELATIONFEATURE of TWO OR MORE THINGS TOGETHER. -> FEATUREABSTRACT OBJECT a THING is SAID to BE OR to HAVE. -> OBJECT[NO HYPERNYM.] WHAT one CAN NAME:refer to. -> PRIME -> N/A

Hyponym
  • COWARDLY FEARFUL WHEN COURAGE is NEEDED.
    • SHY ENDURING FEAR of POSSIBLE NEAR FUTURE SHAME.
      • ANGST FEAR LACKING an OBJECT.
        Old Chinese Criteria

        1. The most general word for any kind of passing fear is probably jù 懼 and this word naturally links with yōu 憂 "worry", and this word refers to a momentary historical moment where that fear manifested itself ( 文王乃懼 "then King Wén got scared"). Jù sǐ 懼死 is momentary fear for one's life, whereas wèi sǐ 畏死 refers to a general state where one is too frightened to sacrifice one's life.

        2. Kǒng 恐 refers primarily to intense or overwhelming possibly passing state of fear, and the word differs from jù 懼 mainly in degree of intensity and in the managability of the danger faced.

        3. Wèi 畏 is typically a stable state of reasoned fear, typically relating those who are in authority (the etymologically related wēi 威 on which relation there is much word-play in texts like ZUO), or ghosts etc, but the word also has extended generalised uses, as in wèi sǐ 畏死 "be afraid to die".

        4. Jīng 驚 refers to the sudden onset of fear when someone is faced with an unexpected danger.

        5. Lì 栗 / 慄 and zhàn 戰 is to shiver with intense fear, and the physical expression of fear can be more prominent the inner feeling expressed through shivering.

        6. Qiè 怯 "chicken-livered and unlikely to undertake risky tasks" and nuò 懦 (ant. yǒng 勇 "courage, boldness") as well as dàn 憚 "unduly prone to feelings of fear" refer to being pusilanimousness or the lack or courage where courage is required.

        7. Bù 怖 "be in a current acute state of fear" has no weakened generalised uses.

        8. Sǒng 悚 / 聳 "be fretful, given to fear; get slightly frightened" refers to mild forms of (possibly superfluous or reprehensible) fear.

        9. Jì 悸 refers to symptoms of violent heart-beat caused by intense fear.

        NB: Pà 怕 is post-Buddhist (TANG).

        Modern Chinese Criteria

        害怕

        懼怕

        生怕

        生恐

        畏怯

        畏懼

        恐懼

        疑懼

        恐怖

        膽寒

        破膽

        心寒

        心悸

        忌憚

        畏葸

        狼顧

        懍懍

        惶惑

        失色

        失容

        惕息

        戒懼

        怵惕

        悚然

        震悚

        喪膽

        破膽 refers to being thoroughly frightened out of one's wits.

        亡魂喪膽

        聞風喪膽

        喪魂落魄

        魂不附體

        魂飛魄散

        魄散魂飛

        戰戰兢兢

        驚心掉膽

        毛骨悚然

        提心吊膽

        膽顫心驚

        心驚膽顫

        心驚肉跳

        心膽俱裂

        不寒而栗

        噤若寒蟬

        驚恐萬狀

        大驚失色

        面如土色

        面無人色

        脅肩累足

        視為畏途

        望而生畏

        望而卻步

        rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

        • Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka ( APRESJAN 2004) p. 1109

        • Das Wortfeld Angst. Eine lexikographische Untersuchung ( BERGENHOLTZ 1980) p.

        • A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages ( BUCK 1988) p. 16.53

        • De Rerum Humanarum Emendatione ( COMENIUS 1665) p. 449

          ABHORRERE

          aliquid, est contactum illius metuere. 2. ideoque aversari aut si id nequit, fugere.

        • La peur en Occident ( DELUMEAU 1978) p.

        • De differentiis ( DIFFERENTIAE I) p. 63

          TIMIDUS, TIMENS

          554. Ex Serv. ad ill. Eclog. 7, Timidisque supervenit [col. 66D] Aegle.

          ]

          554. Inter Timentem et timidum. Timidus est qui semper timet, timens vero qui ad tempus formidat ex [col. 65C] causa. Tali intellectu distinguuntur pavidus et pavens, providus et providens, superbus et superbiens, languidus et languens, furibundus et furens, et caetera similia.

          99

          FORMIDO, PAVOR, METUS, TIMOR

          214. Inter Formidinem, pavorem. et metum, sive [col. 32A] timorem. Formido objicitur, vel oculis, vel animo, sine adhibita ratione, et maxime parvulis, pavor autem cum timiditate animi subita est conturbans occasio, quae tamen solvitur ratione, vel tempore, nec stat, item metus est motus interior animi subitus, sive cordis, factus ex aliqua tristi recordatione. Timor vero est accedens dolor mentis extrinsecus, ex aliqua accidenti occasione. Porro timiditas animi vitium sempiternum est. Nam timor, pro tempore est. Itaque in viro forti est aliquando timor, timiditas nunquam. Est autem et bonus timor et malus. Malus est, cum temporalia bona quisque sibi subtrahi perhorrescit [ Al., abstrahi pertimescit]; bonus, cum quanto quis Deum ardentius diligit, tanto eum diligentius offendere pertimescit. Nam timere interdum [col. 32B] prodest, et decet, pro qualitate temporum atque causarum.

        • Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien ( DOEDERLEIN 1840) p.

          FEAR

          vereri is fear that has its foundation in what is strikingly venerable or perceived as such.

          metuere is fear that has its source in a threatening danger inherent in an object or a situation, and it is based on anticipation of an impending evil, as well as reflection upon it, and it is based on prudence and foresight.

          timere refers to fear of an impending danger that proceeds from cowardice and weakness rather than weakness.

          ignavia is inaptitude for noble action and particularly for deeds of valour, for reasons of exaggerated fearfulness.

          horror is an immediate feeling of fear which overpowers the understanding by some dreadful image, as a bodily expression of such a feeling.

          formido is the immediate feeling of overpowering fear as a purely mental state.

        • Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques ( DUFOUR 1910) p. 40

        • 韓非子同義詞研究 ( HANFEI TONGYI 2004) p. 203

        • Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue francaise. Avec une introduction sur la theorie des synonymes. ( LAFAYE 1884) p. 479

          A. CRAINTE, APPREHENSION;

          B. INQUIETUDE, ALARME, PEUR;

          C. EPOUVANTE, EFFROI, FRAYEUR, TERREUR

          A.

          Lafaye distinguishes "crainte" of a probable danger and "apprehension" of a possible danger: a brilliant definition. "Crainte" is a involves an envisioning of what is dangerous, "apprehension" involves a suspicion concerning what may be dangerous. These two words have the common feature that they focus on the intellectual rather than the emotive part of fear. Malebranche: "La crainte, qui produit la tristesse,, n'est point une emotion de l'ame, mais un simple jugement." The same may be said about "apprehension". Both these words are quite different from "inquietude, alarme, peur", even more from "epouvante, effroi, frayeur, terreur".

          B.

          "Inquietude, alarme, peur" are weak forms of fear, "inqietude" being the weakest.

          "Alarme" is an intense form of "inqietude".

          "Peur" is subjective and less based on externals than on inner temperament, and the word is pejorative in the sense that it often denotes a lack of courage.

          C.

          "Epouvante" is stronger than "peur", but like "peur" it connotes a tendency to flee from what is dangerous, a lack of proper courage.

          "Effroi" connotes horror as well as strong, stifling fear.

          "Frayeur" is transitory "effroi".

          "Terreur" focusses on the state of the mind as caused by the envisaging of its cause.

        • Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum ( LANGIUS 1631) p.

          FORMIDO

          METUS

          PUSILLANIMITAS

          TIMOR

          VERECUNDIA

        • Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian ( Mel'cuk 1984) p. 163ff

        • Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian ( Mel'cuk 1984) p. 806

        • Lateinische Synonymik ( MENGE) p. 11

        • “孟子”同義詞研究 ( MENGZI TONGYI 2002) p. 239

        • Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise ( REY 2005) p. 3.1622

        • Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie ( RITTER 1971-2007) p. 2.1147

          FURCHT UND MITLEID

        • Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik ( SCHMIDT 1889) p. 116

        • Emotions across Languages and Cultures ( WIERZBICKA 1999) p. 123-167

        • 王力古漢語字典 ( WANG LI 2000) p. 742

          畏,恐,懼

          1. WL claims that these words are basically synonymous. In fact, they differ clearly in basic semantic content. We4i 畏 is basically a state of fear of what inspires awe and respect, perhaps shuddering awe, and indeed there are many cases where the meanings of the words hovers between fear and respect, encompassing elements of both; ko3ng 恐 is momentary and powerful basically terrified fear of what is simply overpowering, although these words have occasional "blunted" or neutralised usages where they refer to generalised fear; and ju4 懼 is momentary fearful concern about an impending danger, thus a much weaker form of ko3ng 恐. The cases where these words are interchangeable semantically are few.

          2. WL claims that it is characteristic of ko3ng 恐 and ju4 懼 that these have causative uses, but we4i 畏 is also used in such causative senses "inspire fearfuyl awe in people". Moreover, all these words are current as transitive non-causative words, contrary to what WL suggests.

        • Using Chinese Synonyms ( GRACE ZHANG 2010) p. 296

        • Chinese Synonyms Usage Dictionary ( TENG SHOU-HSIN 1996) p. 167

        • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 2.25:22

          ALLARME.TERREUR.EFFROI.FRAYHEUR.EPOUVANTE.CRAINTE.PEUR.APPREHENSION

        • SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse ( GIRARD 1769) p. 1.218.179

          CRAINDRE.APPREHENDER.REDOUTER.AVOIR PEUR

        • Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge ( PILLON 1850) p. no.390

        • 古漢語常用詞同義詞詞典 ( HONG CHENGYU 2009) p. 362

        • Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung ( FRANKE 1989) p. 48A

        Attributions by syntactic funtion

        • vtoN : 35
        • vt[oN] : 24
        • VPi : 24
        • vt+V[0] : 21
        • vtoNPab{S} : 21
        • vtoS : 21
        • vi : 18
        • nab : 15
        • VPtoS : 8
        • vi.red : 7
        • NPab : 7
        • VPtoN : 6
        • vt+prep+N : 5
        • VPt+V[0] : 3
        • vt[0]oS : 3
        • VPt[0]+V[0] : 3
        • vt(oN) : 2
        • VPt(oN) : 2
        • vadN : 2
        • VPt(oN) : 2
        • VPadN : 2
        • VPt[0]oS : 2
        • vvi : 2
        • nab.post-V{NUM} : 1
        • VPtoNab{S} : 1
        • vi.red:-V{SUF} : 1
        • vi-P : 1

        Attributions by text

        • 說苑 : 29
        • 戰國策 : 23
        • 孟子 : 17
        • 百喻經 : 13
        • 史記 : 12
        • 呂氏春秋 : 12
        • 賢愚經 : 11
        • 荀子 : 10
        • 禮記 : 9
        • 管子 : 9
        • 莊子 : 8
        • 阮籍集四卷 : 8
        • 祖堂集 : 8
        • 法句經 : 8
        • 論衡 : 7
        • 臨濟錄 : 6
        • 毛詩 : 6
        • 法集要頌經 : 5
        • 墨子 : 3
        • 春秋左傳 : 3
        • 陸機集十一卷 : 3
        • 妙法蓮華經 : 3
        • 楚辭 : 3
        • 列子 : 2
        • 類說 : 2
        • 太平經 : 2
        • 新序 : 2
        • 韓詩外傳 : 2
        • 尚書 : 2
        • 孝經 : 2
        • 晏子春秋 : 1
        • 淮南子 : 1
        • 老子 : 1
        • 黃帝內經 : 1
        • 法言 : 1
        • 六祖壇經 : 1
        • 文子 : 1
        • 孫子 : 1
        • 山海經 : 1

        Words

           kǒng OC: khoŋʔ MC: khi̯oŋ 62 Attributions

        Kǒng 恐 refers primarily to intense or overwhelming possibly passing state of fear, and the word differs from jù 懼 mainly in degree of intensity and in the managability of the danger faced.

        • nabpsychfear, fright; an atmosphere of fear
        • vt(postN1[EGO].)postN2:+V{PRED}parenthetic- I'm afraid - 國恐傷 "the state - I'm afraid - will suffer injury/harm"
        • vt[0]oSI am afraid that S
        • vt[oN]stativeto be very scared (of things); be terrified (of things)
        • vt[oN]changeget very scared; get terrified
        • vt+V[0]be afraid that V; be afraid to V
        • vt+V[0]V=passivefear to be V-ed, be afraid of being V-ed
        • vtoNbe terrified by the thought of, be very worried by and fearful of
        • vtoNPab{S}be afraid that S
        • vtoSbe very much afraid that S, live in fear that S
           wèi OC: quls MC: ʔɨi 34 Attributions

        Wèi 畏 is typically a stable state of reasoned fear, typically relating those who are in authority (the etymologically related wēi 威 on which relation there is much word-play in texts like ZUO), or ghosts etc, but the word also has extended generalised uses, as in wèi sǐ 畏死 "be afraid to die".

        • nobjectobjects of fear, things one fears; fears
        • vibe in a state of fear; be under threat which would normally inspire fear; be in fearful trouble
        • vichangeget into fearful trouble
        • vt(oN)stand in fear and awe of the determinate person/thing; grow fearful of
        • vt+prep+Nbe frightened of; stand in fearful awe of
        • vt+V[0]be terrified to V; be afraid that one might V
        • vtoNno respectbe afraid of
        • vtoNcontinuousstand in fear of; fear, be very much afraid of and at the same time in awe of
        • vtoNpassivebe held in fear and awe
        • vtoNPab{S}to be terrified by the fact, that
        • vtoSstativefear that S
        • nabpsychfearfulness
        • vt+V[0]passivefear to be V-ed
        • vtoNfear (something non-human without standing in awe of it, like death)
        • vt[oN]be fearful of others
           jù OC: ɡʷas MC: gi̯o 31 Attributions

        The most general word for any kind of passing fear is probably jù 懼 and this word naturally links with yōu 憂 "worry", and this word refers to a momentary historical moment where that fear manifested itself (文王乃懼 "then King Wén got scared"). Jù sǐ 懼死 is momentary fear for one's life, whereas wèi sǐ 畏死 refers to a general state where one is too frightened to sacrifice one's life.

        • nabpsychfear
        • vadNfearful, frightened
        • vibe fearful; be scared;
        • vt[oN]spend one's time being afraid of things
        • vt[oN]changebecome frightened; become scared
        • vt[oN]psychbe frightened; be afraid; [of a voice or of a person: be fearful. But this has to be moved CH]
        • vt+prep+Nstart to be afraid of; Danish: lade sige skraemme af
        • vt+V(0)be afraid to V
        • vt+V[0]be afraid that one might V; be afraid to; be afraid that one V-s
        • vt+V[0]V=passivefear to be V-ed
        • vtoNpassivebe feared
        • vtoNgradedbe afraid (of) and be on one's guard against, be fearful and apprehensive about
        • vtoNpsychfear for (oneself)
        • vtoNPab{S}be afraid that; be scared and worried by the fact that
        • vtoSbe afraid that S 懼有伏焉 "he was afraid there was an ambush"
        • vt(oN)changeget scared
        • vt[0][oS.]adVfigurativeI'm afraid???
        • vt(oN)be afraid of the contextually determinate N
        • vt[0][oS.]adV:postN{SUBJ}parenthetic - I'm afraid -
        • nab.post-V{NUM}generalkinds of fear
        • vtoSfear that S
        唯恐   wéi kǒng OC: k-lul khoŋʔ MC: ji khi̯oŋ 12 Attributions
        • VPt[0]+V[0][I] only fear that [I] shall V
        • VPt[0]oS[I] only fear that S; [one] only fears that S
        • VPt+V[0]only fear that one will V
        • VPtoSonly fear that S
        • VPtoNab{S}be all afraid of Nab/that S
           dàn OC: daans MC: dɑn 7 Attributions

        Qiè 怯 "chicken-livered and unlikely to undertake risky tasks" and nuò 懦 (ant. yǒng 勇 "courage, boldness") as well as dàn 憚 "unduly prone to feelings of fear" refer to being pusilanimousness or the lack or courage where courage is required.

        • vt+V[0]be afraid to V, fear to, shrink from V-ing; shy away from V-ing
        • vtoNstativebe unduly afraid of; fear (a person)
        • vtoSfear that S
        • vt+prep+Nfret when faced with, be fearful of
        恐懼   kǒng jù OC: khoŋʔ ɡʷas MC: khi̯oŋ gi̯o 7 Attributions
        • VPichangeget very frightened; show every sign of being frightened
           bù OC: phaas MC: phuo̝ 6 Attributions

        Bù 怖 "be in a current acute state of fear" has no weakened generalised uses.

        • nabpsychbeing frightened; fearfulness; fright
        • vt[oN]be intensely frightened, terrified
        • vtoNbe much afraid about
        怖畏   bù wèi OC: phaas quls MC: phuo̝ ʔɨi 6 Attributions
        • NPabpsychfears of any kind
        • VPadNprone to fear; fearful
        • VPibe afraid
        • VPtoNpassivebe feared
        • VPtoNpsychhave some/any kind of fear of
           jīng OC: kreŋ MC: kɣaŋ 5 Attributions

        Jīng 驚 refers to the sudden onset of fear when someone is faced with an unexpected danger.

        • vadNpassivefrightened
        • vadVas a result of being terrified
        • vt[oN]changebe startled and frightened, terrified; get frightened away (of birds); to panic
        • vtoNfigurativebe, as it were, frightened by the N
           shè OC: kljeb MC: tɕiɛp 4 Attributions
        • vadNfearful; chickenhearted
        • viliji, ed. yishu 1.38a: be confused because of fear; be beside oneself with fear, be scared out of one's wits, lose one's courage
        • vtoNreduce to fearful submission HNZ DCD: 3.威懾;使屈服。《淮南子·氾論訓》:"威動天地,聲懾海內。" 高誘 注:"懾,服也。"
        • vipsychbe chickenhearted
        畏恐   wèi kǒng OC: quls khoŋʔ MC: ʔɨi khi̯oŋ 4 Attributions
        • VPiintensitivefeel fear; be fearful
        • VPtoNintensitivebe intensely fearful of
           jīng OC: kɯŋ MC: kɨŋ 3 Attributions
        • vi.redbe all fretful, careful; be full of fear
           lì OC: b-riɡ MC: lit 3 Attributions

        Lì 栗/慄 and zhàn 戰 is to shiver with intense fear, and the physical expression of fear can be more prominent the inner feeling expressed through shivering.

        • vi.redbe fearful
        • viZZ 6.205: shuddering, (anxious and fearful) (as someone who has climbed a high mountain and is looking down); ZZ 19.670: shuddering and fearful (as someone soaring high and looking down); ZZ 10.379: (worried and) shivering (as a ruler in his reception hall)
        • vtoNbe fearful and worried about
           lǐn OC: b-rɯmʔ MC: lim 3 Attributions
        • vipoetic: show extreme fear
        • vi.redbe poetically overawed and fearful
        • vi.red:-V{SUF}fearfully
        但恐   dàn kǒng OC: daanʔ khoŋʔ MC: dɑn khi̯oŋ 3 Attributions
        • VPt[0]oSmy big fear is that S
        • VPtoShave as one's main fair that S
        恐怖   kǒng bù OC: khoŋʔ phaas MC: khi̯oŋ phuo̝ 3 Attributions
        • NPabfear
        • VPiinchoativebecome very much afraid
        驚怖   jīng bù OC: kreŋ phaas MC: kɣaŋ phuo̝ 3 Attributions
        • NPabpsychastonished fear
        • VPibe terrified
           chù OC: khrlud MC: ʈhʷit 2 Attributions
        • vi-Pbe fearful, be wary
        • vibe alarmed, be anxious
        • vtoSbe concerned that S; feel alarmed that S; be anxious that S
           zhuì OC: tjols MC: tɕiɛ 2 Attributions
        • vibe fearful
        • vt+prep+Nbe scared (of somebody); fear (somebody)
           jiè OC: krɯɯɡs MC: kɣɛi 2 Attributions
        • vtoNbeware (something)
        怵惕   chù tì OC: khrlud lʰeeɡ MC: ʈhʷit thek 2 Attributions
        • NPintense worry and fear ??
        • VPadNfull of intense anxiety
        • VPitransitiveintensely worried and frightened
        恐畏   kǒng wèi OC: khoŋʔ quls MC: khi̯oŋ ʔɨi 2 Attributions
        • VPtoNstativebe very much afraid of
        • VPtoSbe afraid that
           hú OC: ɡooɡ MC: ɦuk 2 Attributions

        húsù

        • vviactshow terrified reactions
           hài MC: hojH OC: -- 2 Attributions
        • vibe frightened
        大駭   dà dài hài MC: dajH heajX OC: daads ɡrɯɯʔ 2 Attributions
        • VPt(oN)intensitivebe terrified by the fact of N
           xiōng OC: qhoŋ MC: hi̯oŋ 1 Attribution
        • nabpsychstate of fear
        • vipsychbe filled with fear (not to be confused with xiōng 凶"inauspicious")
           chōu OC: rlʰiw MC: ʈhɨu 1 Attribution
        • vibe agitated and anxious
           wēi OC: qul MC: ʔɨi 1 Attribution
        • vt(oN)fear GY: 民威矣
        • vtoNcausativeoverawe
           pà OC: phraaɡs MC: phɣɛ 1 Attribution

        NB: Pà 怕 is post-Buddhist (TANG).

        • vadNcharacterized by fear; expressive of fear
        • vichangebecome frightened
        • vtoNstativepost-Han, from Tang times (Han Yu) onwards: be afraid that
        聳 / 悚   sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 1 Attribution

        Sǒng 悚/聳 "be fretful, given to fear; get slightly frightened" refers to mild forms of (possibly superfluous or reprehensible) fear. Sǒng 悚/聳 "be fretful, given to fear; get slightly frightened" refers to mild forms of (possibly superfluous or reprehensible) fear.

        • vibe stunned (with hair standing on end, rigid with fear and/or awe)
           qú OC: gla MC: gi̯ɤ 1 Attribution
        • vt[oN]be full of fear of things (out of shame?)
           nuò OC: nools MC: nʷɑ 1 Attribution

        Qiè 怯 "chicken-livered and unlikely to undertake risky tasks" and nuò 懦 (ant. yǒng 勇 "courage, boldness") as well as dàn 憚 "unduly prone to feelings of fear" refer to being pusilanimousness or the lack or courage where courage is required.

        • vadNfretful and weak, pusillanimous; meak and weak; irresolute
        • vibe fretful and weak, pusillanimous; meak and weak
           huáng OC: ɡʷaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 1 Attribution
        • vibecome agitated and anxious (MENG); have uneasy fears
           cù OC: tshuɡ MC: tshuk 1 Attribution
        • visquirm
           hài OC: ɡrɯɯʔ MC: ɦɣɛi 1 Attribution
        • vibe alarmed; be afraid
        • vtoNstativefear
        • vadNalarmed
        危懼   wēi jù OC: ŋɡrol ɡʷas MC: ŋiɛ gi̯o 1 Attribution
        • VPibe fearful
        怖急   bù jí OC: phaas krɯb MC: phuo̝ kip 1 Attribution
        • VPiresultativebe terrified
        怖怯   bù qiè OC: phaas khab MC: phuo̝ khi̯ɐp 1 Attribution
        • VPibe full of fear
        恐怕   kǒng pà OC: khoŋʔ phraaɡs MC: khi̯oŋ phɣɛ 1 Attribution
        • VPtoSfear that S, be afraid that S
        惕慄   tì lì OC: lʰeeɡ b-riɡ MC: thek lit 1 Attribution
        • VPichangebecome afraird, become frightened
        惶怖   huáng bù OC: ɡʷaaŋ phaas MC: ɦɑŋ phuo̝ 1 Attribution
        • NPabpsychpanic
        戒懼   jiè jù OC: krɯɯɡs ɡʷas MC: kɣɛi gi̯o 1 Attribution
        • VPitransitivebe full of wariness and fear
        • VPtoNintensitivebe full of wariness and fear of
        戰栗   zhàn lì OC: tjans b-riɡ MC: tɕiɛn lit 1 Attribution
        • VPitransitivetremble and fear
        振動   zhèn dòng OC: kljɯns dooŋʔ MC: tɕin duŋ 1 Attribution
        • VPiintensitivebe shivering with fear, be struck with fear
        • VPtoNfigurativestrike fear into
        汲汲   jí jí OC: krɯb krɯb MC: kip kip 1 Attribution
        • VPibe all anxious
        熱惱   rè nǎo OC: ŋjed nuuʔ MC: ȵiɛt nɑu 1 Attribution
        • VPimiddle voicesuffer extreme anxieties
        畏懼   wèi jù OC: quls ɡʷas MC: ʔɨi gi̯o 1 Attribution
        • VPibe in a state of fear
        • VPt(oN)be very much afraid of a contextually determinate person
        • VPtoNbe afraid of
        遑怖   huáng bù OC: ɡʷaaŋ phaas MC: ɦɑŋ phuo̝ 1 Attribution
        • VPipsychpanic
        驚懼   jīng jù OC: kreŋ ɡʷas MC: kɣaŋ gi̯o 1 Attribution
        • VPichangebecome terrified
           yōu OC: qu MC: ʔɨu 1 Attribution
        • vt+prep+Nbe fearful of, fret about
        恐駭   kǒng hài MC: khjowngX heajX OC: khoŋʔ ɡrɯɯʔ 1 Attribution
        • VPt(oN)intensitiveget very frightened
        懾畏   shè wèi MC: tsyep 'jw+jH OC: kljeb quls 1 Attribution
        • VPibe fretful; be fearful
           chán OC: dzreen MC: ɖʐɣɛn 0 Attributions
        • vibe timid (DDLIJI)
           jì OC: ɡɯs MC: gɨ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNfear (as something tabooo or to be avoided)
           qiè OC: khab MC: khi̯ɐp 0 Attributions

        Qiè 怯 "chicken-livered and unlikely to undertake risky tasks" and nuò 懦 (ant. yǒng 勇 "courage, boldness") as well as dàn 憚 "unduly prone to feelings of fear" refer to being pusilanimousness or the lack or courage where courage is required.

        • vtoNbe fretful in relation to/on the occasion of
           xún OC: sqʷlin MC: sʷin 0 Attributions
        • vi.redrare and poetic: be all fearful; be reticent
        竦 / 悚   sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 0 Attributions
        • vito fret; German: entsetzt, erschrocken
           sǒng OC: soŋʔ MC: si̯oŋ 0 Attributions

        Sǒng 悚/聳 "be fretful, given to fear; get slightly frightened" refers to mild forms of (possibly superfluous or reprehensible) fear.

        • vt[oN]stativefret, be frightened
        • vtoNbe afraid of, be afraid that
           qiǎo OC: smʰewʔ MC: tshiɛu 0 Attributions
        • virare and poetic [see SAD][CA]
           jì OC: ɡɯs MC: gɨ 0 Attributions
        • vtoNbe afraid of
           dào OC: deewɡs MC: dɑu 0 Attributions
        • vibe fearful
           tì OC: lʰeeɡ MC: thek 0 Attributions
        • vibe wary of out of respect for someone
           jì OC: ɡʷids MC: gi 0 Attributions

        Jì 悸 refers to symptoms of violent heart-beat caused by intense fear.

        • vt[oN]throb with fear
           huáng OC: ɡʷaaŋ MC: ɦɑŋ 0 Attributions
        • vito panic, to be beside oneself with fear
           nǎn OC: mɢraanʔ MC: ɳɣan 0 Attributions
        • virare and poetic: be fearful
           zhàn OC: tjans MC: tɕiɛn 0 Attributions

        Lì 栗/慄 and zhàn 戰 is to shiver with intense fear, and the physical expression of fear can be more prominent the inner feeling expressed through shivering.

        • vishiver with fear
        • vtoNfear intensely
           lì OC: b-riɡ MC: lit 0 Attributions

        Lì 栗/慄 and zhàn 戰 is to shiver with intense fear, and the physical expression of fear can be more prominent the inner feeling expressed through shivering.

        • vifear; tremble with fear
        • vtoNstativefear
           jù OC: kʷas MC: ki̯o 0 Attributions
        • vibe frightened; startled
           rěn OC: njɯmʔ MC: ȵim 0 Attributions
        • viLY: weak and fearful, cowardly
           xǐ OC: snɯʔ MC: sɨ 0 Attributions
        • vishow chicken-livered weakness; be unduly timid
           yú OC: ŋʷa MC: ŋi̯o 0 Attributions
        • vtoNbe afraid of; be fearful about
        • vadNapprehensive
           xǐ OC: snɯʔ MC: sɨ 0 Attributions
        • vibe fearful, be fretful
           zhé OC: tjob MC: tɕiɛp 0 Attributions
        • vibe terrified[That word is late (HANSHU) and refers to missing one's courage][CA]
        兇懼   xiōng jù OC: qhoŋ ɡʷas MC: hi̯oŋ gi̯o 0 Attributions
        • VPiintensitivebe panic-stricken
        怯懾   qiè shè OC: khab kljeb MC: khi̯ɐp tɕiɛp 0 Attributions
        • VPadNchicen-livered
        • VPibe fretful
        悚懼   sǒng jù OC: soŋʔ ɡʷas MC: si̯oŋ gi̯o 0 Attributions
        • VPiintensitivebe full of fear
        惶懼   huáng jù OC: ɡʷaaŋ ɡʷas MC: ɦɑŋ gi̯o 0 Attributions
        • VPt(oN)be scared still (by a situation N which is contextually determinate)
        憂懼   yōu jù OC: qu ɡʷas MC: ʔɨu gi̯o 0 Attributions
        • NPabpsychworries and fears
        懰慄   liú lì OC: b-ru b-riɡ MC: lɨu lit 0 Attributions
        • VPitransitivebe trembling with fear
        懷怖   huái bù OC: ɡruul phaas MC: ɦɣɛi phuo̝ 0 Attributions
        • VPt(oN)be afraid of the contextually determinate thing
        戰竦   zhàn sǒng OC: tjans soŋʔ MC: tɕiɛn si̯oŋ 0 Attributions
        • VPicontinuousbe shivering with fear; shivering with fear
        聳懼   sǒng jù OC: soŋʔ ɡʷas MC: si̯oŋ gi̯o 0 Attributions
        • VPichangebe full of fear
           hán OC: ɡaan MC: ɦɑn 0 Attributions
        • viget scared; tremble with fear
            MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
        • VPt(oN)intensitiveget very frightened
        懾畏   shè wèi MC: tsyep 'jw+jH OC: kljeb quls 0 Attributions
        • VPibe fearful
        驚恐   jīng kǒng MC: kjaeng khjowngX OC: kreŋ khoŋʔ 0 Attributions
        • VPibe terrified

        Existing SW for

        Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: