ANGER  憤怒

SUDDEN BAD FEELING (AND OFTEN the SHOWING of this FEELING) by feeler HUMAN X towards CREATURE Y IN-RELATION-TO an ACTION by Y which X HATES.See ANGUISH which is often hard to distinguish.
ANGRYIRATEMADANNOYEDCROSSVEXEDIRRITATEDINDIGNANTIRKEDFURIOUSENRAGEDINFURIATEDIN A TEMPERINCENSEDRAGINGFUMINGSEETHINGBESIDE ONESELFCHOLERICOUTRAGEDLIVIDAPOPLECTIC
Taxonoymy

HATE

Antonymy

DELIGHTFORGIVE

See also

ANGUISH

Kind Of

FEELING

Old Chinese Criteria

[IMPERSONAL/PERSONAL]

[INTENSE/WEAK]

[COVERT/OVERT]

[LASTING/TRANSITORY]

See also ANGUISH

1. Nù 怒 (ant. xǐ 喜 "be delighted") is the general word for anger, and the word tends to imply overt manifestation of feelings of anger, typically in terms of altered breathing patterns. (cf. nù 怒 "to puff oneself up")

[OVERT], [PERSONAL]

2. Fèn 忿 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel not the slightest anger but on the contrary feel pleased") refers to momentary and intense anger, and it does not typically focus on an show of emotion. There is a difference of degree between nù 怒 "show (often great) anger ( 怒甚, 大怒 ) and fèn 忿 "be momentarily angry" (there is no dà fèn 大忿, fèn shèn 忿甚 ). Nù 怒 forms vtS, whereas fèn 忿 does not have that function.

[INTENSE], [MOMENTARY], [PERSONAL]

3. Yùn 慍 (ant. yì 懌 "feel perfectly pleased with something") is lingering indignation which may or may not be overt. See ANGUISH

[IMPERSONAL], [LASTING], [OVERT]

4. Fèn 憤 "pent-up anguish" is intense dissatisfaction and anguish rather than an angry attitude directed against any person. See ANGUISH

[COVERT], [IMPERSONAL], [LASTING]

5. Huì 恚 is a general word for anger that is remarkably frequent in collocation with near-synonyms.

Modern Chinese Criteria

生氣

動火

動肝火

惱火

冒火

光火

發火

上火

掛火

動怒

發怒

動氣

掛氣

攛 (coll?) fly into a rage.

發毛

發狠

犯小性兒

紅臉

眼紅

紅眼

變色

作色

發作 flare up (in anger)

發脾氣

鬧脾氣

使性子 (coll)

耍態度 (coll) lose one's temper.

心頭火起

無明火起

怒形於色

疾言厲色

直眉瞪眼

橫眉豎眼

七竅生煙

慎然作色

臉紅脖子粗

揎袖捋臂

拂袖而去

大怒

震怒

盛怒

怒火中燒

火冒三丈

赫然而怒

怒不可遏

勃然大怒

大發雷霆

暴跳如雷

怒氣衝天

怒氣衝衝

令人髮指

怒髮衝冠

氣沖牛斗

義憤填膺

悲憤墳膺

人神共憤

天怒人怨

洩恨

洩憤

出氣

撒氣

遷怒

憤怒

惱怒

含怒

氣惱

氣憤

義憤

激憤

憤激

憤慨

憤然

憤憤

悻悻 refers to angry resentment.

艴然

怒沖沖

氣沖沖

氣乎乎

氣囊囊

氣鼓鼓

氣憤憤/其忿忿

惱羞成怒

怒氣沖沖

怒氣攻心

first rough draft to identify synonym group members for future analysis 18.11.2003. CH/

APRESJAN 1980 Anglo-russkij sinonimicheskij slovar' 34

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 175

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.42

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 16.43

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 80

FURIOSUS, FURENS, IRATUS

212. Iratus... Ex interpretibus Terentii, act. I, scen. 1, And., et act. III, scen. 1, Hecyrae.

]

212. Inter Furiosum, furentem [Al., furientem] et iratum. Furiosus est corde, furens [ Al., furiens] causa, iratus merito.

92

IRA, IRACUNDIA

301. Terentii interpretes, act. IV, scen. 6, Heauton.: Ira de causa est, iracundia de vitio multum irascentis. Distinguit etiam Cicero, IV Tusc.; et Fronto: Iratus ex offensa est, iracundus natura.

Ibid. Verba Scripturae fortasse sunt ex Proverb. XV, 18, ubi Vulgata: Vir iracundus provocat rixas; et cap. XXVI, 21: Vir iracundus suscitat rixas. Barthius prope hunc locum indicat differentiam inter jacturam et damnum, quae littera D jam exposita fuit. [AREV.]

]

301. Inter Iram et iracundiam. Ira praesens est, et ex causa nascitur; iracundia autem vitium naturale [col. 41C] et perpetuum est. Item iratus pro tempore concitatur; iracundus autem frequenter [ Al., frequens] irascitur, et ad levem sermonis auram, quasi a vento folium, commovetur. De talibus dicit Scriptura: Vir iracundus inhonestus est. Et iterum: Iracundus effodit peccata.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

ANGER

aegre ferre refers to silent anger.

irasci refers to a loud displeasure.

ira refers to a passion inasmuch as it thirsts after vengeance, it is a desire for revenge.

indignatio refers to an awakened or excited moral feeling of indignation insofar as this expresses with energy its disapprobation or contempt.

stomachatio refers to a fit of passion of a person of choleric temperament.

iracundia refers to a natural inclination to anger, hastiness of temper, snappishness.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 28

Provides documented contrastive analyses of fifteen Homeric words in the semantic field of anger.

LAFAYE 1884 Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue francaise. Avec une introduction sur la theorie des synonymes.

colère, courroux, emportement

Splendid analysis of the French synonym repertoire which constrasts usefully with the English repertoire.

LAFAYE 1884 Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue francaise. Avec une introduction sur la theorie des synonymes. 443

COLERE, EMPORTEMENT, COURROUX, DEPIT, IRE, BILE

NB: Lafaye provides no adjective for "angry".

1. "Colere" refers to the subjective state of anger as such.

2. "Emportement" refers to the external manifestation of anger.

3. "Courroux" is an elevated term referring to anger in an elevated being or even a god.

4. "Depit" refers to slight temporary ill-tempered anger typically on the part of someone who feels not sufficiently respected.

5. "Ire" is very old-fashioned for "courroux"

6. "Bile" sometimes refers to anger by synecdoche, but mostly in colloquial contexts.

One might add "irritation" as a mild form of anger, as does GENOUVRIER 1992

LAFAYE 1884 Dictionnaire des synonymes de la langue francaise. Avec une introduction sur la theorie des synonymes. 821

OUTRE, INDIGNE

These words refer to a specific kind of transitory anger directed against someone's behaviour.

"Indingation" can be directed against behaviour that does not directly affect one, whereas "outrage" is only natural against an act that directly or indirectly affects one.

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

FUROR

IRA/IRACUNDIA

Mel'cuk 1984 Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian 248ff

L.N. Jordanskaja writes under the entry gnevat'sja in Mel'cuk, Igor A. and ZholkovskijAlexander K., <I>Tolkovo-kombinatornyj slovar' sovremmenogo russkogo jazyka. Explanatory Combinatorial Dictionary of Modern Russian</I> (Wien: Wiener Slawistischer Almanach, 1984) p. 252

1. Constellation:

X is angry with Y for Z.

2. Definition:

X is in an actively negative emotional state which is caused by the fact that X is convinced of the realisation by Y of actions (connected with) Z which are undesirable for X and concerning which X considers that they contravene basic ethical principles; and X desires to express the fact that these actions are undesirable for him and undertake hostile actions in relation to the actions of Y; and this psychological state is such as would be normal in the situation indicated.

Mel'cuk I Dictionnaire explicatif et combinatoire du francais contemporain, vol. I 77

COLERE

Anger of the feeler X against the offender Y caused by offense Z.

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik

REY 2005 Dictionnaire culturel en langue francaise 1.1648

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1382

ZORN

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 12.1390

ZORN GOTTES

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 123

SNELL 1955 Lexikon des fruehgriechischen Epos

The relevant entries for Greek words for anger constitute the most detailed investigation into the precise nuances of the words in Homer.

WU SANXING 2008 中國文化背景八千詞 Zhongguo wenhua beijing ba qian ci 230ff

HSU 2010 Pulse Diagnosis in Early Chinese Medicine 398

WEBER 1857 Democritus Ridens 5.24

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.164.123

COLERE.COURROUX.EMPORTEMENT

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 50B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • nab : 27
  • vtoN : 27
  • vt(oN) : 25
  • VPi : 25
  • vt[oN] : 17
  • NPab : 9
  • vt+prep+N : 8
  • VPadV : 8
  • VPadV : 7
  • vadV : 4
  • vadN : 4
  • vi : 4
  • nab.post-N : 3
  • n : 3
  • VPt(oN) : 2
  • VPtoN : 2
  • vt+prep+NPab{S} : 1
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 1
  • NPadN : 1
  • VPadN : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 23
  • 春秋左傳 : 23
  • 論衡 : 19
  • 百喻經 : 18
  • 說苑 : 15
  • 賢愚經 : 9
  • 荀子 : 6
  • 戰國策 : 6
  • 孟子 : 6
  • 呂氏春秋 : 5
  • 論語 : 4
  • 淮南子 : 4
  • 妙法蓮華經 : 4
  • 韓詩外傳 : 4
  • 祖堂集 : 4
  • 法句經 : 4
  • 列子 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 史記 : 3
  • 類說 : 2
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 2
  • 管子 : 2
  • 毛詩 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 尚書 : 2
  • 記纂淵海 : 1
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 禮記 : 1

Words

   nù OC: naas MC: nuo̝ 73 Attributions

Nù 怒 (ant. xǐ 喜 "be delighted") is the general word for anger, and the word tends to imply overt manifestation of feelings of anger, typically in terms of altered breathing patterns. (cf. nù 怒 "to puff oneself up") [OVERT], [PERSONAL]

  • nab.post-Nthe anger of N; (e.g. the wrath of Heaven)
  • nabpsychanger
  • vadNangry
  • viactBY DOUBLE TAKE ONLY: act as if one is angry; act so as suggest anger, show gestural expression corresponding to anger
  • vt(oN)fly into a rage, get angry at a contextually determinate N
  • vt(oN)changeget angry at the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]feel and show anger; sometimes: feel anger
  • vt+prep+Nget angry at; show anger at
  • vt+prep+NPab{S}be angry about S
  • vtoNshow intense or irritating anger towards a contextually determinate person
  • vtoNcausativearouse the anger of, to anger; make (someone) angry; provoke; enrage
  • vtoNpsychbe agry at
  • vtoNpsychbe angry at oneself
  • vtoNPab{S}be angry that
  • vadVangrily
瞋恚   chēn huì OC: thjin qʷes MC: tɕhin ʔiɛ 14 Attributions
  • NPabanger
  • VPadVangrily
  • VPiactfly into a rage 大瞋恚; fly into rages
   huì OC: qʷes MC: ʔiɛ 13 Attributions

Huì 恚 is a general word for anger that is remarkably frequent in collocation with near-synonyms.

  • nabpsychthe feeling of anger
  • vadNangry
  • vadVangrily?
  • vt[oN]fly into a rage, be prone to flying into a rage against others
  • vtoNcausativecause somebody to be angry; arouse someone's anger
  • vtoNstativebe angry at (a person)
忿   fèn OC: phɯns MC: phi̯un 8 Attributions

Fèn 忿 (ant. yuè 說/悅 "feel not the slightest anger but on the contrary feel pleased") refers to momentary and intense anger, and it does not typically focus on an show of emotion. There is a difference of degree between nù 怒 "show (often great) anger (怒甚, 大怒) and fèn 忿 "be momentarily angry" (there is no dà fèn 大忿, fèn shèn 忿甚). Nù 怒 forms vtS, whereas fèn 忿 does not have that function. [INTENSE], [MOMENTARY], [PERSONAL]

  • nabpsychfit of anger; small fits of anger, momentary fit of anger
  • vadNmomentarily angry
  • vt[oN]suffer a transient fit of uncontrollable anger, get momentarily angry and show one's hot temper at a given point of time, lose one's temper, fly into a rage
  • vtoNcausativemake angry, cause to be angry, to anger SHIJI, Chen She
   yùn OC: quns MC: ʔi̯un 8 Attributions

Yùn 慍 (ant. yì 懌 "feel perfectly pleased with something") is mild lingering indignation which may or may not be overt. See ANGUISH

  • vt(oN)feel resentful towards the contextually determinate N
  • vt[oN]display a (sometimes moderate) degree of dissatisfaction, distress, and anger [against someone or something]
  • vt+prep+Nbear a grudge against; be inwardly resentful of
  • vt+prep+Npassivebe angrily resented
   huàn OC: ɢroons MC: ɦɣan 5 Attributions
  • vtoNpsychbe irritated at, be annoyed at; get annoyed at
  • nabpsychanguish
   nǎo OC: nuuʔ MC: nɑu 4 Attributions
  • nobjectwhat one is angry at > annoyance, vexation
  • vtoNstativeget annoyed at
   chēn OC: thjin MC: tɕhin 4 Attributions
  • nabactanger, rage (see 嗔)
  • vadNangry
  • vt[oN]flare up in anger
  • vtoNstativebe angry at
作色   zuò sè sè shǎi  MC: tsuH srik  OC: tsaaɡ sqrɯɡ  4 Attributions
  • VPireactshow anger on one's face
   chēn OC: thjin MC: tɕhin 3 Attributions
  • nabpsychBUDDH: ?? excessive anger
  • vipsychBUDDH: ?? be angry, be full of rage
  • vt(oN)changeBUDDH: ?? become angry
大怒   dà nù OC: daads naas MC: dɑi nuo̝ 3 Attributions
  • VPieventfly into a great rage
  • VPadVin a great rage
怒以   nù yǐ OC: naas k-lɯʔ MC: nuo̝ jɨ 3 Attributions
  • VPadVangrily; because of anger; with anger, as an expression of anger
恚恨   huì hèn OC: qʷes ɡɯɯns MC: ʔiɛ ɦən 3 Attributions
  • NPab{N1=N2}psychall sorts of rancour; all kinds of angry resentment
  • VPichangebecome angrily resentful
   fú OC: bɯd MC: bi̯ut 2 Attributions
  • vichangeget very angry indeed
喜瞋   xǐ chēn OC: qhɯʔ thjin MC: hɨ tɕhin 2 Attributions
  • VPadNgiven to anger
  • VPiirate, given to anger
忿戾   fèn lì OC: phɯns rɯɯds MC: phi̯un lei 2 Attributions
  • VPibe ill-tempered
恚怒   huì nù OC: qʷes naas MC: ʔiɛ nuo̝ 2 Attributions
  • VPichangefly into a rage
恨恚   hèn huì OC: ɡɯɯns qʷes MC: ɦən ʔiɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPabpsychfierce hateful anger
  • VPiprocessbecome filled with fierce anger
慍恚   yùn huì OC: quns qʷes MC: ʔi̯un ʔiɛ 2 Attributions
  • VPiintensitivebe full of resentment or anger
   lún OC: ɡ-run MC: lʷin 1 Attribution
  • vtoNpsychbe dissatisfied with
   kài OC: khɯɯds MC: khɑi 1 Attribution
  • vtoNfeel angry about
   duì OC: ɡrlubs MC: ɖi 1 Attribution
  • nabpsychresentful bitterness
  • vt[oN]feel long-term resentment
  • vtoNfeel anger against
   qí OC: dziil MC: dzei 1 Attribution
  • vibe angry
心惱   xīn nǎo OC: slɯm nuuʔ MC: sim nɑu 1 Attribution
  • VPichangeget annoyed
忿怒   fèn nù OC: phɯns naas MC: phi̯un nuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsych(any kind of) momentary anger
忿恚   fèn huì OC: phɯns qʷes MC: phi̯un ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNcausativecause someone to fly into a rage
忿然   fèn rán OC: phɯns njen MC: phi̯un ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPadVangrily, in an upset way
  • VPifeel intensely angry, be intensely angry inwardly
怨恚   yuàn huì OC: qons qʷes MC: ʔi̯ɐn ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNstativebeangry at (a person)
怒恚   nù huì OC: naas qʷes MC: nuo̝ ʔiɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPabnonreferentialbouts of anger
怫然   fú rán OC: bɯd njen MC: bi̯ut ȵiɛn 1 Attribution
  • VPidescriptive phrase of anger
  • VPadVfuriously
恚害   huì hài OC: qʷes ɡaads MC: ʔiɛ ɦɑi 1 Attribution
  • NPadNcharacterised by anger and a desire to harm
慍怒   yùn nù OC: quns naas MC: ʔi̯un nuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)be very angry at the contextually determinate thing
懷怒   huái nù OC: ɡruul naas MC: ɦɣɛi nuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPt(oN)harbour anger, feel anger towards a contextually determinate person
瞋忿   chēn fèn OC: thjin phɯns MC: tɕhin phi̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPabactanger, rage
  • VPishow angry looks
赫斯   hè sī OC: qhraaɡ sqe MC: hɣɛk siɛ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVintensitiveangrily; fiercely
震怒   zhèn nù OC: kljɯns naas MC: tɕin nuo̝ 1 Attribution
  • VPichangeget very angry
怒目   nù mù MC: nuH mjuwk OC: naas muɡ 1 Attribution
  • VPadVwith angry looks
忿激   fèn jiào  MC: phjunH kewH  OC: phɯns kleewɡs  1 Attribution
  • VPipsychologicalbe consumed and overexcited by anger
顏色   yán sè sè shǎi  MC: -- srik  OC: -- sqrɯɡ  1 Attribution
  • NPabfeatureanger shown on a ruler's facial expression
忿然不悅   fèn rán bù  MC: phjunH nyen pjut -- OC: phɯns njen pɯʔ -- 1 Attribution
  • VPibe outraged
暴怒   bào nù MC: bawH nuH OC: boowɡs naas 1 Attribution
  • NPabragel violent anger
   yàng OC: qaŋs MC: ʔi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vt[oN]feel outraged and dissatisfied; be disgruntled
   fèn OC: bɯnʔ MC: bi̯un 0 Attributions

Fèn 憤 "pent-up anguish" is intense dissatisfaction and anguish rather than an angry attitude directed against any person. See ANGUISH [COVERT], [IMPERSONAL], [LASTING]

  • nabpsychpent-up anger
   mèn OC: mbuuns MC: muo̝n 0 Attributions
  • vibe angry
  • nabpsychanger
   zhì OC: tiɡs MC: ʈi 0 Attributions
  • virare, daxue: show temporary anger
   zhì OC: tids MC: ʈi 0 Attributions
  • viangry
望 / 望   wàng OC: maŋs MC: mi̯ɐŋ (wáng) OC: maŋ MC: mi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions
  • vt[oN]show resentment
   chù OC: thjoɡ MC: tɕhi̯ok 0 Attributions
  • nabpsychgreat anger
   jì OC: dziils MC: dzei 0 Attributions
  • vt(oN)psychshow anger at a contextually determinate person
勃然   bó rán OC: bɯɯd njen MC: buot ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
  • VPadVwith a sudden burst of anger
嗔惡   chēn wù OC: thjin qaaɡs MC: tɕhin ʔuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNangry and hateful
   huì OC: qʷes MC: ʔiɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPadNcharacterised by anger
懟怨   duì yuàn OC: ɡrlubs qons MC: ɖi ʔi̯ɐn 0 Attributions
  • VPiintensitiveget very angry
激怒   jī nù OC: kleeɡ naas MC: kek nuo̝ 0 Attributions
  • VPtoNcausativearouse anger in
發忿   fā fèn OC: pod phɯns MC: pi̯ɐt phi̯un 0 Attributions
  • VPt(oN)vent one's anger
齌怒   jì nù OC: dziils naas MC: dzei nuo̝ 0 Attributions
    悻悻然   xìng xìng rán OC: ɢeeŋʔ ɢeeŋʔ njen MC: ɦeŋ ɦeŋ ȵiɛn 0 Attributions
    • vishow anger [MENG]
       qì OC: khɯds MC: khɨi 0 Attributions
    • nabpsychaggressive dynamic fury
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPireactshow anger on one's face
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • NPabfeatureanger shown on a ruler's facial expression

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: