RULER  君主

HUMAN GOVERNS a GROUP OR a TERRITORY.[[HERRSCHER]]
LEADERSOVEREIGNMONARCHPOTENTATEKINGQUEENEMPEROREMPRESSPRINCEPRINCESSCROWNED HEADHEAD OF STATEPRESIDENTPREMIERGOVERNOROVERLORDCHIEFCHIEFTAINLORDDICTATORAUTOCRAT
Taxonoymy

KINGEMPERORTYRANT

Antonymy

SLAVE

Kind Of

HUMAN

Old Chinese Criteria

1. The current general word for a person in charge of or senior to others are zhǔ 主 (ant. pú 僕 "servant").

2. Jūn 君 (ant. chén 臣 "minister") refers specifically to someone who is politically or administratively in charge of others as a ruler.

3. Wáng 王 (contrast bà 霸 "hegemon basing his role on power rather than moral authority") refers specifically to someone who is enfeoffed as a formal ruler of what counts as a state in ancient China.

4. Gōng 公 has many related meaning, but when following after the name of a state the word refers specifically to the ruler of an enfeoffed kingdom under the Son of Heaven who belongs to the royal lineage. After personal names, or used absolutely, the word may generally refer to to rulers of any rank and might be fastidiously translated as "his lordship".

5. Hóu 侯 refers specifically to someone who is enfeoffed with a kingdom (or by Han times a minor administrative area) by the Son of Heaven as a hereditary feudal lord.

6. Bà 霸 (contr. wáng 王 "regular king"), sometimes also written 伯 refers to a person who is in actual control of an area and specifically to one who acts as the leader of the feudal lords, and the term is sometimes used pejoratively for a "tyrant" caring for his own interests rather than those of his subordinates.

7. Lìng 令 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a xiàn 縣 by order of a king.

8. Shǒu 守 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a jùn 郡 by order of the emperor.

9. Mù 牧 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a zhōu 州 by order of the emperor in Eastern Han times.

10. Shàng 上 can refer to any governing authority or ruler, but by Han times the word became a standard polite way of referring to the Han emperor.

11. Chán-yú 單于 refers specifically to the ruler of the Xiōngnú 匈奴. Cf. the Tang term kēhān 可汗 "Khan".

12. Háo 豪 refers to a person of power but without formally recognised bureaucratic status.

13. Kuí 魁 refers to a powerful popular leader unrecognised by government.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006

GOVERNMENT/LAW 5.

牧,地方州之長,始於漢。

守,地方郡之長,自秦實行郡縣制始。

刺史,本為中央派往地方的監察官,歷代與州牧相互更置,或並置;元代後漸為知府、知州代替。

Modern Chinese Criteria

君主

人主

人君

當今

今上

聖上

聖君

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

APRESJAN 2004 Novyj objasnitel'nyj Slovar' Sinonimov Russkogo Jazyka 111

CORBET 1981 Koenig, Anfuehrer, Herr; Monarch, Tyrann Untersuchungen ausgewählter altgriechischer sozialer Typenbegriffe Soziale Typenbegriffe im alten Griechenland und ihr Fortleben in den Sprachen der Welt

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

LEADER

primores refers to the most eminent persons in a state as a class of the most influential and respectable citizens, especially insofar as they are so by their connections, birth, power etc.

principes refers to the leading personalities insofar as they have raised themselves by their intellect, talent etc.

proceres refers to the most eminent persons as naturally belonging to this class from birth.

optimates refers generally to the aristocracy.

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 136B

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 1.726-771

KOSELLECK 1972-97 Geschichtliche Grundbegriffe 3.1-102

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

PRINCEPS

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 105

LUNHENG TONGYI 2004 論衡同義詞研究 85

203

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 3.1084

HERRSCHAFT

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

HEGEMON

PAULY 1894-1973 Realencyklopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft 3.55

BASILEUS

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.117

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.167

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.117

T.W.HARBSMEIER 2004 A New Dictionary of Classical Greek Synonyms NO.168

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 136B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • NP : 324
  • NP{vadN} : 215
  • n : 161
  • NP{N1adN2} : 136
  • npost-N{PLACE} : 53
  • n(post-N) : 53
  • vi : 42
  • ncc : 41
  • NPadN : 40
  • NP[post-N] : 35
  • NP{N1=N2} : 30
  • n[post-N] : 29
  • NPab : 26
  • vtoN : 22
  • nt : 20
  • npost-N : 14
  • NP{PRED} : 14
  • VPi : 13
  • NP{vtoN.adnpro} : 12
  • NPab : 11
  • npostNpr : 11
  • npostNpr.post-N{PLACE} : 11
  • NP{PadN} : 10
  • npost=Npr : 9
  • nadN : 9
  • nab : 9
  • NP[adN] : 7
  • NP=Npr : 6
  • vadN : 6
  • NP(post-N) : 5
  • npost-N{PLACE}.+Npr : 5
  • n(post=Npr) : 4
  • VP[adN] : 3
  • nadNab : 3
  • NPpr : 3
  • NPpost-N{PLACE} : 3
  • NP[post-npro1] : 2
  • n{PRED} : 2
  • vt(oN) : 2
  • : 2
  • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)} : 2
  • nadV : 1
  • vt[oN] : 1
  • npost-V : 1
  • NPpost-N : 1
  • npost-npro.+Npr : 1
  • VPi0 : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • NPc : 1

Attributions by text

  • 韓非子 : 441
  • 管子 : 161
  • 春秋左傳 : 133
  • 說苑 : 118
  • 孟子 : 70
  • 論語 : 61
  • 荀子 : 39
  • 呂氏春秋 : 37
  • 史記 : 37
  • 禮記 : 34
  • 孝經 : 30
  • 戰國策 : 28
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 27
  • 莊子 : 23
  • 論衡 : 20
  • 淮南子 : 20
  • 尚書 : 19
  • 毛詩 : 18
  • 韓詩外傳 : 17
  • 墨子 : 11
  • 類說 : 9
  • 晏子春秋 : 9
  • 鹽鐵論 : 8
  • 列子 : 8
  • 楚辭 : 7
  • 阮籍集四卷 : 6
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 新論-漢-桓譚 : 3
  • 景德傳燈錄 : 2
  • 劉義慶世說新語 : 2
  • 長短經 : 2
  • 孫子 : 1
  • 百喻經 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 法言 : 1
  • 鶡冠子 : 1
  • 國語 : 1
  • 六祖壇經 : 1
  • 文子 : 1

Words

   jūn OC: klun MC: ki̯un 163 Attributions

Jūn 君 (ant. chén 臣 "minister") refers specifically to someone who is politically or administratively in charge of others as a ruler.

  • n(post-N)the contextually determinate N's ruler
  • n[post-N][one's] ruler; [one's own] ruler
  • ndeadour deceased ruler
  • nnonreferentialthe ruler as being primarily administratively in charge of people
  • npost-npro.+Npr其君隱公 [can 主 be used this way? If not, should we not establish this as a lexicalised feature of 君?
  • npost=NprNpr=placeruler of Npr
  • ntdefinitethe ruler (of a state)
  • ntindefinite人君 a ruler
  • viactact to deserve the name of a ruler, behave as a ruler should; fulfill the role of a ruler
  • vtoNcausativecause to be a ruler
  • n{PRED}potentialbe a potential ruler
  • nabconceptrulerhood, role of a ruler
  • vt(oN)serve as ruler over the contextually determinate N
  • n[post-N1.]adN2our ruler's N2
  • npost-NN's ruler
  • n{PRED}be a ruler
  • nadNruler's; belonging to the ruler
  • nabsocialrulership, leadership
  • vt(oN)attitudinaltreat as a ruler
明主   míng zhǔ OC: mraŋ tjoʔ MC: mɣaŋ tɕi̯o 126 Attributions
  • NP{PRED}be an enlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}indefinitean enlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialthe enlightened ruler; an enlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}pluralthe enlightened rulers (of antiquity) 當世明主
  • NPadNcharacteristic of the enlightened ruler
人主   rén zhǔ OC: njin tjoʔ MC: ȵin tɕi̯o 112 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}nonreferentiala ruler of men in general
  • NP{N1adN2}pluralthe rulers (of a certain time)
  • NP{PRED}be a (proper) ruler of men
  • NP(post-N)definitethe ruler in question; our ruler of men
  • NPindefinitethe ruler of men, a ruler of men (in a hypothetical case, non-referential)
  • NPadNNP=nonreferentialthe ruler's [I just enter this late to document that the compound can be used adnominally. The reason I do this is because the object function SEEMS to be rare and should also be recorded as NPpostVt.)
霸 / 霸伯   bà OC: praaɡs MC: pɣɛ  OC:  MC:  94 Attributions

Bà 霸 (contr. wáng 王 "regular king") refers to a person who is in actual control of an area and specifically to one who acts as the leader of the feudal lords. Bà 霸 (contr. wáng 王 "regular king") refers to a person who is in actual control of an area and specifically to one who acts as the leader of the feudal lords.

  • nccleader; paramount leader, hegemon 五霸
  • vtoNchangeget to dominate as hegemon, gain the ascendancy over
  • viactassert oneself as hegemon; become leader, preeminent ruler, or hegemon; come to act as leading person; become the leading state
  • nabactacting as a hegemon; being a hegemon; hegemony
  • vadNleading, paramount 霸王
  • nabprocessbecoming a hegemon
  • vtoNcausativeto make (somebody) become a hegemon
  • vtoNinchoativebecome a hegemon over
  • nadNalways 霸: characteristic of a hegemon 霸道
  • npost-N{PLACE}ruler of the place N
  • vichange(of a state:) become the dominant state
  • npost-N{PLACE}.+Nprruler of place N named Npr
  • npost-NOBI: leader of N
  • vt[oN]become the supreme leader dominating others
諸侯   zhū hóu OC: klja ɡoo MC: tɕi̯ɤ ɦu 94 Attributions
  • NP{PadN}pluralthe (often: other) feudal lords
  • NP{PRED}singularbe a feudal lord
  • NP=Nprtitlefeudal lord Npr
  • NPindefinite(generalising, non-referential) a feudal lord [I include all examples that I feel deserve consideration in this connection. Many are questionable, but all can throw light on the problem of the plural/singular an definite/indefinite problem. These attributions are all being reworked.CH]
  • NPnonreferentialthe feudal lords
  • NPsingulara feudal lord; occasionally also count noun: feudal lord, as in SHIJI: 漢王部五諸侯兵 "the king of Han lead the armed forces of five feudal lords"
  • NPadNof the feudal lord type; belonging to the feudal lords
  • NPcfeudal lord 五諸侯
   zhǔ OC: tjoʔ MC: tɕi̯o 80 Attributions

The current general word for a person in charge of others are zhǔ 主 (ant. pú 僕 "servant").

  • nnonreferentialthe ruler
  • nabfigurativeruling principle
  • nccruler; host; lord/ruler, owner (as being primarily in charge of territories and/or things)
  • npost-N{PLACE}周主
  • npostNpr.post-N{PLACE}趙襄主
  • npostNpr襄主
  • n(post-N)the person in charge (of the contextually determinate N), sometimes used in transferred even more abstract sense: ruling agency, dominant force.
  • npost-Nfigurative"ruler" of the Ns
  • npost-Vindefiniteabstract: a ruler who V-s (with no implied state he is taken to be the ruler of)
  • nadNabnonreferentialthe ruler's
  • n(post-N)ruler of the contextually determinate N
  • n[post-N]the ruler of the lexically determinate main subject of the phrase
   hóu OC: ɡoo MC: ɦu 79 Attributions

Hóu 侯 refers specifically to someone who is enfeoffed with a kingdom (or by Han times a minor administrative area) by the Son of Heaven as a hereditary feudal lord.

  • nas in 諸侯: enfeoffed ruler in early Zhou times;
  • nadNgoverned by a hóu "Marquis"
  • npost-N{PLACE}Marquis of N 齊侯
  • npost-N{PLACE}.+NprNpr, the Marqujis of Npl 蔡侯申
  • npostNpr.post-N{PLACE}Marquis Npr of Npl 蔡桓侯
  • npostNprMarquis Npr 哀侯
  • ntitleas in 齊侯 "marquis of Qi2" (Note incidentally: there never was any Duke of Qi2): marquis (The descending hierarchical order was 公侯伯子男.)
霸王 / 霸王 / 伯王   bà wàng OC: praaɡs ɢʷaŋs MC: pɣɛ ɦi̯ɐŋ bà wáng OC: praaɡs ɢʷaŋ MC: pɣɛ ɦi̯ɐŋ bó wáng OC: praaɡ ɢʷaŋ MC: pɣɛk ɦi̯ɐŋ 79 Attributions

Pronounced as bàwàng in verbal usages Pronounced as bàwàng in verbal usages Pronounced as bàwàng in verbal usages

  • NP{vadN}indefinitehegemon; (predicative: be, become) the preeminent ruler
  • VPichangeread bàwàng: become a hegemon
  • NPadNcharacterstic of a hegemon; characterised by the features of a hegemon
  • NPabactbecoming a preeminent ruler
  • NPnonreferentiala preeminent ruler in general
  • NPpost-N{PLACE}preeminent king
明君   míng jūn OC: mraŋ klun MC: mɣaŋ ki̯un 74 Attributions
  • NP{PRED}be an enlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}definitemy enlightened ruler ??
  • NP{vadN}indefinitean enlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialenlightened ruler
  • NP{vadN}ironica so-called enlightened rulers
  • NP{vadN}pluralenlightened rulers (of the past)
   shàng OC: ɡljaŋs MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ 59 Attributions

Shàng 上 can refer to any governing authority or ruler, but by Han times the word became a standard polite way of referring to the Han emperor.

  • n(post-N)ruler
  • n[post-N][our] ruler; or: one's ruler(a number of examples must be moved here.
  • nnonreferentialthe leadership, the authorities; one's ruler, the ruler; superiors; persons in high position
  • nsingularthe rulership; HAN DYNASTY: the Emperor
  • npost-Nleader of, senior person among
先王   xiān wáng OC: sɯɯn ɢʷaŋ MC: sen ɦi̯ɐŋ 58 Attributions

the conventionally defined closed set of early kings

  • NPdefinitethe former kings; one series: 堯舜禹湯文武孝己
  • NPdefinitethe former king; the first king
王者   wàng zhě OC: ɢʷaŋs kljaʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ tɕɣɛ 52 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialthe true king
  • NPnonreferentiala king, kings, the hypothetical king in question 王者之後也 "was a descendent of a king"
  • NPpluralthe true kings (of a given time)
  • NPabactread wàng rulership
  • NPadNof true king mettle 王者之人
先君   xiān jūn OC: sɯɯn klun MC: sen ki̯un 39 Attributions
  • NP[post-N]singularthe former ruler; the deceased ruler (can occasionally be used in the plural in ZUO)
  • NP[post-N]plural(our/my) former rulers
  • NP=Nprour former ruler Npr
世主   shì zhǔ OC: lʰebs tjoʔ MC: ɕiɛi tɕi̯o 29 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}pluralthe rulers of our time
明王   míng wáng OC: mraŋ ɢʷaŋ MC: mɣaŋ ɦi̯ɐŋ 29 Attributions
  • NPthe entlightened king
  • NPindefinitean enlightened king
  • NPpluralthe enlightened kings (of the Xia etc)
主上   zhǔ shàng OC: tjoʔ ɡljaŋs MC: tɕi̯o dʑi̯ɐŋ 26 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}nonreferentialthe ruler (in a hypothetical case); a (hypothetical) ruler
  • NPdefinitethe ruler
人君   rén jūn OC: njin klun MC: ȵin ki̯un 21 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}indefinitea ruler of men
  • NP{N1adN2}nonreferentiala ruler of men
  • NP{N1adN2}pluralLH: 古之人君
  • NP{PRED}be a ruler of men
君臣   jūn chén OC: klun ɡjiŋ MC: ki̯un dʑin 12 Attributions
  • NPabrelationalrelationship between ruler and subject
  • NPadVthe ruler himself with his ministers
  • VPi0there dominate relations between ruler and subject
君人者   jūn rén zhě OC: klun njin kljaʔ MC: ki̯un ȵin tɕɣɛ 12 Attributions
  • NP{vtoN.adnpro}nonreferentialsomeone who acts as ruler over others, a ruler in general; a true ruler
民主   mín zhǔ OC: min tjoʔ MC: min tɕi̯o 11 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentiala lord of men cf. also 民之主
  • NPreferentiallord of men, ruler
   lìng OC: ɡ-reŋs MC: liɛŋ 10 Attributions

Lìng 令 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a xiàn 縣 by order of a king.

  • ncommander, officer in command
  • npost=NprCommander X
   gōng OC: klooŋ MC: kuŋ 10 Attributions
  • posthumous honorific term referring to to any ruler of a state enfeoffed by the Zhou e.g. 齊桓公 "Lord Huan" and NOT "Duke Huan of Qi" (Lord Huan held only the rank of a 侯 "Earl", not that of a 公 "Duke".)
  • npost-Npre.g. 周公 "Duke of Zhou" (as opposed to 桓公 "Duke Huan) Duke of Npr
  • npost=NprDuke (as in 太公 "Duke Tai" as opposed to 周公 "the duke of Zhou".
  • nnonreferentialduke
  • n(post=Npr)anaphoricthe Duke mentioned above
國君   guó jūn OC: kʷɯɯɡ klun MC: kək ki̯un 9 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}nonreferentialruler of a state
  • NPdefinitethe ruler of the state
   wáng OC: ɢʷaŋ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ 7 Attributions

Wáng 王(contrast bà 霸 "hegemon basing his role on power rather than moral authority") refers specifically to someone who is enfeoffed as a formal ruler of what counts as a state in ancient China.

  • nking
君上   jūn shàng OC: klun ɡljaŋs MC: ki̯un dʑi̯ɐŋ 6 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}nonreferentiala ruler
  • NP(post-N)the superordinates of the contextualy determinate person
霸者   bà zhě OC: praaɡs kljaʔ MC: pɣɛ tɕɣɛ 6 Attributions
  • NPa hegemon worthy of his title; a typical hegemon
  • NPadNof the kind of a preeminent ruler 霸者之主
執政   zhí zhèng OC: tjib tjeŋs MC: tɕip tɕiɛŋ 5 Attributions
  • NP[adN]N=humthose in charge; the one in charge
  • NP[adN](.post-N)the responsible administrators of the contextually determinate state
太守   tài shǒu OC: thaads qhjuʔ MC: thɑi ɕɨu 5 Attributions
  • NP(post-N)governor of a contextually determinate place N
  • NPpost-Ngovernor of N
   shòu OC: qhjus MC: ɕɨu 4 Attributions

Shòu 守 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a jùn 郡 by order of the emperor.

  • nagentgovernor; governor of a jùn 郡
君人   jūn rén OC: klun njin MC: ki̯un ȵin 4 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialthe ruler (of the type in question)
百揆   bǎi kuí OC: praaɡ ɡʷilʔ MC: pɣɛk gi 4 Attributions
  • NPabposition as central administrator/prime minister
靈脩 / 靈修   líng xiū OC: reeŋ sqlɯw MC: leŋ sɨu líng xiū OC: reeŋ sqlɯw MC: leŋ sɨu 4 Attributions
  • NPfigurativeparaphrastic: the spiritual beautiful one> the ruler
一人   yī rén OC: qliɡ njin MC: ʔit ȵin 3 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}the ruler
亂主   luàn zhǔ OC: ɡ-roons tjoʔ MC: lʷɑn tɕi̯o 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialthe ruler doomed to chaos
五霸   wǔ bà OC: ŋaaʔ praaɡs MC: ŋuo̝ pɣɛ 3 Attributions
  • NPprdefinitethe Five Hegemons
公侯   gōng hóu OC: klooŋ ɡoo MC: kuŋ ɦu 3 Attributions
  • NPpluralrulers, princes
剎利   chà lì OC: tshraad rids MC: ʈʂhɣat li 3 Attributions
  • NPbuddhist(BUDDH:) land-lord, owner (of land) (see also 剎地利)
  • NPadNbuddhist(BUDDH:) of land owners, land-owning
君主   jūn zhǔ OC: klun tjoʔ MC: ki̯un tɕi̯o 3 Attributions
  • NP{N1=N2}nonreferentialruler of any kind
  • NP{N1=N2}pluralrulers
  • NP{N1=N2}singularruler 吾君主
有土    OC:  MC:  3 Attributions
  • NP[adN]rulers over land
有政   yǒu zhèng OC: ɢʷɯʔ tjeŋs MC: ɦɨu tɕiɛŋ 3 Attributions
  • NP{VtoN1(.adN2)}subject=humanthose in charge of government
  • VPibe in charge of the administration
王主   wáng zhǔ OC: ɢʷaŋ tjoʔ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ tɕi̯o 3 Attributions
  • NP{N1adN2}nonreferentialroyal ruler
王公   wáng gōng OC: ɢʷaŋ klooŋ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ kuŋ 3 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialrulers
  • NPabkingship and dukedom
聖主   shèng zhǔ OC: qhljeŋs tjoʔ MC: ɕiɛŋ tɕi̯o 3 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialthe sage ruler
   rén MC: nyin OC: njin 3 Attributions
  • npost-Nplruler of Npl 宋人曰:guaren...
   guó OC: kʷɯɯɡ MC: kək 2 Attributions
  • ngovernment, governing agency
   mù OC: mɯɡ MC: muk 2 Attributions

Mù 牧 refers specifically to someone who is controlling a zhōu 州 by order of the emperor in Eastern Han times.

  • nLater Han: leader in charge of a zhōu 州.
  • nadVas a ruler
主人   zhǔ rén OC: tjoʔ njin MC: tɕi̯o ȵin 2 Attributions
  • NPagentemployer
冢宰   zhǒng zǎi OC: toŋʔ tsɯɯʔ MC: ʈi̯oŋ tsəi 2 Attributions
  • ntemporary leader replacing a deceased king
君長   jūn zhǎng OC: klun krlaŋʔ MC: ki̯un ʈi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPruler and superior
  • NPnonreferentialruler
大王   dà wáng OC: daads ɢʷaŋ MC: dɑi ɦi̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NP{vadN}singularthe great king
  • NP[post-npro1]mylord the Great King
宰相   zǎi xiàng OC: tsɯɯʔ sqaŋs MC: tsəi si̯ɐŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPprime minister
寡君   guǎ jūn OC: kʷraaʔ klun MC: kɣɛ ki̯un 2 Attributions
  • NPmy humble ruler
帝者   dì zhě OC: k-leeɡs kljaʔ MC: tei tɕɣɛ 2 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialthe true highest ruler
後王   hòu wáng MC: huwX hjwang OC: ɡooʔ ɢʷaŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPpluralthe later kings, the historically better documented kings), contrastively to the conventional concept of the former kings (XUN)
  • NPadNN of the later kings, the later kings' N
百王   bǎi bó mò bǎi wáng MC: paek hjwang OC: praaɡ ɢʷaŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPadNpluralN of the hundred kings, N of all the kings that were and are
  • NPpluralthe hundred kings, all the kings that were and are
   guān OC: koon MC: kʷɑn 1 Attribution
  • nleading figure
   zhèng OC: tjeŋs MC: tɕiɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • nruler; rulers
   quán OC: skhon MC: tshiɛn 1 Attribution
  • nfigurativeCC: the fragrant one: the king
   kuí OC: khuul MC: khuo̝i 1 Attribution

Kuí 魁 refers to a powerful popular leader unrecognised by government.

  • nchieftain, leader
三后   sān hòu OC: saam ɡooʔ MC: sɑm ɦu 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralthe rulers of the Three Dynasties, the Three Sovereigns
上人   shàng rén OC: ɡljaŋs njin MC: dʑi̯ɐŋ ȵin 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialthe leader
人牧   rén mù OC: njin mɯɡ MC: ȵin muk 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}nonreferentialthe shepherd of men; the leader;
刺史   cì shǐ OC: skhleɡs srɯʔ MC: tshiɛ ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • NPprovincial governor
南面   nán miàn OC: noom mens MC: nəm miɛn 1 Attribution
  • NPhe who faces south> ruler
國相   guó xiàng OC: kʷɯɯɡ sqaŋs MC: kək si̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPprime minister
多福   duō fú OC: k-laal pɯɡ MC: tɑ puk 1 Attribution
  • NPabsocialdistinguished rank as a ruler
天吏   tiān lì OC: lʰiin rɯs MC: then lɨ 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}singularheavenly nominee; person who obtained the Mandate of Heaven to rule the whole Empire
後主   hòu zhǔ OC: ɡooʔ tjoʔ MC: ɦu tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}successor
智主   zhì zhǔ OC: tes tjoʔ MC: ʈiɛ tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialthe wise ruler
有命   yǒu mìng OC: ɢʷɯʔ mɢreŋs MC: ɦɨu mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]mandated ruler???
有商   yǒu shāng OC: ɢʷɯʔ qhjaŋ MC: ɦɨu ɕi̯ɐŋ 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]ruler of Shang
為君   wéi jūn OC: ɢʷal klun MC: ɦiɛ ki̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPabpsychway of being a ruler
王伯 / 王霸   wáng bó OC: ɢʷaŋ praaɡ MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ pɣɛk wáng bà OC: ɢʷaŋ praaɡs MC: ɦi̯ɐŋ pɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialkings or hegemons
聖君   shèng jūn OC: qhljeŋs klun MC: ɕiɛŋ ki̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialideal ruler
辟公   bì gōng OC: peɡ klooŋ MC: piɛk kuŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPpluralthe various lords (including the feudal lords and the offspring of kings)
邦君   bāng jūn OC: prooŋ klun MC: pɣɔŋ ki̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentialruler of a country
闇主   àn zhǔ OC: qɯɯms tjoʔ MC: ʔəm tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NP{vadN}nonreferentialbenighted ruler
霸主   bà zhǔ OC: praaɡs tjoʔ MC: pɣɛ tɕi̯o 1 Attribution
  • NPpreeminent ruler, ruler of the hegemon type
人君者   rén jūn zhě OC: njin klun kljaʔ MC: ȵin ki̯un tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentiala ruler of men worthy of this title (cf. 王者)
君民者   jūn mín zhě OC: klun min kljaʔ MC: ki̯un min tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentiala ruler
有土者   yǒu tǔ zhě OC: ɢʷɯʔ kh-laaʔ kljaʔ MC: ɦɨu thuo̝ tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentiala ruler; rulers
霸王者   bà wàng zhě OC: praaɡs ɢʷaŋs kljaʔ MC: pɣɛ ɦi̯ɐŋ tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NP{N1adN2}pluralleading kings
為人君者   wéi rén jūn zhě OC: ɢʷal njin klun kljaʔ MC: ɦiɛ ȵin ki̯un tɕɣɛ 1 Attribution
  • NPnonreferentiala ruler of men in general
人上   rén shàng MC: nyin dzyangH OC: njin ɡljaŋs 1 Attribution
  • NPleader of others
為人君   wéi rén jūn MC: hjweH nyin kjun OC: ɢʷal njin klun 1 Attribution
  • VP[adN]nonreferentialgeneral: a ruler over others
吾君   wú jūn MC: ngu kjun OC: ŋaa klun 1 Attribution
  • NPpost-NsingularN=plural: our ruler
有國   yǒu guó  MC: hjuwX kwok  OC: ɢʷɯʔ kʷɯɯɡ  1 Attribution
  • NPwho is in charge of the state > ruler
   xiāo OC: keew MC: keu 0 Attributions
  • nleader, person in charge HN 為天下梟
   háo OC: ɡoow MC: ɦɑu 0 Attributions

Háo 豪 refers to a person of power but without formally recognised bureaucratic status.

  • npotentate, but without a regular position
   shǒu OC: qhljuʔ MC: ɕɨu 0 Attributions
  • nZGC: (Guānzhòng was the) person in practical control over the world, but without a regular position
侯王   hóu wáng OC: ɡoo ɢʷaŋ MC: ɦu ɦi̯ɐŋ 0 Attributions

rulers of any kind

  • NPindefiniterulers of any kind
先帝   xiān dì OC: sɯɯn k-leeɡs MC: sen tei 0 Attributions
  • NPdefinitethe late emperor
單于   chán yú OC: djan ɢʷra MC: dʑiɛn ɦi̯o 0 Attributions

Chán-yú 單于 refers specifically to the ruler of the Xiōngnú 匈奴. Cf. the Tang term kēhān 可汗 "Khan".

  • nndefiniteSJ etc: the ruler of the Huns; the khan
多君   duō jūn OC: k-laal klun MC: tɑ ki̯un 0 Attributions
  • NPpluralOBI: the group of leaders??, the many leaders
稱孤寡   chēng gū guǎ OC: thjɯŋ kʷaa kʷraaʔ MC: tɕhɨŋ kuo̝ kɣɛ 0 Attributions
  • VPicall oneself "bereaved"> be ruler
   dōng OC: tooŋ MC: tuŋ 0 Attributions
  • npost-Nhead of a household etc.
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPleader of others
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • NPnonreferentialgeneral: a ruler over others
    MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
  • VP[adN]nonreferentialgeneral: a ruler over others

Existing SW for

Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: