COMMAND  命令

ADDRESS someone, USING AUTHORITY, INTENDING to CAUSE that person to ACT RESEMBLE:as one INTENDS him to ACT.
ORDERTELLDIRECTINSTRUCTCALL ONREQUIRELITERARY BIDSEND
Old Chinese Criteria

1. The standard current word for a command is lìng 令, and the content (not the words) of the command is typically in the sentence that follows. We do not find: 令曰, and it is significant that lìng 令 also regularly means "to cause to".

2. Mìng 命 is typically an order from a person of high, perhaps even supernatural, authority, and what follows are often the words used to express the order. 命曰. Mìng 命 is an order on a higher level than lìng 令.

3. Shǐ 使 often refers to a superior getting or sending subordinates to do something by an order, but this word never focusses on the form of words used. See SEND, CAUSE TO

4. Zhì 制 is a formalised administrative instruction on procedure.

5. Huī 麾 is an order given prototypically by signal of the hand, and in the process of a battle.

6. Hào 號 is a publicly proclaimed political command or instruction.

7. Wèi 謂 is simply a way of telling someone to do something, informally or formally, but without the formal force of a rigid order.

8. Chì 敕 / 飭 is an order from a person in an elevated position, and in post-Buddhist times chì 敕 came to refer standardly to imperial orders.

黄金貴:古漢語同義詞辨釋詞典

HUANG JINGUI 2006 GOVERNMENT/LAW 10.

命,先秦是皇帝詔令的通稱。

令,就特定之事發出的告示;特指皇后、太子或諸王所出者。

制,秦時規定命為制,即有關重大事件的政令。

詔,秦以後成為皇帝所發文告的通稱。

誥,本是一種訓誡勉勵的號令、文告,秦以前上下皆有誥,漢以後專用於帝王命官授職等的文告。

敕,南北朝以下,專指君主所發對特定對象的詔令。

Modern Chinese Criteria

命令 is the current word referring to any order or command, and is commonly used as a noun as well as a verb.

令 is the current colloquial word for any informal order.

下令 refers to any formal institutional command.

指令 refers in a literary way to a formal order.

申令 refers in a literary style to the publication of a formal order.

通令 refers to a general order, and is common both as a noun and as a verb.

飭令 refers in highly literary way to an imperial or highly bureaucratic order.

傳令 focusses on the transmission or propagation of an order.

授命 focusses on the transmission of an order to its recipient.

命 is a classical word referring to a public order.

飭 is an obsolescent archaising word for a formal imperial order.

發號施令 is a proverbial expression referring generally to the issuing of orders.

三令五申 is an old-fashioned proverbial expression referring in general to the issuing of all sorts of orders.

吩咐 refers to enjoining someone familiar to do something.

叮囑 refers to enjoinging someone familiar to do something repeatedly

囑託 refers to giving a responsibility for some act to someone.

囑咐 refers to enjoining and encouraging an inferior to do something.

rough draft to BEGIN TO identify synonym group members for analysis, based on CL etc. 18.11.2003. CH /

BUCK 1988 A Dictionary of Selected Synonyms in the Principal Indo-European Languages 19.45

DIFFERENTIAE I De differentiis 251

304. Inter Jubere et imperare. Jubere apud veteres non idem erat quod imperare; nam jubere ibi dicebatur, ubi voluntatis erat obsequium; imperare autem, ubi debito [ Al., dubio] quisque imperio parebat.

DOEDERLEIN 1840 Lateinische Synonyme und Etymologien

COMMAND

iubere means "to bid, tocommand" merely in consequence of one's own wish or will.

imperare is to cammand by virtue of a military or political authority.

praecipere is to enjoin by virtue of one's authority as a teacher or as a person of culture.

mandare is to charge someone with a task because of one's confidence in that person.

DUFOUR 1910 Traite elementaire des synonymes grecques 127

HANFEI TONGYI 2004 韓非子同義詞研究 89

LANGIUS 1631 Anthologia sive Florilegium rerum et materiarum selectarum

MANDATUM

MENGE Lateinische Synonymik 1 and 130

RITTER 1971-2007 Historisches Woerterbuch der Philosophie 1775

SCHMIDT 1889 Handbuch der lateinischen und griechischen Synonymik 13

UNGER SACH "Sachwoerterbuch zum Alten China"

MANDAT

WANG WEIHUI 2000 東漢﹣隨常用詞演變研究 189

WANG LI 2000 王力古漢語字典 112

1. Zhu1 Ju4nshe1ng already noticed the non-logocentric nature of the order called li4ng 令, as WL points out, but the crucial point that even in the case of a verbal command, li4ng 令 still does not focus on that verbal element and cannot be followed by a verb of saying.

GRACE ZHANG 2010 Using Chinese Synonyms 120

GIRARD 1769 SYNONYMES FRANÇOIS, LEURS DIFFÉRENTES SIGNIFICATIONS, ET LE CHOIX QU'IL EN FAUT FAIRE Pour parler avec justesse 1.166.125

COMMANDEMENT.ORDRE.PRECEPTE.INJONCTION.JUSSION

PILLON 1850 Handbook of Greek Synonymes, from the French of M. Alex. Pillon, Librarian of the Bibliothèque Royale , at Paris, and one of the editors of the new edition of Plaché's Dictionnaire Grec-Français, edited, with notes, by the Rev. Thomas Kerchever Arnold, M.A. Rector of Lyndon, and late fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge no.275

FRANKE 1989 Bibliographisches Handbuch zur Sprachinhaltsforschung. Teil II. Systematischer Teil. B. Ordnung nach Sinnbezirken (mit einem alphabetischen Begriffsschluessel): Der Mensch und seine Welt im Spiegel der Sprachforschung 56B

Attributions by syntactic funtion

  • vttoN.+V[0] : 149
  • nab : 108
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0] : 40
  • vtt[oN.]+V[0] : 33
  • NPab : 23
  • vtoN : 16
  • nab.post-V{NUM} : 16
  • NPab{N1=N2} : 11
  • VPtt(oN.) V[0] : 6
  • vt+prep+N : 6
  • vt+V[0] : 5
  • vtt[oN.+V[0]] : 4
  • VPt[oN] : 4
  • vt[oN] : 3
  • VPtoN : 3
  • vi : 2
  • DELETE : 2
  • vtoS : 2
  • vtoN.+VtoS : 2
  • NP : 2
  • vadV : 2
  • vttoN(.+V[0]) : 2
  • VPtoS : 2
  • vttoN.+S : 2
  • vtoN.+V : 2
  • nab.post-N : 1
  • vtt(oN.) V(0) : 1
  • nab.adV : 1
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2) : 1
  • NPadV : 1
  • vtt{PASS}+prep+N{SUBJ}.+V : 1
  • vtt+prep+N.+VtoS : 1
  • vt(oN) : 1
  • VPt+prep+N.+VtoS : 1
  • vt(+V[0]) : 1
  • VPttoN.+V[0] : 1
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2 : 1
  • vtoNPab{S} : 1
  • vtoN.+V[0] : 1
  • NPab.adV : 1

Attributions by text

  • 春秋左傳 : 169
  • 韓非子 : 70
  • 賢愚經 : 25
  • 說苑 : 24
  • 呂氏春秋 : 21
  • 百喻經 : 21
  • 戰國策 : 20
  • 論語 : 17
  • 尚書 : 12
  • 淮南子 : 10
  • 禮記 : 9
  • 孟子 : 8
  • 史記 : 8
  • 管子 : 5
  • 祖堂集 : 5
  • 晏子春秋 : 4
  • 孝經 : 4
  • 孫子 : 4
  • 毛詩 : 4
  • 六祖壇經 : 4
  • 荀子 : 3
  • 莊子 : 3
  • 春秋穀梁傳 : 2
  • 鶡冠子 : 2
  • 韓詩外傳 : 2
  • 楚辭 : 2
  • 天中記 : 1
  • 論衡 : 1
  • 臨濟錄 : 1
  • 法言 : 1

Words

使   shǐ OC: srɯʔ MC: ʂɨ 151 Attributions

Shǐ 使 often refer to a superior getting or sending subordinates to do something by an order, but this word never focusses on the form of words used. See SEND, CAUSE TO

  • nabactcommand; order
  • viactgive orders, order people about
  • vt+V[0]command that there be V-ing; command that one should V
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]command a contextually determinate person (to do something)
  • vtt[oN.]+V[0]give orders to, order someone to V (NB: the "someone" is omitted but specified in the lexicon. This is not a case of the context allowing one to identify a person.)
  • DELETEomgive orders to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotensure that someone does something> order someone to do something; dispatch someone to do something
  • vttoN(.+V[0])order a person to do a contextually determinate thing
  • vtoNorder about
  • vt[oN]order people about
  • nab.adVwith one's commands/dispositions
   mìng OC: mɢreŋs MC: mɣaŋ 103 Attributions

Mìng 命 is typically an order from a person of high, perhaps even supernatural, authority, and the what follows are often the words used to express the order. 命曰. Mìng 命 is an order on a higher level than lìng 令.

  • nab.post-V{NUM}actpublic general command with legal force
  • nabtextorder to a certain person or group; a specific order
  • nabroyalroyal or imperial order, something that is by the higher order (from somebody)
  • vadVby official order;authorised by commands from superiors 命而往
  • vt+V[0]give orders to V
  • vtoNcommand (an undertaking)
  • vtoNN=humanissue orders of duty to
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]give orders to a contextually determinate subordinate to V
  • vtt[oN.+V[0]]issue commands, issue any command
  • vtt{PASS}+prep+N{SUBJ}.+Vpassivebe ordered by N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]passivebe ordered to V by a contextually determinate person
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotorder formally (typically at a general or rather formal level) the N to V
  • vttoN1.post-vt(oN2)omgive a determinate command (to someone)
  • nabconceptcommand
  • vt(+V[0])give orders to do the contextually determiante thing
  • vtoNpassivebe ordered, be commanded; receive a charge
  • vtt[oN.]+V[0]give orders [to the speaker] to V
  • vt(oN)give orders to the contextually determinate person N (often the speaker)
  • vt+prep+Nbe in command of
  • vtoNcommission N, order the performance of the official act N
  • nab.post-Nofficial order (from N)
   lìng OC: ɡ-reŋs MC: liɛŋ 84 Attributions

The standard current word for a command is lìng 令, and the content (not the words) of the command is typically in the sentence that follows. We do not find: 令曰, and it is significant that lìng 令 also regularly means "to cause to".

  • vttoN(.+V[0])pivotcommand the subject to carry out a contextually determinate action
  • nabtextcommand, order
  • vt+prep+Nperfectivegive orders to N, issue orders to
  • vt+V[0]order (an event to occur. e.g. it to rain) (often indistinguishable form "to cause")
  • vtoN.+VtoSissue a command (to someone inferior) (saying:...)
  • vtoNissue effective orders to: to command, to order; to order officially; issue an order to (ministers etc)
  • vtoNobject=eventcomand (the occurrence of an event)
  • vtoSorder that
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]order a contextually determinate subordinate (to do something)
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]passivebe ordered about
  • vtt[oN.+V[0]]send out commands [to some people to do something]
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotcomand (the SUBJECT to PREDICATE, on a level inferior to lìng 令)
  • vtt+prep+N.+VtoSissue a command to N (saying S)
天命   tiān mìng OC: lʰiin mɢreŋs MC: then mɣaŋ 18 Attributions

command from (personified) Heaven

  • NPab.adVby the commands of Heaven, using the commands of Heaven as a standard
  • NPabcommand from Heaven, heavenly decree (on any subject)
號令   hào lìng OC: ɢluus ɡ-reŋs MC: ɦɑu liɛŋ 13 Attributions
  • NPpluralcommands, orders
  • NPab{N1=N2}nonreferentialorders; commands
  • VPtoNorder, issue an order to
敕 / 敕   chì OC: rʰɯɡ MC: ʈhɨk chì OC:  MC: ʈhɨk 12 Attributions

Chì 敕/飭 is an order from a person in an elevated position, and in post-Buddhist times chì 敕 came to refer standardly to imperial orders. Chì 敕/飭 is an order from a person in an elevated position, and in post-Buddhist times chì 敕 came to refer standardly to imperial orders.

  • nabactorder
  • vtoN.+Vcommand N and say:...
  • vtoNin Han times: (of person in high position:) issue a command
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]order there to be V-ing
  • vttoN.+Scommand N to the effect that S
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivottell (someone to do something)
   jiào OC: kruus MC: kɣɛu 9 Attributions
  • vt[oN]command, drill
  • nabactan instruction
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]instruct the contextually determinate N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]instruct N to V
   hào OC: ɢluus MC: ɦɑu 6 Attributions

Hào 號 is a publicly proclaimed political command or instruction.

  • nabtextpublicly proclaimed command, order [ordinance][CA]
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]proclaim an order in public that the contextually determinate N should V
   wèi OC: ɢuds MC: ɦɨi 5 Attributions

Wèi 謂 is simply a way of telling someone to do something, informally or formally, but without the formal force of a rigid order.

  • vtoN.+VtoScommand, tell to 謂x曰:。。。told X "You must..."
  • vtoNgive commands to (someone)
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotto address (somebody) and make him to do something; tell (somebody) (to do something)
   jìn OC: krɯms MC: kim 4 Attributions
  • nabtextprohibition, order containing a formal prohibition
   qiǎn OC: khenʔ MC: khiɛn 4 Attributions
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]command a contextually determinate person do perform the action V
  • vttoN.+V[0]command N to V
   huī OC: hmral MC: hiɛ 4 Attributions

Huī 麾 is an order given prototypically by signal of the hand, and in the process of a battle.

  • vt[oN]give commands by signaling
  • vtoNgive a signal to; command through signals; hold overall command of (an army)
  • vadVby signals of the hand; by getures of command
指麾 / 指揮   zhǐ huī OC: kjiʔ hmral MC: tɕi hiɛ zhǐ huī OC: kjiʔ qhul MC: tɕi hɨi 4 Attributions
  • VPt[oN]issue commands, order people about
   zhì OC: kjeds MC: tɕiɛi 3 Attributions

Zhì 制 is a formalised administrative instruction on procedure.

  • nabtextadministrative bureaucratic directive, edict
  • vtoNdetermine as the final decision; HF 9.2.37: (ministers) take effective control of (matters at court)
   gào OC: kuuɡs MC: kɑu 3 Attributions
  • vttoN.+V[0]pivotcommand that S
  • vtt(oN.) V(0)command the contextually determinate N to V
   hū OC: qhaa MC: huo̝ 3 Attributions
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]command the contextually determinate N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]omarchaic: call upon (someone) (to do something)
  • vttoN.+V[0]command N to V
   zhǐ OC: kjiʔ MC: tɕi 3 Attributions
  • nabtextinstructions
  • vt[oN]order about, direct
   fǎ OC: pab MC: pi̯ɐp 3 Attributions
  • nabtextmilitary orders
   yuē OC: qplewɡ MC: ʔi̯ɐk 3 Attributions
  • vtoNarrange for, make arrangements for 約車
   yù OC: ŋas MC: ŋi̯ɤ 2 Attributions
  • vtt(oN.)+V[0]tell the contextually determinate person N to V
  • vttoN.+V[0]tell N to V
宣令   xuān lìng OC: sqon ɡ-reŋ MC: siɛn liɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • VPtoSpublish orders to the effect that S
  • VPttoN.+Scommand N to the effect that S
政令   zhèng lìng OC: tjeŋs ɡ-reŋ MC: tɕiɛŋ liɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactadministrative orders
教令   jiào lìng OC: kruus ɡ-reŋs MC: kɣɛu liɛŋ 2 Attributions
  • NPabactinstructions
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate N to V
   fù OC: pos MC: pi̯o 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN1.)+N2give orders regarding N2 to the contextually determinate N1
   jiè OC: krɯɯɡs MC: kɣɛi 1 Attribution
  • nabtextinjunction, precept; instructions
   yuē OC: ɢʷad MC: ɦi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • vtoNPab{S}to order, that...
   zhù OC: tjuɡ MC: tɕuk 1 Attribution
  • vtoN.+V[0]enjoin N, saying S
仰使   yǎng shǐ OC: ŋaŋʔ srɯʔ MC: ŋi̯ɐŋ ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]command N to V
告令   gào lìng OC: kuuɡs ɡ-reŋ MC: kɑu liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPttoN.+V[0]order N to V
君命   jūn mìng OC: klun mɢreŋs MC: ki̯un mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPadVby the ruler's command
命令   mìng lìng OC: mɢreŋs ɡ-reŋ MC: mɣaŋ liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]order the contextually determinate N to V
教使   jiào shǐ OC: kruus srɯʔ MC: kɣɛu ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]cause the contextually determinate N to V
教敕   jiào chì OC: kruus rʰɯɡ MC: kɣɛu ʈhɨk 1 Attribution
  • NPabactorder, command, instruction
教訓   jiào xùn OC: kruus qhuns MC: kɣɛu hi̯un 1 Attribution
  • NPab{N1=N2}pluralcommands
敕使   chì shǐ OC: rʰɯɡ srɯʔ MC: ʈhɨk ʂɨ 1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.)+V[0]order the contextually determinate N to V
發命   fā mìng OC: pod mɢreŋs MC: pi̯ɐt mɣaŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPt+prep+N.+VtoSissue a command to N to the effect that S
禁令   jìn lìng OC: krɯms ɡ-reŋ MC: kim liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • NPabsocialprohibitions and commands> legal rules or commands
言教   yán jiào OC: ŋan kruus MC: ŋi̯ɐn kɣɛu 1 Attribution
  • NPabactcommand
詔令   zhào lìng OC: kljews ɡ-reŋs MC: tɕiɛu liɛŋ 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNgive all sorts of sovereign orders to
誡敕 / 誡敕   jiè chì OC: krɯɯɡs rʰɯɡ MC: kɣɛi ʈhɨk jiè chì OC: krɯɯɡs MC: kɣɛi ʈhɨk 1 Attribution
  • vttoN.+SS=direct.speechinstruct N using the words S
調發   diào fā OC: dɯɯws pod MC: deu pi̯ɐt 1 Attribution
  • VPtoNorder about (the people as corvee labourers)
責令   zé zé zhài lìng  MC: tsreak ljengH  OC: skreeɡ ɡ-reŋs  1 Attribution
  • VPtt(oN.) V[0]pivotgive official orders for N to V
   bǐ OC: peʔ MC: piɛ 0 Attributions
  • vtoNcommand, direct someone to do something
  • vttoN.+V[0]comand N to V
   zāi OC: skɯɯ MC: tsəi 0 Attributions
       xué OC: ɡruuɡ MC: ɦɣɔk 0 Attributions
    • vttoN.+V[0]pivotOBI: (usually in military contexts) instruct (someone) (to do something)
       xí OC: ɡleeɡ MC: ɦek 0 Attributions
    • nabtextwritten military command
       chì OC: khrlɯɡ MC: ʈhɨk 0 Attributions

    Chì 敕/飭 is an order from a person in an elevated position, and in post-Buddhist times chì 敕 came to refer standardly to imperial orders.

    • nabtextGY: order, command
    使命   shǐ mìng OC: srɯʔ mɢreŋs MC: ʂɨ mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactcommand
    • VPtoNpassivebe ordered
    大命   dà mìng OC: daads mɢreŋs MC: dɑi mɣaŋ 0 Attributions
    • NP[post-Npro2]your great command
    經戒   jīng jiè OC: keeŋ krɯɯɡs MC: keŋ kɣɛi 0 Attributions
    • NPabtextauthoritative precepts
    驅使   qū shǐ OC: kho srɯʔ MC: khi̯o ʂɨ 0 Attributions
    • NPabactbeing ordered about
        MC:  OC:  0 Attributions
    • VPtt(oN.) V[0]pivotgive official orders for N to V

    Existing SW for

    Here are Syntactic Words already defined in the database: